• Due to length,
we are presenting this effect as a
separate section for PFOS and PFOA.
The study of the adverse effects of PFOS - PFOA chemicals is in
its infancy and we anticipate that more effects will be presented
and published over the next several years. Most of the animal
studies (as of early 2004) have been performed by the major producers
of PFOS-PFOA (3M and DuPont).
Click here to return to the same
section for fluorine & organofluorine pesticides.
This is not an exhaustive list. The
review of data was performed in 2003 to early 2004.
When time allows more information will be added,
Other effects for PFOS and PFOA, under this category, are:
Ammonium salt of PFOA
(APFO): In a two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats
exposed to 0,1,3,10,and 30 mg/kg/day APFO,significant increases
in absolute and relative liver and kidney weights were observed
in F0 males at 1 mg/kg/day, while significant reductions in absolute
and relative kidney weights were observed in F0 females at 30
mg/kg/day. Reproductive indices were not affected in the F0
animals.Serum levels of the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups were measured
for F0 males after mating and F0 females at weaning of the F1
pups. In F0 males, the serum levels were (average +SD) 51.1+9.30
and 45.3+12.6 ug/l, respectively for the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups,
and in F0 females, the serum levels were 0.37+0.0805 and 1.02+0.425
ug/l,respectively for the 10 and 30 mg/kg/day groups.In F1 animals,
there was a significant reduction in mean body weight (sexes combined)during
lactation in the 30 mg/kg/day group. In F1 females, there was
a significant increase in post weaning mortality, a significant
decrease in mean body weight, and a significant
delay in sexual maturation at 30 mg/kg/day. In F1 males,significant
decreases in body weights and body weight gains, and significant
changes in absolute liver and spleen weights and in the
ratios of liver, kidney, and spleen weights-to-brain weights were
observed in all treated groups. The increase in post weaning mortality
and the delay in sexual maturation were
also noted in F1 males at 30 mg/kg/day. Reproductive indices
were not affected in the F1 animals. The LOAEL for the F1 females
was 30 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL was 10 mg/kg/day; the LOAEL for
F1 males was 1 mg/kg/day and a NOAEL was not determined. It should
be noted that these effect levels reflect effects seen throughout
the study (i.e.developmental and adult exposures), and should
not be confused with the effect levels that are used in the preliminary
risk assessment for strictly developmental exposures and effects.
The difference in sensitivity is presumed to be related to the
gender difference in elimination of APFO. No treatment-related
effects were observed in the F2 generation. However, the F2 pups
were sacrificed at weaning,and thus it was not possible to ascertain
if the post-weaning effects that were noted in the F1 generation
occurred in the F2 animals.
F1 Females... Statistically
significant (p<0.01)delays in sexual maturation (the
average day of vaginal patency) were observed in high-dose animals
versus concurrent controls (36.6 days of age versus 34.9 days
of age, respectively).
10, 2003: Preliminary
Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity associated with
Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. US
EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. 63 pages.
were also reported in prenatal developmental toxicity studies
in the rat and rabbit, although at slightly higher dose levels.
Signs of developmental toxicity in the offspring
were evident at doses of 5 mg/kg/day and above in rats administered
PFOS during gestation. Significant decreases
in fetal body weight and significant increases in external and
visceral anomalies, delayed ossification, and skeletal variations
NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day for developmental
toxicity were indicated.
In the same study, evidence of treatment-related signs of maternal
toxicity were also observed at doses of 5 mg/kg/day and above
and mainly consisted of hunched posture, anorexia, bloody vaginal
discharge, uterine stains, alopecia, rough hair coat, and bloody
crust, as well as decreases in body weight gains and food consumption.
Reductions in the mean terminal body weights minus the gravid
uterine weights were also observed at doses > 5 mg/kg/day.
A NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day for maternal
toxicity were indicated. In rabbits, significant
reductions in fetal body weight and significant increases in delayed
ossification were observed in the offspring of pregnant females
administered PFOS during gestation at doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day and
above. A NOAEL of 1.0 mg/kg/day and a LOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg/day
for developmental toxicity were indicated...
Ref: November 21, 2002 report:
Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS) and its salts.
for Economic Co-operation and Development. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.