Adverse Effects
Carfentrazone-ethyl
CAS No. 128639-02-1
 
 

Return to Carfentrazone-ethyl Index Page

Activity: Herbicide (unclassified)

Structure for Carfentrazone-ethyl:

Adverse Effects:
Blood
Body Weight Decrease

Bone
Endocrine: Thymus
Kidney
Liver
Spleen
Environmental

As of February 14, 2005: US EPA Maximum residue levels in or on over 700 food commodities - see list at http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/mrl.carfentrazone-ethyl.htm

Blood (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Repeat-dose studies indicate that the primary targets for carfentrazone-ethyl toxicity are the liver, kidney, and the red blood cell forming system... Effects on the red blood cell forming system were seen in most studies. These effects included a reduction in the number of red cells in blood and an associated increase in the products of red blood cell degradation appearing in the urine and liver.
-- Short-Term Studies In mice fed carfentrazone-ethyl at concentrations up to 20000 ppm for 28 days, decreased defecation was observed at 14000 and 20000 ppm. Blood haemoglobin concentration was reduced in females at concentrations 4000 ppm and mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were reduced at the highest concentration...
-- Short-Term Studies... The body weight of dogs (1/sex) given 1000 mg/kg bw/day carfentrazone-ethyl in capsules for 14 days was reduced; food consumption of the female also reduced. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were reduced. In the female, haematocrit was also reduced with white blood cell counts and neutrophils increased. The female had a pale kidney and the male had reduced relative spleen and testes weights.
-- Short-Term Studies... In mice fed up to 20 000 ppm dietary carfentrazone-ethyl for 90 days, a pink/brown staining of the litter tray was observed at concentrations 14000 ppm. Although red blood cell counts were increased in males at concentrations 14000 ppm, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were reduced in males at concentrations 8000 ppm and in females at concentrations 14000 ppm. In addition, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration was reduced in females at the highest concentration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were increased at 20000 ppm and albumin was increased in females at concentrations 1400 ppm...
-- Short-Term Studies... In rats fed up to 20 000 ppm carfentrazone-ethyl in the diet for 90 days, abdominogenital staining and pink-brown discolouration of the cage-pan liner was observed at concentrations 4000 ppm. Body weight and food consumption were reduced in males at concentrations 8000 ppm and in females at concentrations 8000 and 4000 ppm respectively. Erythrocyte parameters (Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH) were reduced at concentrations 8000 ppm and platelets were increased in males at the same concentrations. Plasma ALT, AST, potassium, phosphorus and bilirubin were increased at concentrations 8000 ppm whereas glucose was reduced...
-- Short-Term Studies... Dogs given capsules containing carfentrazone-ethyl at doses up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days exhibited subdued behaviour, salivation and vomiting at the highest dose. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin was reduced at doses 500 mg/kg bw/day and mean corpuscular volume was reduced in males at this dose. Red blood cell count was increased in males receiving the highest dose. Total urinary porphyrins were increased at doses 500 mg/kg bw/day and liver weight was increased in females at this dose....
-- Long-Term Studies. Mice fed carfentrazone-ethyl at concentrations of 0, 70, 700 or 7000 ppm for 80 weeks had increased mortality at concentrations 700 ppm. Body weights and body weight gains were reduced at 7000 ppm in females and in all treated males. Red blood cell count and haematocrit were reduced and mean corpuscular volume was increased in females at concentrations 70 ppm. Haemoglobin was reduced at concentrations 700 ppm and mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were increased in males at concentrations 70 ppm. Haemosiderosis, porphyrin deposits and treatment related histopathological changes were observed in males at concentrations 700 ppm and in females at the highest concentration. A NOEL was not established for this study, because reduced body weight gain was observed in males at the lowest concentration tested (70 ppm, equal to 10 mg/kg bw/day).
-- Long-Term Studies... In rats fed 0, 50, 200, 800 or 4000 ppm carfentrazone-ethyl for 52 or 104 weeks slight decreases in red blood cell counts in males and increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were observed at 200 ppm...
-- Long-Term Studies... In dogs given carfentrazone-ethyl in capsules at doses of 0, 50, 150, 500 or 10000 mg/kg bw/day for 52 weeks, increased urinary porphyrins were observed at doses 150 mg/kg bw/day. A slight reduction in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration was observed in males at the same doses and an increase in liver to body weight ratio was observed in females at doses 500 mg/kg bw/day. The NOEL for this study was 50 mg/kg bw/day based on the slight increase in urinary porphyrins at 150 mg/kg bw/day.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Body Weight Decrease (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

In a developmental toxicity study in rabbits, evidence of treatment-related maternal toxicity consisted of unthriftiness and emaciation in two does at 300 mg/kg/day. The maternal LOAEL is 300 mg/ kg/day; the maternal NOAEL is greater than or equal to 150 mg/kg/day. There was no evidence of treatment-related prenatal developmental toxicity: The developmental LOAEL was not determined; the developmental NOAEL is greater than or equal to 300 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register: June 12, 2002. Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Carfentrazone-E.FR.June2002.htm

-- A 90-day subchronic feeding study was conducted in rats at intake levels of 0, 58, 226, 470, 831 and 1197 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 72, 284, 578, 1008 and 1427 mg/kg/day in females, respectively. The NOEL was 226 mg/kg/day in males and 284 mg/kg/day in females. The LOEL was 470 mg/kg/day in males and 578 mg/kg/day in females based on decreases in body weight, reductions in food consumption and histopathological lesions.
-- A 90-day subchronic feeding study in dogs administered by dietary admix doses of 0, 50, 150, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day. The NOEL was 50 mg/kg/day and the LOEL was 150 mg/kg/day based on systemic toxicity (decrease in the rate of weight gain in females and an increase in porphyrin levels in both sexes).
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Carfentrazone-ethyl Reason for Issuance:New Chemical Registration Date Issued: September 30, 1998.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/carfentrazone.pdf

Bone (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Developmental toxicity study - rat... Examination of fetuses for alterations of external, visceral, and skeletal development revealed significantly increased litter incidences of wavy and thickened ribs in the 1,250 mg/kg/day treatment group. The developmental LOAEL is 1,250 mg/kg/day (based upon a significant increase in the litter incidences of wavy and thickened ribs); the developmental NOAEL is 600 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register. August 1, 2001. Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Carfentrazone-e.FR.Aug1.01.htm

-- Reproduction and Developmental Studies... Carfentrazone-ethyl was orally administered to pregnant female rabbits, at doses of 0, 10, 40, 150 or 300 mg/kg bw/day from day 7 to day 19 of gestation. Slight increases in abdominogenital, and pink or red pan liner staining were recorded at doses 150 mg/kg bw/day. Skeletal variations in rabbits (angulated hyoids, unilateral and floating ribs, and non-ossified 6th sternabrae in rabbit litters), were slight and not dose-related at materno-toxic doses. Maternal and foetal NOELs were 40 and 10 mg/kg bw/day respectively, in rabbits.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Endocrine: Thymus (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Short-Term Studies... In dogs (1/sex/group) given capsules containing carfentrazone-ethyl at doses up to 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 28 days, food consumption and body weight gain were decreased, plasma urea was slightly increased and plasma glucose was slightly decreased. Total urinary porphyrins were elevated in the male at 1000 mg/kg bw/day and in females at 500 mg/kg bw/day. Decreased thymus weight and cortical atrophy were observed in animals at 1000 mg/kg bw/day and decreased uterus weights were observed in females at this dose.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Kidney (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Repeat-dose studies indicate that the primary targets for carfentrazone-ethyl toxicity are the liver, kidney, and the red blood cell forming system... Increased kidney weight and the presence of pigment in kidney cells typified kidney toxicity in rats and dogs...
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Liver (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- A 2-year rat chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats at intake levels of 0, 2, 9, 37 and 188 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 3, 12, 49 and 242 mg/kg/day for females. The study found the compound to be noncarcinogenic to rats under the conditions of the study. The no-observed- effect level (NOEL) was 200 ppm (9 mg/kg/day ) for males and 50 ppm (3 mg/kg/day) for females respectively and the lowest-observed-effect-level (LOEL) was 800 ppm (37 mg/kg/day) for males and 200 ppm (12 mg/kg/day) for females, based on liver histopathology and total urinary porphyrin.
-- Chronic Toxicity. An 18-month mouse carcinogenicity study was conducted in mice at dietary intake doses of 0, 10, 110 and 1090 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 12, 119 and 1296 mg/kg/day for females). The study found the compound to be noncarcinogenic to mice under the conditions of the study. The systemic NOEL was 70 ppm (equivalent to 10 mg/kg/day for males and 12 mg/kg/day for females), and the systemic LOEL was 700 ppm (equivalent to 110 mg/kg/day for males and 119 mg/kg/day for females) based on increased mortality and microscopic signs of hepatotoxicity.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet for Carfentrazone-ethyl. September 30, 1998.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone.epa.fact.1998.pdf

-- Subchronic oral toxicity study in the dog. LOAEL = 150 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain and increased porphyrin levels. -- -- Chronic toxicity study in rats. LOAEL = 12 mg/kg/day based on liver histopathology and increased urinary porphyrin levels.
Ref: Federal Register: June 12, 2002. Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Carfentrazone-E.FR.June2002.htm

--- Repeat-dose studies indicate that the primary targets for carfentrazone-ethyl toxicity are the liver, kidney, and the red blood cell forming system. Liver toxicity in all tested species was characterised by increased liver weight, microscopic changes in liver cells and increases in plasma levels of liver enzymes...
--- NOEL/ADI The lowest overall NOEL for carfentrazone-ethyl was 3 mg/kg bw/day. This NOEL was established in the 2-year rat study, based on pigment deposition, red fluorescence and histopathological changes in the liver of rats at the next highest dose. A safety factor of 100 is considered appropriate for the ADI, due to the extensive, high quality toxicology database for carfentrazone-ethyl. This results in an ADI of 0.03 mg/kg bw/day.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Spleen (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Short-Term Studies In mice fed carfentrazone-ethyl at concentrations up to 20000 ppm for 28 days, decreased defecation was observed at 14000 and 20000 ppm. Blood haemoglobin concentration was reduced in females at concentrations 4000 ppm and mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were reduced at the highest concentration. Liver weight was increased in both males and females at concentrations 8000 ppm and spleen weights were reduced in males at the highest concentration.
-- Short-Term Studies... The body weight of dogs (1/sex) given 1000 mg/kg bw/day carfentrazone-ethyl in capsules for 14 days was reduced; food consumption of the female also reduced. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were reduced. In the female, haematocrit was also reduced with white blood cell counts and neutrophils increased. The female had a pale kidney and the male had reduced relative spleen and testes weights.
-- Short-Term Studies... In mice fed up to 20 000 ppm dietary carfentrazone-ethyl for 90 days, a pink/brown staining of the litter tray was observed at concentrations 14000 ppm. Although red blood cell counts were increased in males at concentrations 14000 ppm, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were reduced in males at concentrations 8000 ppm and in females at concentrations 14000 ppm. In addition, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration was reduced in females at the highest concentration. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were increased at 20000 ppm and albumin was increased in females at concentrations 1400 ppm. Liver weights were increased at concentrations 8000 ppm and spleen weights were decreased in all treated females... A NOEL was not established for this study, because a reduction in spleen weights was observed in females at the lowest concentration tested (1000 ppm, equivalent to 150 mg/kg bw/day)
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Environmental (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Plants. In terrestrial plant testing, the onion is the most sensitive plant with regard to seedling emergence (EC25 0.009 lb/A a.i.) and the tomato is the most sensitive in regard to vegetative vigor (EC25 0.0012 lb/a.i.). On the basis of the NOEL's the radish and lettuce were most sensitive; both had vegetative vigor NOEL's of 0.0004 pounds a.i./A. Carfentrazone-ethyl is highly toxic to aquatic plants.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Carfentrazone-ethyl Reason for Issuance:New Chemical Registration Date Issued: September 30, 1998.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/carfentrazone.pdf

Phototoxic Pesticide. Light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides (LDPHs). US EPA identified the herbicides Acifluorfen, Azafenidin, Carfentrazone-ethyl, Flumiclorac-penty, Flumioxazin, Fluthiacet-methyl, Fomesafen, Lactofen, Oxadiargyl, Oxadiazon, Oxyfluorfen, Sulfentrazone, Thidiazimin as phototoxic pesticides that act by inhibiting protoporphyringen oxidase in the heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. [10 out of the 13 pesticides that EPA identified are organofluorines].
SEE http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/PHOTOTOXICITY.PAGE.htm
Ref: December 11, 2001 - US EPA. Revised Environmental Fate and Effects Division Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Oxyfluorfen Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document - also at:
http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/oxyfluorfen/oxyefedchap.pdf

Environmental aspects... its major metabolites are mobile to very highly mobile in soil and have potential to leach, though significant downward leaching was not detected in field trials.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf


 

 
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