Developmental and Reproductive - Adverse Effects
(Perfluorinated chemicals)

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Adverse Effects

Reproductive/Developmental Adverse Effects
PFOS - PFOA Index Page

• Due to length, we are presenting this effect as a separate section for PFOS and PFOA. The study of the adverse effects of PFOS - PFOA chemicals is in its infancy and we anticipate that more effects will be presented and published over the next several years. Most of the animal studies (as of early 2004) have been performed by the major producers of PFOS-PFOA (3M and DuPont).

• Click here to return to the same section for fluorine & organofluorine pesticides.

This is not an exhaustive list. The review of data was performed in 2003 to early 2004. When time allows more information will be added,

• Other effects for PFOS and PFOA, under this category, are:
Testes Thyroid Breast Ovary (Estrous) Prostrate Uterine


Ammonium salt of PFOA (APFO): In a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats exposed to 0,1,3,10,and 30 mg/kg/day APFO,significant increases in absolute and relative liver and kidney weights were observed in F0 males at 1 mg/kg/day, while significant reductions in absolute and relative kidney weights were observed in F0 females at 30 mg/kg/day. Reproductive indices were not affected in the F0
animals.Serum levels of the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups were measured for F0 males after mating and F0 females at weaning of the F1 pups. In F0 males, the serum levels were (average +SD) 51.1+9.30 and 45.3+12.6 ug/l, respectively for the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups, and in F0 females, the serum levels were 0.37+0.0805 and 1.02+0.425 ug/l,respectively for the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups.In F1 animals, there was a significant reduction in mean body weight (sexes combined)during lactation in the 30 mg/kg/day group. In F1 females, there was a significant increase in post weaning mortality, a significant decrease in mean body weight, and a significant delay in sexual maturation at 30 mg/kg/day. In F1 males,significant decreases in body weights and body weight gains, and significant changes in absolute liver and spleen weights and in the ratios of liver, kidney, and spleen weights-to-brain weights were observed in all treated groups. The increase in post weaning mortality and the delay in sexual maturation were also noted in F1 males at 30 mg/kg/day. Reproductive indices were not affected in the F1 animals. The LOAEL for the F1 females was 30 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL was 10 mg/kg/day; the LOAEL for F1 males was 1 mg/kg/day and a NOAEL was not determined. It should be noted that these effect levels reflect effects seen throughout the study (i.e.developmental and adult exposures), and should not be confused with the effect levels that are used in the preliminary risk assessment for strictly developmental exposures and effects. The difference in sensitivity is presumed to be related to the gender difference in elimination of APFO. No treatment-related effects were observed in the F2 generation. However, the F2 pups were sacrificed at weaning,and thus it was not possible to ascertain if the post-weaning effects that were noted in the F1 generation occurred in the F2 animals.
F1 Females... Statistically significant (p<0.01)delays in sexual maturation (the average day of vaginal patency) were observed in high-dose animals versus concurrent controls (36.6 days of age versus 34.9 days of age, respectively).
April 10, 2003: Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. 63 pages.

Developmental effects were also reported in prenatal developmental toxicity studies in the rat and rabbit, although at slightly higher dose levels. Signs of developmental toxicity in the offspring were evident at doses of 5 mg/kg/day and above in rats administered PFOS during gestation. Significant decreases in fetal body weight and significant increases in external and visceral anomalies, delayed ossification, and skeletal variations were observed. A NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day for developmental toxicity were indicated. In the same study, evidence of treatment-related signs of maternal toxicity were also observed at doses of 5 mg/kg/day and above and mainly consisted of hunched posture, anorexia, bloody vaginal discharge, uterine stains, alopecia, rough hair coat, and bloody crust, as well as decreases in body weight gains and food consumption. Reductions in the mean terminal body weights minus the gravid uterine weights were also observed at doses > 5 mg/kg/day. A NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day for maternal toxicity were indicated. In rabbits, significant reductions in fetal body weight and significant increases in delayed ossification were observed in the offspring of pregnant females administered PFOS during gestation at doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day and above. A NOAEL of 1.0 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg/day for developmental toxicity were indicated...
Ref: November 21, 2002 report:
Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.

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