Abstracts
Tributyltin fluoride (TBTF)
CAS No. 1983-10-4

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Adverse Effects

ACTIVITY: Antifoulant, Fungicide, Microbiocide (Organotin)

Structure:

 

Reports available from
The National Technical Information Service
(NTIS)

Order from NTIS by: phone at 1-800-553-NTIS (U.S. customers); (703)605-6000 (other countries); fax at (703)605-6900; and email at orders@ntis.gov. NTIS is located at 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA, 22161, USA.
Order No. Date Keywords or Abstract CAS Nos.

NTIS/OTS0509273

EPA/OTS; Doc #40+7863021

2000 (?) - DISSIPATION AND DETOXIFICATION OF ORGANOTINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

M & T CHEM INC

M & T CHEM INC
ALKYLTINS
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
BIODEGRADATION
56-35-9
379-52-2
1983-10-4

NTIS/OTS0509271

EPA/OTS; Doc #40+7763019

2000 (?) - THE SAFE DISPOSAL OF ORGANOTINS IN SOIL

M & T CHEM INC

M & T CHEM INC
ALKYLTINS
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
TRANSPORT PROCESSES
PHOTOLYSIS
BIODEGRADATION
56-35-9
379-52-2
1983-10-4

NTIS/OTS0509272

EPA/OTS; Doc #40+7863020

2000 (?) - THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF THREE ORGANOTIN CHEMICALS

M & T CHEM INC

M & T CHEM INC
ALKYLTINS
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE
PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
PARTITION COEFFICIENT
PHOTOLYSIS
HYDROLYSIS
BIODEGRADATION
56-35-9
379-52-2
1983-10-4

NTIS/AD-A184 224/4

26p

1982 - Acute Toxicity of Tributyltins and Tributyltin Leachates from Marine Antibiofouling Paints.

Authors: Laughlin RB, Linden O, Guard HE

California Univ., Oakland. Naval Biosciences Lab.

Abstract:  Tributyltin compounds were shown to be slow-acting toxins causing acute toxicity to two amphipod species. Orchestia traskiana was exposed to bis (tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) or tributyltin fluoride (TBIF) as single compounds. Both compounds were acutely toxic in 10 days. Gammarus oceanicus were exposed to tributyltin leachates from panels painted with two different antifouling paint formulations. One type of paint leached tributyltin about 10 times faster than the other. Amphipod mortality in short-term tests was directly correlated with increases in painted surface area and leaching rates. The results of these experiments show that tributyltin compounds are very toxic to some non-target organisms. Thus the intelligent choice of antibiofouling paint formulations depends upon an acceptable compromise between leach rates, which are effective at the painted surface but minimize effects on non-target organisms.

NTIS/OTS0206278

EPA/OTS; Doc #878210873

1982 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH EVALUATION OF THE NEWARK, N.J. PLANT OF KOPPERS CO., INC. FINAL REPORT

TABERSHAW OCC MEDICINE ASSOC

KOPPERS CO INC
TOLUENE (108-88-3)
HEALTH EFFECTS
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
67-64-1
75-09-2
78-93-3
91-66-7
95-47-6
100-42-5
106-42-3
107-21-1
108-10-1
108-38-3
108-88-3
127-18-4
574-93-6
1308-38-9
1314-41-6
1330-20-7
1344-37-2
1983-10-4
2425-85-6
7429-90-5
7439-92-1
7440-47-3
7758-97-6
7789-06-2
11113-70-5
12656-85-8
13530-65-9
14807-96-6
16984-48-8
50922-29-7
71000-82-3

NTIS/AD-A108 838/4

39p

1974 - Underwater Marine Coatings: A Detailed Examination of Elastomeric Antifouling Materials after Marine Immersion

Authors: De Forest A, Pettis RW, Phillip AT

Defence Standards Labs., Maribyrnong (Australia).

Abstract: Elastomeric antifouling materials based on tributyltin compounds (tributyltin fluoride, tributyltin acetate or bis(tributyltin oxide)) dispersed in natural, polychloroprene or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber have been examined after marine immersion for periods extending up to two years. Results have been obtained for changes in mechanical properties, release rates of organotin toxics, biological fouling on the surfaces and micrographic structure of the surface. An attempt has been made to relate the performance of these materials to the marine chemistry of the seawater at the two immersion sites at Garden Island (Sydney) and Williamstown (Melbourne). Factors which affect the performance of elastomeric coatings containing tributyltin compounds as additives are discussed. For long effective life, the release rate of the organotin toxic must be reduced to the minimum active value, by choosing the appropriate combination of organotin and elastomer; promising results have been obtained after two year [abstract truncated]

From Science Direct

Marine Chemistry; Volume 85, Issues 3-4 , March 2004, Pages 157-167

Speciation of trialkyltin(IV) cations in natural fluids

Claudia Foti (a), Antonio Gianguzza (b), Demetrio Milea (a), Frank J. Millero (c) and Silvio Sammartano (a)

a Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, Vill. S. Agata di Messina, 98166, Messina, Italy
b Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica e Chimica Analitica "Stanislao Cannizzaro", Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d'Orleans, 90128, Palermo, Italy
c Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, USA

The hydrolysis of (CH3)3Sn+, (C2H5)3Sn+ and (C3H7)3Sn+ has been studied in a Synthetic Seawater (SSW) ionic medium simulating the major composition of natural seawater, at different salinities (5≤S≤45), and at t=25 °C. Interactions with anionic components of SSW, considered as single sea salt, are determined by means of a complex formation model. By potentiometric measurements (ISE-H+ and ISE-F- electrodes), the model has been extended to also consider interactions of organotins with carbonate and fluoride ions, which are other important components of seawater. Literature and new values of hydrolysis constants in different ionic media (NaNO3, NaCl, Na2SO4 and SSW) are used to determine Pitzer interaction parameters. Predictive equations for the calculation of unknown hydrolysis constants and Pitzer interaction parameters of other trialkyltin(IV) cations, such as tributyltin(IV), are proposed.

Excerpts:

... Concentrations of fluoride and bicarbonate+carbonate anions are much lower than those of other macro-components of seawater (0.7 and 2.7 mmol l-1 for fluoride and bicarbonate+carbonate, respectively, in seawater, S=35), such as chloride and sulfate, but their complexes are often stronger. Moreover, since carbonates and fluorides play a very important role in many geo-chemical and bio-chemical processes in seawater, their contribution to the speciation studies of organotin compounds in that medium cannot be neglected. ...

3.4. Interactions with carbonate and fluoride
In spite of the amount of literature data concerning the interactions of fluoride and carbonate ligands with most of the metal ions, no data are reported on their interactions with organotin(IV) cations. In order to give a complete picture of trialkyltin(IV) cations speciation in natural fluids, we studied interactions of (CH3)3Sn+ with fluoride and carbonate. First, it was necessary to determine the protonation constants of fluoride and carbonate anions. Results are reported in Table 4, in the ionic strength range 0<I≤1.0 mol l-1 (for NaCl) and at t=25 °C. As can be seen, in the fluoride system, the formation constant of the binuclear species HF2- is also reported.

Potentiometric data (ISE-H+ and ISE-F- electrodes) of (CH3)3Sn+ cation in the presence of NaF and Na2CO3 salts, indicate the formation of (CH3)3SnF0, (CH3)3Sn(OH)F-, and (CH3)3Sn(OH)CO32- species. These formation constants are reported in Table 5 and Table 6, at different ionic strengths in NaCl or NaNO3 at t=25 °C. As expected, the stability of fluoride species is greater than the chloride species [(CH3)3SnCl0: log K=-0.6, at I=0 mol l-1] (Fig. 3a). The formation of the (CH3)3SnF0 species is dominant, whilst, the mixed (CH3)3Sn(OH)F- species is negligible. The mixed (CH3)3Sn(OH)CO32- species is formed in significant percentages over pH=9, as can be seen in Fig. 4a for the speciation diagram of (CH3)3Sn+ vs. pH.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7339215

1981 J Anal Toxicol. 1981 Nov-Dec;5(6):300-6.

Determination of tri-, di-, and monobutyltin and inorganic tin in biological materials and some aspects of their metabolism in rats.

Iwai H, Wada O, Arakawa Y.

A chromatographic method to separate and determine simultaneously trace amounts of tri-, di-, and monobutyltin and inorganic tin (IV) in biological materials has been established. These compounds were eluted stepwise on a silica gel column with an organic solvent system and were sensitively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The calibration curves show linearity up to 6 mumol/L. The detection limit was 1.5 ng of tin for each of the tin compounds. The reproducibility and recovery were satisfactory. Tetra- and tributyltin were also sensitively determined by the gas chromatographic application of this method. This new method was applied to the study on the metabolism of tributyltin in rats. The contents of tributyltin in the liver of rats, to which a single oral dose of tributyltin fluoride had been administered, showed a rapid decrease following an initial transient increase. The tributyltin, once transported to the liver, seemed to be rapidly dealkylated. The most significant finding was the remarkable retention of monobutyltin and inorganic tin (IV) in the brain.

PMID: 7339215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


From Toxline at Toxnet

Proc. Annu. Mar. Coat. Conf. 18: 1-18 1978

Dissipation and detoxification of organotins in the environment.

Sheldon AW

M&T Chem. Inc., Rahway, NJ

PESTAB. The dissipation of 3 commonly used organotins in soil environments was studied. These test materials were: tributyltin oxide (TBTO), tributyltin fluoride (TBTF), and triphenyltin fluoride (TPhTF). The soil employed in these studies was sandy loam obtained from South Carolina. Soil samples were treated with about 2.5 ppm of 1 of the 3 test compounds. After 182 days all 3 test compounds showed substantial degradation, especially in those samples kept under aerobic conditions. Degradation under anaerobic conditions was not as consistent as that under aerobic conditions. In the aerobic tests the TPhTF had released 37.2% of the applied radioactivity as CO2; the TBTF had evolved 11.6% and the TBTP, 14.2%.
It is suggested from these studies that the organotins used in antifouling coatings are not persistent pesticides and do not present the hazards usually associated with persistent materials.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14725891

No abstract available

2004 Mar Pollut Bull. 2004 Jan;48(1-2):188-92.
 
Limited effectiveness of marine protected areas: imposex in Hexaplex trunculus (Gastropoda, Muricidae) populations from Italian marine reserves.

Terlizzi A, Delos AL, Garaventa F, Faimali M, Geraci S.

Laboratory of Zoology and Marine Biology, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technology, University of Lecce, CoNISMa, Strada Prov. le Monteroni, Lecce 73100, Italy. antonio.terlizzi@unile.it

PMID: 14725891 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Definition of Imposex:
A pseudo-hermaphroditic condition in female gastropods (snails) caused by TBT and manifested by the development of a false penis.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12353640

2002 Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1748-50.
 
Shogaols from Zingiber officinale as promising antifouling agents.

Etoh H, Kondoh T, Noda R, Singh IP, Sekiwa Y, Morimitsu K, Kubota K.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Japan. acheto@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

We isolated the highly potent attachment-inhibitors (three times more active than standard CuSO4 in the blue mussel assay), trans-6-, 8-, and 10-shogaols, from a hexane extract of the roots of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Trans-8-shogaol showed the highest antifouling activity comparable with that of tributyltin fluoride (TBTF), which is recognized as one of the most effective antifouling agents, in the conventional submerged assay.

PMID: 12353640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


From Toxline at Toxnet

1995 ROSSMOORE, H. W. (ED.). HANDBOOK OF BIOCIDE AND PRESERVATIVE USE. XIV+424P. BLACKIE ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL: GLASGOW, SCOTLAND, UK; CHAPMAN AND HALL, INC.: NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA. ISBN 0-7514-0212-5.; 0 (0). 1995. 283-314.

BIOCIDES USED IN WOOD PRESERVATION

LEIGHTLEY L

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM BOOK CHAPTER MICROORGANISMS INSECTS BIODETERIORATION

CAS Registry Numbers: [too many to list, but includes]
1983-10-4 - Tributyltin fluroide


From Toxline at Toxnet

1993 Mutation Research, Vol. 300, No. 1, pages 5-14, 34 references

Increasing Effect of Tri-n-butyltins and Triphenyltins on the Frequency of Chemically Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Cells

Sasaki YF, Yamada, H C Kinae N

Abstract: The potentiating effects of tri-n-butyltins and triphenyltins were investigated in cultured Chinese-hamster ovary K1 cells. Compounds tested included tri-n-butyltin-chloride (1461229), tri-n-butyltin-fluoride (1983104), bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (56359), triphenyltin-acetate (900458), triphenyltin-chloride (639587), and triphenyltin-hydroxide (76879). The organotins studied did not give any evidence of clastogenic activity without rat liver S9. However, post treatment with organotins did increase the number of breakage type chromatid aberrations induced by five kinds of S-phase dependent clastogens: mitomycin-C (MMC), cisplatin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl-methanesulfonate, and actinomycin-D. The induction of chromosome aberrations by MMC was enhanced when the cells were treated with organotins during the G2 phase. The authors suggest that organotin G2 effect causes potentiating effects. The induction of breakage type chromatid aberrations by clastogenic pollutants was also enhanced in chlorinated tap water. The authors suggest that this indicates their potential for a more realistic health risk.

Substance (CAS Registry Number):
CELL CYCLE PHASE (NO CAS RN)
MITOMYCIN C (50-07-7)
BLEOMYCIN (11056-06-7)
CISPLATIN (15663-27-1)
4-NQO (56-57-5)
MMS (66-27-3)
ACTINOMYCIN D (50-76-0)
TRIBUTYLTIN CHLORIDE (1461-22-9)
TRIBUTYLTIN FLUORIDE (1983-10-4)
BIS TRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE (56-35-9)
TRIPHENYLTIN ACETATE (900-95-8)
TRIPHENYLTIN CHLORIDE (639-58-7)
TRIPHENYLTIN HYDROXIDE (76-87-9)
TAP WATER,POLLUTED,CHLORINATED,ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT (NO CAS RN)


From Toxline at Toxnet

1993 MICROCHEM J; 47 (1-2). 1993. 96-99.

A study of the degradation of tributyltins in aqueous solutions by differential pulse polarography.

PETTINATO LP, SHERMAN LR

Dep. Chemistry, Univ. Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510-4286, USA.

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. A polarographic method for investigating the loss of tributyltin compounds (OTC) having the general formula Bul3SnX (X = F, Cl, or O) at 200 ppb in sodium acetate pH 3.5 buffer, sodium citrate pH 4.5 buffer, sodium phosphate pH 7.2 buffer, and water is presented in this paper. The OTC solutions were incubated for several weeks at 37ê C to identify the effect of pH and anion on the change in OTC concentration. Fifty-milliliter aliquots were removed daily and extracted twice with 10-ml portions of hexane. The hexane was stripped and the samples redissolved in 25 ml of methanol containing 0.1 M tetramethyl ammonium chloride. The total trialkyltin was determined using differential pulse polarography. Plots of OTC concentration versus time revealed that the tributyltins underwent three distinct first-order changes in OTC concentration with a minimum extractable in concentration after 5 days. The mechanism for the change in tributyltin concentration is believed to be due to th [abstract truncated]

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
1983-10-4

1461-22-9
56-35-9


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2055530

1991 Gig Sanit. 1991 Feb;(2):86-7.

No Abstract available

[Chromatographic and spectrophotometric determination of tributyltin fluoride in the air of the work area]

[Article in Russian]

Dzhandzhapanian AN, Guloian AA.

PMID: 2055530 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


From Toxline at Toxnet

1990 AQUAT LIVING RESOUR; 3 (2). 121-130

Sublethal and histopathological effects of trace levels of tributyltin fluoride on adult oysters Crassostrea gigas.

CHAGOT D ALZIEU C SANJUAN J GRIZEL H

IFREMER, BP 133, 17390 La Tremblade, France. .

Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Shell malformations and histological effects of environmental concentrations of TBTF (2, 13.1 and 64.8 ng/l) were assessed on adult oysters Crassostrea gigas during a 1-month experiment, including both an exposure and a depuration phase. The results showed that the digestive gland is the primary target organ. Recoverable modifications were observed at the lowest concentration. Limited necrosis was observed at the highest concentration and a longer exposure could have led to extensive and irreversible tissue lesions. Shell malformations (chambering) were observed during the depuration phase. Finally the authors suggest that safe TBT levels in mariculture waters should be lower than 2 ng/l.

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4


Full report available at: http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc116.htm

1990 ENVIRON HEALTH CRITER; 116 (0). 1-273.

TRIBUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS

Authors: WHO

CAS Registry Numbers:
85409-17-2
85409-17-2
24124-25-2
4342-36-3
2155-70-6
1983-10-4
1461-22-9
688-73-3
56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1989 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. 113p. Bibl. ref.

Language: German

Publication Types: MONOGRAPH

Maximum concentrations at the workplace and biological tolerance values for working materials

Senatskommission zur Prufung gesundheitsschadlicher Arbeitsstoffe Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Abstract: Definition of the notion of "maximum concentration at the workplace" (MAK) and discussion of its basis and usefulness (limited, in the case of pregnant workers), of verification and compliance, of the relation of time-weighted average MAKs to peak exposures, and of the special problems posed by mixtures, allergens and substances absorbed by the skin. List of about 350 substances with their chemical formulas and MAKs in ppm and mg/m|3|. Entries for 34 substances or groups of substances have been changed with respect to the 1988 list. Additional information is given on known or suspected carcinogens (about 150, including drugs and tobacco smoke), dusts, organic peroxides, petrol, turpentine, pyrolysis products and cutting fluids. "Technical guiding concentrations" (TRK) are given for about 30 carcinogens or mutagens the use of which in industry is unavoidable. "Biological tolerance values" (BAT) are defined and listed for 30 substances (3 changes from 1988).

CAS Registry Numbers: [too many to list, but includes]
1983-10-4 - Tributyltin fluroide


From Toxline at Toxnet

1989 INF TEC INVEST PESQ; 0 (148). 1989. 3-15.

PRELIMINARY EVALUATIONS OF THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SELF-POLISHING AND CONTINUOUS CONTACT PAINTS

ARIAS E, SUAU P, MOLERA P

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM PHYTOPLANKTON MACROBENTHOS ZOOPLANKTON TOXICITY TRIBUTYLTIN VINYL CHLORINATED RUBBER PALMA DE MAJORCA HARBOR SPAIN

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
1983-10-4

1317-39-1
1314-13-2
1309-37-1
1111-67-7
688-73-3
56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1987 ENVIRON TOXICOL CHEM; 6 (10). 1987. 767-770.

COMPARISON OF THE EC50S OF ALGAL TOXICITY TESTS CALCULATED BY FOUR METHODS

WALSH GE, DEANS CH, MCLAUGHLIN LL

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM GRAPHICAL INTERPOLATION MOVING AVERAGE PROBIT ANALYSIS BINOMIAL METHOD 21 PESTICIDES TIN COMPOUNDS

CAS Registry Numbers: [too many to list, but includes]
1983-10-4 - Tributyltin fluroide


From Toxline at Toxnet

1986 INF TEC INST INVEST PESQ; 0 (134). 3-24.

BIOLOGICAL FOULING IN THE HARBOR OF VILLANUEVA Y GELTRU EASTERN SPAIN TRIALS IN PREVENTION WITH ANTIFOULING PAINTS

ARIAS E SOUSA JM MORALES E VIVES F SUAU P

No Abstract available


From Toxline at Toxnet

1985 61ST ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, LANCASTER, PA., USA, APR. 21-23, 1985. PROC PA ACAD SCI; 59 (2). 1985 (RECD. 1986). 162-166.

SOLUBILITY AND THE DEGRADATION OF TRI-N-BUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS MEDIA

SHERMAN LR, YAZDI MR, HOANG H, TALBOT J

Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM BIS-TRI-N-BUTYLTIN OXIDE TRI-N-BUTYLTIN FLUORIDE ENVIRONMENTAL FATE PERSISTENCE ORGANOTIN ANTI-FOULING AGENT

CAS Registry Numbers:
36643-28-4
36643-28-4
1983-10-4
1461-22-9
56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1985 J CHEM TECHNOL BIOTECHNOL A CHEM TECHNOL; 37 (8). 387-394.

No Abstract available

BIOACTIVITY OF ANTIFOULING PAINTS BASED ON ORGANOTIN TOXICANTS

BENITEZ JC GIUDICE CA RASCIO V JD

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
379-52-2


From Toxline at Toxnet

1985 MAR POLLUT BULL; 16 (9). 350-355.

ORGANOTIN AND TOTAL TIN IN COASTAL WATERS OF SOUTHWEST ENGLAND UK

CLEARY JJ STEBBING A RD

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM BISTRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE TRIBUTYLTIN FLUORIDE BIOCIDES FOULING ORGANISMS TOXICOLOGICAL THRESHOLD

CAS Registry Numbers:
7440-31-5
7440-31-5
1983-10-4
56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1985 ARCH ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL; 14 (1). 1985. 111-129.

Acute oral toxicity and repellency of 933 chemicals to house mice and deer mice.

SCHAFER E W JR, BOWLES W A JR

U.S. Dep. Interior-Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Wildlife Research Center, Build. 16-Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225.

HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Five individual bioassay repellency or toxicity variables were estimated or determined for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and house mice (Mus musculus) under laboratory conditions. ALD (approximate lethal doses) or LD50 of 230 chemicals to deer mice were presented, as were food reduction (FR) values (3 day feeding test as a 2.0% treatment rate) for white wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum) for 696 chemicals and Douglas fir seeds (Pseudotsuga menziesii) for 81 chemicals. A similar repellency evaluation (REP) using a 5 day test with white wheat seeds at a 2.0% treatment rate was conducted with house mice and the results for 347 chemicals were presented. These toxicity and repellency data should be useful to those desiring to predict the potential for acute toxicity in wild mammals following exposure to a wide variety of chemicals. A calculation of the daily chemical dose ingested in milligram/kilogram per day during the wheat test on deer mice and its resultant effects on mortality were also presented for most of the 696 chemicals. This calculated value, when used along with the ALD or LD50, should permit a rough estimate of the potential subacute toxicity of any tested chemical on wild mammals for which both types of data were available.

CAS Registry Numbers: [too many to list, but includes]
1983-10-4 - Tributyltin fluroide


From Toxline at Toxnet

1985 J EGYPT SOC PARASITOL; 15 (2). 1985. 665-674.

NEW COPOLYMER WITH PENDENT ORGANOTIN MOIETIES AS CONTROLLED RELEASE MOSQUITO LARVICIDE

WAID A-F M, HILMY NM, EL-MONAIRY OM

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM INSECTICIDE FORMULATION

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
1983-10-4

80-62-6


From Toxline at Toxnet

1984 MAR ENVIRON RES; 12 (4). 243-272.

Long-term effects of tributyltin compounds on the Baltic amphipod, Gammarus oceanicus.

LAUGHLIN R NORDLUND K LINDEN O

Univ. Calif., Naval Biosciences Lab., Naval Supply Center, Oakland, Calif. 94625.

Abstract: HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Amphipod larvae, G. oceanicus, were exposed for 8 wk to bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO) or tributyltin fluoride (TBTF), or for 5 wk to leachates from tributyltin-containing antibiofouling paints. No larvae survived 8 wk exposure to 3 mug/l TBTO or TBTF. Differential larval survival occurred during exposure to 0.3 mug/l of these same compounds. Paint leachates caused similar toxicity responses at comparable aqueous tributyltin concentrations. An examination of sublethal responses showed slight decreases in growth for larvae exposed to TBTO and to paint leachates, although responses at tributylin levels below 1 mug/l were not marked. Whole-animal O2 consumption rates were not affected by low tributyltin exposure levels. While these studies demonstrate low level toxicity of tributyltins, effects on O2 consumption and growth do not indicate a mode of action for these compounds.

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
1983-10-4

56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1984 Veiligheid Dec. 1984, Vol.60, No.12, p.629-638. Illus.

Antifouling paints

Doorgeest T

Contents of this survey: plant fouling and mineral incrustations, their effect on underwater metal structures and preventive measures; types of antifouling paint; active substances (copper (I) oxide, copper or bronze powders; tributyltin oxide, tributyltin fluoride, triphenyltin fluoride, etc. and their properties); solvents; cleaning methods (hazards from detergents, high-pressure sprays and shotblasting) and application of paints; health hazards; preventive measures, personal protection and work clothes; welding and cutting of structures covered by antifouling paint; safety labelling; decontamination of clothes; personal hygiene; waste disposal; TLVs; first aid; medical supervision; regulations in the Netherlands.


From Toxline at Toxnet

1984 Source: BOWEN, H. J. M. A SPECIALIST PERIODICAL REPORT ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 3. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PUBLISHED UP TO END 1982. IX+144P. ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY: LONDON, ENGLAND. ILLUS. MAPS. ISBN 0-85186-775-8.; 0 (0). 1984. 49-77.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY OF ORGANOTIN COMPOUNDS

BLUNDEN SJ HOBBS LA SMITH PJ

HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM FISH PLANT SOIL POLLUTION METAL POLLUTION

CAS Registry Numbers:
41083-11-8
41083-11-8
13121-70-5
1983-10-4
1461-25-2
1118-46-3
1067-33-0
900-95-8
688-73-3
683-18-1
379-52-2
76-87-9
56-36-0
56-35-9


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6466208

1984 Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1984 Apr;62 ( Pt 2):209-14.

Organotin implications in anticarcinogenesis. Effects of several organotins on tumour growth rate in mice.

Cardarelli NF, Cardarelli BM, Libby EP, Dobbins E.

Several cohorts of cancerous mice were continuously dosed with 2,2'-bipyridyl dibutyltin dichloride, 1,10-phenanthroline dibutyltin and histidine dibutyltin; presented at 1 ppm and 10 ppm in drinking water. Tumour growth rates were significantly reduced. Tributyltin fluoride (TBTF) applied dermally, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the carrier, over the tumour site was ineffective. Variation in thymus and spleen weight between controls and tin-exposed mice indicates a lymphatic involvement. Analysis of mouse tissue for total tin content showed high tin concentrations in the thymus and spleen.

PMID: 6466208 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7131895&dopt=Abstract

1982 Sangyo Igaku 1982 Mar;24(2):163-71

[Properties and mechanism of hyperlipidemia induced in rabbits by tributyltin fluoride]

[Article in Japanese]

Matsui H, Wada O, Manabe S, Ono T, Iwai H, Fujikura T.

Male Japanese white rabbits were given tributyltin fluoride (TBTF) by gastric intubation with a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight and their lipid and glucose metabolisms were investigated. After administration of TBTF, a reversible, but remarkable increase of lipids in plasma, particularly of triglycerides and total cholesterol, was observed. Ultracentrifugation of plasma lipoproteins revealed a marked increase in chylomicron+VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) fraction. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in postheparin plasma reduced significantly (p less than 0.02) to the levels of about 50% of the control. Fasting blood glucose level was elevated and a significant inhibition of insulin (IRI) release in response to the intravenous glucose infusion was observed in TBTF treated rabbits, but the level of blood glucose and the degree of inhibition of IRI release were low compared with those of triphenyltin fluoride treated rabbits, in which much greater fasting hyperglycemia was observed. Microscopic examination of pancreas, kidneys and thyroid gland did not reveal histological alterations contributing to the hyperlipidemia. These results suggest that hyperlipidemia* induced in rabbits by tributyltin fluoride is due to decreased LPL activity. The decrease in LPL activity seems to be related to the inhibition of insulin release from islets by TBTF.

PMID: 7131895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

* Note from FAN: Hyperlipidemia is commonly called High Cholesterol. It is an elevation of lipids (fats/cholesterol) in the bloodstream.


From Toxline at Toxnet

1982 BULL ENVIRON CONTAM TOXICOL 28:494-499

No Abstract available

SUBLETHAL RESPONSES OF THE TADPOLES OF THE EUROPEAN FROG RANA TEMPORARIA TO TWO TRIBUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS

LAUGHLIN R, LINDEN O

Assay Method:
VIABILITY, FERTILITY AND MORTALITY
GROWTH
HOMEOSTASIS

Stage Treated: EMBRYO

CAS Registry Numbers:
1983-10-4
1983-10-4

56-35-9


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7147004

1982 Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1982 Jun;13(2):225-30.

The effect of controlled release copper sulfate and tributyltin fluoride on the mortality and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia.

Viyanant V, Thirachantra S, Sornmani S.

The experiments were conducted to assess the effect of sublethal concentration of controlled release copper sulfate (EC-8) and tribultyltin fluoride (CBL-9B) on the mortality and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia. It was found that LC50 and LC90 of EC-8 to the miracidia were 8.5 mg/l per hr and 15.75 mg/l per hr respectively. For CBL-9B, LC50 was 19.75 microgram/l per hr and LC90 was 32.0 microgram/l per hr. Exposing of the miracidia to 0.5 mg/l of EC-8 or 4.0 microgram/l of CBL-9B respectively, for only one hour can prevent their transmission to the snail host. The results indicate that immobilization of the free living stages of the schistosome parasite was not required to interrupt their transmission to the next hosts.

PMID: 7147004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


From Toxline at Toxnet

1982 JPN J IND HEALTH; 24 (1). 1982. 24-54.

RECENT PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF ANALYTICAL METHODS TOXICITY METABOLISM AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF ORGANO TIN COMPOUNDS

WADA O, MANABE S, IWAI H, ARAKAWA Y

HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. REVIEW HUMAN MAMMAL CEREBRAL EDEMA FUNGICIDE PLASTIC STABILIZER

CAS Registry Numbers: [too many to list, but includes]
1983-10-4 - Tributyltin fluroide


From Toxline at Toxnet

1981 AQUAT TOXICOL; 1 (3-4). 1981. 227-238.

Hormesis: Stimulation of colony growth in Campanularia flexuosa (Hydrozoa) by copper, cadmium and other toxicants.

STEBBING A RD

Nat. Environ. Res. Counc., Inst. Mar. Environ. Res., Prospect Pl., Hoe, Plymouth, Devon., UK.

HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. Subinhibitory concentrations of toxic or other agents that are typically inhibitory (Cu, Cd, tributyl tin fluoride, reduced salinity) may stimulate the growth of colonies of the hydroid C. flexuosa, exhibiting a phenomenon known as hormesis. Stimulation of growth was not due to the specific properties of the different toxicants but to an adaptive response of the hydroid to the inhibitory effect that they had in common. Growth was regulated by a control mechanism and it was probably a consequence of overcorrections to low levels of an inhibitory challenge. Examination of the toxicological literature showed that hormesis was a more common occurrence than generally supposed and this explanation might apply in other cases of hormesis.

CAS Registry Numbers:
7440-50-8
7440-50-8
7440-43-9
1983-10-4


From Toxline at Toxnet

1979 - Source: BRITTON, J. C. (ED.). PROCEEDINGS, FIRST INTERNATIONAL CORBICULA SYMPOSIUM, FT. WORTH, TEX., USA, OCT. 13-15, 1977. VI+313P. TEXAS CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FOUNDATION: FORT WORTH, TEX., USA. ILLUS. MAPS. PAPER.; 0 (0). 1979 (RECD. 1980). P139-152.

CONTROL STUDIES ON CORBICULA FOR STEAM ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANTS

GOSS LB, JACKSON JM, FLORA HB, ISOM BG, GOOCH C, MURRAY SA, BURTON CG, BAIN WS

HEEP COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. TENNESSEE USA TRI BUTYL TIN OXIDE TRI BUTYL TIN FLUORIDE TRI PHENYL LEAD ACETATE CONTROLLED RELEASE SURFACES CHLORINE CHLORINE DI OXIDE BROMINE CHLORIDE FOULING CONTROL MECHANICAL STRAINING CHEMICAL BIOCIDES HEAT TREATMENT APPLICATIONS

CAS Registry Numbers:
16887-00-6
16887-00-6
10049-04-4
7782-50-5
7726-95-6
1983-10-4
1162-06-7
56-35-9


From Toxline at Toxnet

1975 Journal of Paint Technology, Vol. 47, No. 600, pages 54-58

Effects Of Organotin Anti-Fouling Coatings On Man And His Environment

Sheldon AW

Abstract: The acute and chronic toxicities of anti fouling coatings were studied in animals. The acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) was determined for bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (56359), tributyltin-fluoride (1983104) and triphenyltin-fluoride (379522) for rats and rabbits. The acute dermal LD50 was also determined. Primary skin and eye irritation were assessed for these compounds. A subacute dermal toxicity study was performed using albino-rabbits exposed to 14.0, 27.2 or 68.0 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) applied to the skin of the back each day. Mortality, reactions, body weight, hematologic and clinical blood chemistry, urine and gross microscopic pathology were studied. An assessment of the carcinogenicity of tributyltin-fluoride was made in male Swiss-white-mice. Animals received a dermal application of 15mg of 5 or 10 percent tributyltin-fluoride solution 3 times a week for 6 months. The acute oral LD50 of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide was 234mg/kg and its acute dermal toxicity was 11,700mg/kg as a powder. The acute oral LD50 of tributyltin-fluoride was 200mg/kg and the dermal LD50 was 680mg/kg. The acute oral LD50 of triphenyltin-fluoride was 1,170mg/kg. All were severe or extreme eye irritants and most were moderate to severe skin irritants. In the 90 day study, no effects were seen at 14mg/kg. A dose of 68mg/kg was toxic, with increases in total and differential leukocyte counts and decreases in body weight. Skin lesions were seen. At 27.2mg/kg effects were less pronounced. No carcinogenic effects were seen from the dermal application of either concentration of tributyltin-fluoride to mice. The author concludes that skin and eye irritation are the major hazards from these organotin anti fouling coating when used by humans.


From Toxline at Toxnet

1971 Industrial Bio-Tests Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois, IRT Report No. A8995, 4 pages.

90-Day Subacute Dermal Toxicity Study With Tributyl Tin Fluoride (TBTF) In Albino Rabbits

Sheldon AW

Abstract: The subacute dermal toxicity of tributyltin-fluoride (1983104) was investigated in rabbits. Dermal applications of 5 or 10 percent weight to volume ratio of tributyltin-fluoride in propylene-glycol were given to albino-rabbits for 7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 90 days. The total dose was 14.0, 27.2, or 68.0 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and the total number of applications was 65 for the lower doses and 41 applications for the highest dose. Some animals were observed for an additional 28 days. One rabbit given 27.2mg/kg died after 50 applications, and seven rabbits given 68.0mg/kg died after receiving 35 to 41 applications. None of the untreated controls or rabbits given 14.0mg/kg died. Hypoactivity was observed in treated rabbits after three to five applications. The chemical was severely irritating to the skin and caused chemical burns after one to two applications; the skin became escharotic after eight applications. Weight loss occurred at the highest dose, but animals recovered during the observation period. Increases were seen in total leukocytes, percent of neutrophils, blood area nitrogen, and fasting blood glucose, and decreases in the percent of lymphocytes in animals given 68.0mg/kg. No significant gross or microscopic pathologic alterations aside from the skin irritation were seen. The author concludes that tributyltin-fluoride is a skin irritant.


From Toxline at Toxnet

1967 International Research and Development Corporation, 22 pages, 1967

Acute Inhalation Exposure In Male Albino Rats

Wazeter FX

The acute inhalation toxicity of Bio-Met-5, bis-tri-n-butyltin-oxide (56359) (Bio-Met-TBTO), tributyltin-fluoride (1983104) (TBTF) and tributyltin-benzoate (4342363) (TBTB) was investigated in Charles-River-rats. Rats were exposed to concentrations of 100 to 140 grams of test material at room temperature, heated to 95 to 100 degrees-F, or to vapors of Bio-Met-TBTO or Bio-Met-T heated to 250 to 400 degrees. Exposures were for 6 hours per day with a 14 day observation period. Exposure to TBTB resulted in sneezing, hypoactivity, dyspnea, and salivation. Rats exposed to TBTF showed no signs of toxicity; all animals survived. The effects of Bio-Met-TBTO depended upon the temperature of the vapor. At room temperature rats exhibited erythema, and sneezing, followed by hypoactivity, dyspnea, ocular porphyrin, and slight cyanosis. Three rats died within 15 hours of exposure. At room temperature, Bio-Met-TBTO produced hypoactivity, erythema, dyspnea, salivation, nasal porphyrin, and nasal discharge. At 95 to 100 degrees, signs were similar to those at room temperature except for increased grooming of the head and nose areas. Escape behavior, excessive lacrimation, nasal discharge, and loose stools were seen. At 250 degrees, signs were the same but were seen earlier and were more marked. One mortality occurred at 3.5 hours. Four rats were sacrificed after exposure and the remainder died within 1 or 2 days. At 350 degrees, all rats died within 3 hours. At room temperature exposure to Bio-Met-5, no symptoms were seen in 6 of 10 rats. Slight ocular porphyrin discharge was seen in three rats at the end of exposure, but all appeared essentially normal. The same observations were made in rats exposed to 95 to 100 degrees except for a slight erythema in two rats after 1 hour of exposure. At 300 degrees, hypoactivity and eye squint were seen beginning at 5 minutes of exposure. Excessive lacrimation, hypoactivity, rales, erythema, ocular or nasal porphyrin, and clear nasal discharge were observed at the end of exposure. At 400 degrees, gasping dyspnea was observed. Five rats were sacrificed; the remaining rats appeared essentially normal during the subsequent 14 days.

Keywords:
DCN-122425
Acute exposure
Animal studies
Organo tin compounds
Pulmonary disorders
Temperature effects
Respiratory system disorders
Toxic effects
Lung irritants
Physiological response


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