Environmental - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

beginning with
A-E • F-G H-P Q-Z
 
 
Note: This is not an exhaustive list.  
When time allows more information will be added.
Acifluorfen
- Herbicide - CAS No. 50594-66-6
Phototoxic Pesticide. Light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides (LDPHs). US EPA identified the herbicides Acifluorfen, Azafenidin, Carfentrazone-ethyl, Flumiclorac-penty, Flumioxazin, Fluthiacet-methyl, Fomesafen, Lactofen, Oxadiargyl, Oxadiazon, Oxyfluorfen, Sulfentrazone, Thidiazimin as phototoxic pesticides that act by inhibiting protoporphyringen oxidase in the heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. [10 out of the 13 pesticides that EPA identified are organofluorines].
SEE
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/PHOTOTOXICITY.PAGE.htm
Ref: December 11, 2001 - US EPA. Revised Environmental Fate and Effects Division Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Oxyfluorfen Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (also at: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/oxyfluorfen/oxyefedchap.pdf ).

Abstract: Photochemistry studies can be helpful in assessing the environmental fate of chemicals. Photochemical reactions lead to the formation of by-products that can exhibit different toxicological properties from the original compound. For this reason the photochemical behavior of the herbicide acifluorfen (5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid) in the presence of different solvents was studied. Photochemical reactions were carried out using a high-pressure mercury arc and a solar simulator. Kinetic parameters and quantum yields were determined. The identification of photoproducts was performed by mass spectrometry and [1H] nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Nitrofluorfen,hydroxy-nitrofluorfen, 2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenol, 5-trifluoromethyl-5'-nitrodibenzofuran, and other derivatives were identified. The photochemical reactions were also carried out in the presence of either a singlet or a triplet quencher, and in the presence of either a radical initiator or a radical inhibitor. Substances used as inhibitors of the excited levels T1 and S1 showed that photodegradation of acifluorfen begins from a singlet state S1 through a pi,pi* transition. The role of free radicals in the photodegradation of acifluorfen was determined and a radical mechanism was proposed. Toxicity tests against Daphnia magna Strauss showed that acifluorfen was not toxic at a concentration of 0.1 mM; however, photoproducts formed after 36 h of UV exposure of the herbicide induced a remarkable toxicity to the test organism.
Ref: Photochemistry and photoinduced toxicity of acifluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide. Scrano L, Bufo SA, D'Auria M, Meallier P, Behechti A, Shramm KW.
1: J Environ Qual 2002 Jan-Feb;31(1):268-74.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11837431&dopt=Abstract

Acifluorfen, sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 62476-59-9

-- Ecological Risk: ... The Agency (USEPA) is uncertain about risks to freshwater and estuarine animals. The acute toxicity data do not suggest a risk concern. However, EPA does not have sufficient information to assess chronic risk. A no observed adverse effect level could not be determined in a chronic fish toxicity study because the lowest dose level resulted in an effect (reduced larvae weight). A comparison of the maximum peak concentration of acifluorfen in water is 100 fold lower than the LC50 for rainbow trout or bluegill sunfish. Because acifluorfen is persistent in water, the Agency is concerned about the potential for chronic risk. EPA is also concerned about the potential for chronic risk based on the phototoxic mechanism of action of sodium acifluorfen. Confirmatory data will be required to address this concern.
Ref: Overview of Sodium Acifluorfen Risk Assessment April 4, 2002. USEPA.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/acifluorfen.na.epa.apr.02.pdf

-- Environmental Fate: Sodium acifluorfen is extremely water soluble, is stable to hydrolysis and is moderately persistent to persistent in soil and water. Aerobic soil metabolism half-lives ranged from 30 days up to 6 months; anaerobic soil metabolism half-life was less than 28 days. Acifluorfen is very mobile with low binding potential. In soil (pH > 3.5), acifluorfen is predominately an anion with little sorption in many soils. Acifluorfen binding increases with soil organic carbon content. Soil temperature and soil water content influence soil microbial activity and may influence acifluorfen's degradation rate. The decarboxy derivative of acifluorfen was the primary degradate found in solution. The amino analog of acifluorfen (amino acifluorfen) is the major degradate under anaerobic soil conditions. Depending upon soil type, amino acifluorfen ranged from immobile to medium mobility. The aerobic aquatic half-life was estimated to be 117 days.
-- In ground water, acifluorfen will be persistent due to its stability to abiotic hydrolysis. During runoff events, sodium acifluorfen may reach surface waters from ground water where it would also persist for some time (unless there is some photodegradation; <1 to 29 days half-life). Acifluorfen would not be expected to bioaccumulate in fish because of the low Kow value.
Ref: January 15, 2002. Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment. MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN. HED Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/acifluorfen.na.a.red.jan.02.pdf

Ammonium bifluoride - Wood Preservative - CAS No. 1341-49-7

Fluoride/fluorinated substances identified in Agreement between Canada and the United States on Great Lakes Water Quality, 1978.
Appendix 1
Hazardous Polluting Substances: Ammonium Bifluoride * Ammonium Fluoborate * Ammonium Fluoride * Ammonium Silicofluoride * Antimony Trifluoride * Beryllium Fluoride * Ferric Fluoride * Hydrofluoric Acid * Lead Fluoborate * Lead Fluoride * Sodium Bifluoride * Sodium Fluoride * Zinc Fluoride * Zinc Silicofluoride * Zirconium Potassium Fluoride.
Appendix 2
Potential Hazardous Polluting Substances: Aluminum Fluoride * Antimony Pentafluoride * Benfluralin * Chlorflurazole * Cobaltous Fluoride * Stannous Fluoride

Ammonium fluoride - Wood Preservative - CAS No. 12125-01-8

Fluoride/fluorinated substances identified in Agreement between Canada and the United States on Great Lakes Water Quality, 1978.
Appendix 1
Hazardous Polluting Substances: Ammonium Bifluoride * Ammonium Fluoborate * Ammonium Fluoride * Ammonium Silicofluoride * Antimony Trifluoride * Beryllium Fluoride * Ferric Fluoride * Hydrofluoric Acid * Lead Fluoborate * Lead Fluoride * Sodium Bifluoride * Sodium Fluoride * Zinc Fluoride * Zinc Silicofluoride * Zirconium Potassium Fluoride.
Appendix 2
Potential Hazardous Polluting Substances: Aluminum Fluoride * Antimony Pentafluoride * Benfluralin * Chlorflurazole * Cobaltous Fluoride * Stannous Fluoride

Ammonium silicofluoride - Insecticide, Miticide, Wood Preservative, US EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 16919-19-0

Fluoride/fluorinated substances identified in Agreement between Canada and the United States on Great Lakes Water Quality, 1978.
Appendix 1
Hazardous Polluting Substances: Ammonium Bifluoride * Ammonium Fluoborate * Ammonium Fluoride * Ammonium Silicofluoride * Antimony Trifluoride * Beryllium Fluoride * Ferric Fluoride * Hydrofluoric Acid * Lead Fluoborate * Lead Fluoride * Sodium Bifluoride * Sodium Fluoride * Zinc Fluoride * Zinc Silicofluoride * Zirconium Potassium Fluoride.
Appendix 2
Potential Hazardous Polluting Substances: Aluminum Fluoride * Antimony Pentafluoride * Benfluralin * Chlorflurazole * Cobaltous Fluoride * Stannous Fluoride

Barium hexafluorosilicate - Insecticide - CAS No. 17125-80-3

Banned in Austria. This action applies to barium compounds. All uses banned. High persistence in the environment and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Contamination of water and accumulation in plants occur.
Ref: Pan Pesticides Database.

Benfluralin (Benefin) - Herbicide - CAS No. 1861-40-1

Fish  
-- Goldfish (Carassius auratus) -
Highly Toxic
--
Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) - Highly toxic
--
Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) -- Highly toxic to Very Highly Toxic
-- Rainbow trout,donaldson trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) - Highly Toxic
--
Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) -Highly Toxic
Zooplankton    
--
Opossum shrimp (Americamysis bahia) - Very Highly Toxic
Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms. Toxicity Studies for Benfluralin on All Organism Groups - Toxicology studies on aquatic organisms from science journals.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAll.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35043

Fluoride/fluorinated substances identified in Agreement between Canada and the United States on Great Lakes Water Quality, 1978.
Appendix 1 - Hazardous Polluting Substances:

Ammonium Bifluoride * Ammonium Fluoborate * Ammonium Fluoride * Ammonium Silicofluoride * Antimony Trifluoride * Beryllium Fluoride * Ferric Fluoride * Hydrofluoric Acid * Lead Fluoborate * Lead Fluoride * Sodium Bifluoride * Sodium Fluoride * Zinc Fluoride * Zinc Silicofluoride * Zirconium Potassium Fluoride.
Appendix 2 - Potential Hazardous Polluting Substances:

Aluminum Fluoride * Antimony Pentafluoride * Benfluralin * Chlorflurazole * Cobaltous Fluoride * Stannous Fluoride

Benzotrifluoride - Insecticide - CAS No. 98-08-8

-- Experimental BCF values of 26-54 and 31-58 suggest that benzotrifluoride will bioconcentrate in aquatic organisms.
-- Environmental Bioconcentration: An estimated BCF value of 110 was calculated for benzotrifluoride(SRC), using an experimental log Kow of 3.01(1) and a recommended regression-derived equation(2). Bioconcentration factors determined from a six week study in carp using 100 and 10 ug/L benzotrifluoride were 26-54 and 31-58, respectively(3). According to a classification scheme(4), these BCF values suggest that bioconcentration in aquatic organisms will be an important fate process(SRC). [(1) Hansch C, Leo A; The Log P Database. Claremont, CA: Pomona College (1987) (2) Lyman WJ et al; Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. Washington DC: Amer Chem Soc pp. 5-4, 5-10 (1990) (3) Chemicals Inspection and Testing Institute; Biodegradation and Bioaccumulation Data of Existing Chemicals Based on the CSCL Japan. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology - Toxicology and Information Center. ISBN 4-89074-101-1 (1992) (4) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994)]
Ref: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Base.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Benzotrifluoride.TOXNET.HSD.htm

Beta-cyfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 68359-37-5

Acute and chronic toxicity studies show that the technical material and formulations of beta-cyfluthrin are highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates and moderately toxic to algae. It is classified as presenting a high risk to honey bees and other arthropod species.
Ref: 1999. FAO Specifications and Evaluations for Plant Protection Products. Beta-Cyfluthrin (1RS, 3RS; 1RS, 3SR)-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (RS)-cyano
-(4-fluoro-3-phenoxy-phenyl)-methyl ester. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Specs/pdf/Beta_cyf.pdf

Definition of arthropod:  
Includes arachnids (spiders, mites) insects (bee, ant, moth) and crustaceans (shrimp, crab), as a group under Phylum Arthropoda, all invertebrates (no vertebral column), having segmented bodies and hollow, jointed legs.

Honeybees. Acute oral toxicity: LD50 ~ 0.05 µg/bee Acute contact toxicity: LD50 ~ 0.001 µg/bee
-- Aquatic Organisms.
Acute toxicity fish
:
-- LC50 = 0.068 µg/l (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96 h);
-- §-cyfluthrin LC50 = 0.28 µg/l (Lepomis macrochirus; 96 h); §-cyfluthrin
Long term toxicity fish:
-- NOEC = 0.01 µg/l (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 58 d; cyfluthrin)
-- NOEC = 0.14 µg/l (Pimephales promelas; 307 d; cyfluthrin)
Ref: December 2002 - Beta-cyflutrin: Review report for the active substance beta-cyfluthrin Finalised in the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health at its meeting on 3 December 2002 in view of the inclusion of beta-cyfluthrin in Annex I of Directive 91/414/EEC. EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Directorate E Ü Food Safety: plant health, animal health and welfare, international questions E1 - Plant health.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/cyfluthrin.beta.eu.dec.2002.pdf

Bifenthrin - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS Numbers: 82657-04-3

Persistence in sediment
Abstract: Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides in both agricultural and urban environments. Recent studies showed that surface runoff facilitated transport of pyrethroids to surface streams, probably by sediment movement. Sediment contamination by pyrethroids is of concern due to their wide-spectrum aquatic toxicity. In this study, we characterized the spatial distribution and persistence of bifenthrin [BF; (2-methyl(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)methyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] and permethrin [PM; 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl ester] in the sediment along a 260-m runoff path. Residues of BF and PM were significantly enriched in the eroded sediment, and the magnitude of enrichment was proportional to the downstream distance. At 145 m from the sedimentation pond, BF was enriched by >25 times, while PM isomers were enriched by >3.5 times. Pesticide enrichment along the runoff path coincided with enrichment of organic carbon and clay fractions in the sediment, as well as increases in adsorption coefficient K(d), suggesting that the runoff flow caused selective transport of organic matter and chemical-rich fine particles. Long persistence was observed for BF under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the half-life ranged from 8 to 17 mo at 20 degrees C. The long persistence was probably caused by the strong pesticide adsorption to the solid phase. The significant enrichment, along with the prolonged persistence, suggests that movement of pyrethroids to the surface water may be caused predominantly by the chemically rich fine particles. It is therefore important to understand the fate of sediment-borne pyrethroids and devise mitigation strategies to reduce offsite movement of fine sediment.
Ref: Distribution and persistence of pyrethroids in runoff sediments; by
Gan J, Lee SJ, Liu WP, Haver DL, Kabashima JN. J Environ Qual. 2005 Apr 20;34(3):836-41.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15843646&query_hl=11

Abstract: In Pakistan there is little data on environmental contamination of rural water sources by pesticides. This study evaluated pesticide contamination of groundwater in four intensive cotton growing districts. Water samples were collected from 37 rural open wells in the areas of Bahwalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab and analysed for eight pesticides which are mostly used. Information on types of pesticide used and distance to nearest pesticide mixing area and application areas was obtained for each site. From the eight pesticides analysed, six pesticides were detected in the water samples. Only cypermethrin and cabosulfan were not detected. The percentage of detection of bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, carbofuran, endosulfan, methyl parathion and monocrotophos was, respectively 13.5%, 5.4%, 59.4%, 8%, 5.4% and 35.1% in July; 16.2%, 13.55%, 43.2%, 8%, N.D. (not detected) and 24.3% in October. Maximum contamination levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were not exceeded. The study has shown the need for monitoring pesticide contamination in rural water resources, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in Pakistan. The conclusions and recommendations will be disseminated to senior decision makers in central and local governments, extension agents and farmers.
Ref: Pesticides in shallow groundwater of Bahawalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab, Pakistan; by Tariq MI, Afzal S, Hussain I. Environ Int. 2004 Jun;30(4):471-9.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15031006&query_hl=11

Abstract: The use of pyrethroid insecticides is increasing for agriculture, commercial pest control, and residential consumer use. In addition, there is a trend toward the use of newer and more potent compounds. Little is known about the toxicity of sediment-associated pyrethroid residues to aquatic organisms, yet recent work has shown they commonly are found in aquatic sediments in the heavily agricultural Central Valley of California, USA. Minimal data exist on the sensitivity of standard sediment toxicity testing species to pyrethroids, despite two or more decades of agricultural use of these compounds. Sediment concentrations causing acute toxicity and growth impairment to the amphipod Hyalella azteca were determined for six pyrethroids in three sediments, ranging from 1.1 to 6.5% organic carbon (OC). In order of decreasing toxicity of sediment-associated residues, the compounds tested were bifenthrin (average 10-d median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.18 microg/g OC), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.45 microg/g OC), deltamethrin (0.79 microg/g OC), esfenvalerate (0.89 microg/g OC), cyfluthrin (1.08 microg/g OC), and permethrin (4.87 microg/g OC). In a sediment containing about 1% OC, most pyrethroids, except permethrin, would be acutely toxic to H. azteca at concentrations of 2 to 10 ng/g dry weight, a concentration only slightly above current analytical detection limits. Growth typically was inhibited at concentrations below the LC50; animal biomass on average was 38% below controls when exposed to pyrethroid concentrations roughly one-third to one-half the LC50. Survival data are consistent with current theory that exposure occurs primarily via the interstitial water rather than the particulate phase. A reanalysis of previously reported field data using these toxicity data confirms that the compounds are exceeding concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species in many agriculture-dominated water bodies.
Ref:
Use and toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides in the Central Valley, California, USA. Amweg EL, Weston DP, Ureda NM. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 Apr;24(4):966-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15839572&query_hl=11

Aquatic acute toxicity values for bifenthrin include a bluegill 96- hour LC 50 of 0.35 ppb, a rainbow trout 96-hour LC 50 of 0.15 ppb, a sheepshead minnow LC 50 of 17.5 ppb, and a daphnid 48-hour EC 50 of 1.6 ppb. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing bifenthrin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the available environmental toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Abstract: The acute and chronic toxic effects of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna were studied. The results showed that 24 h-EC50, 48 h-LC50 and 96 h-LC50 of bifenthrin on D. magna were 3.24, 12.40 and 1.40 microg/L respectively. And the LOEC and NOEC of bifenthrin were 0.02 and 0.004 microg/L respectively. The recovery test of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna was presented. Daphnia magna (F0 generation) were exposed during 21 d to different bifenthrin concentrations. Offspring (animals from the first and third brood: F1 (1st) and F1 (3rd), respectively) were transferred to a free pesticide medium during a 21 d recovery period. In this recovery study, survival, growth, reproduction (mean total young per female, onset of reproduction and number broods per female) and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were assessed as parameters. Reproduction such as number of young per female as well as length was still reduced in F1 (1st) generation daphnids from parentals (F0) exposed to the bifenthrin. However F, (3rd) individuals from parentals exposed to pesticide concentrations were able to restore reproduction when a recovery period of 21 d was allowed, but the length of F, (3rd) from parentals exposed to the 0.5 and 0.75 microg/L bifenthrin concentration was still significantly effected (P < 0.05).
Ref:
Effects of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna during chronic toxicity test and the recovery test; by Ye WH, Wen YZ, Liu WP, Wang ZQ. J Environ Sci (China). 2004;16(5):843-6.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15559825&query_hl=11

Abstract: Recent studies showed that synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) can move via surface runoff into aquatic systems. Fifty-six of SP-degrading bacteria strains were isolated from contaminated sediments, of which six were evaluated for their ability to transform bifenthrin and permethrin in the aqueous phase and bifenthrin in the sediment phase. In the aqueous phase, bifenthrin was rapidly degraded by strains of Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila, and the half-life (t1/2) was reduced from >700 h to 30 to 131 h. Permethrin isomers were degraded by Aeromonas sobria, Erwinia carotovora, and Yersinia frederiksenii. Similar to bifenthrin, the t1/2 of cis- and trans-permethrin was reduced by approximately 10-fold after bacteria inoculation. However, bifenthrin degradation by S. acidaminiphila was significantly inhibited in the presence of sediment, and the effect was likely caused by strong adsorption to the solid phase. Bifenthrin t1/2 was 343 to 466 h for a field sediment, and increased to 980 to 1200 h for a creek sediment. Bifenthrin degradation in the inoculated slurry treatments was not greatly enhanced when compared with the noninoculated system. Therefore, although SP-degrading bacteria may be widespread in aquatic systems, adsorption to sediment could render SPs unavailable to the degraders, thus prolonging their persistence.
Ref: Microbial transformation of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous and sediment phases; by Lee S, Gan J, Kim JS, Kabashima JN, Crowley DE. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004 Jan;23(1):1-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14768859&query_hl=11

Fish
-- Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) - Very Highly Toxic
-- Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) -
Very Highly Toxic
Ref: Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Bifenthrin on All Taxa Groups. PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC32863

Fish
--
Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus - - Very Highly Toxic
-- Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)
- Very Highly Toxic
-- Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss - Very Highly Toxic
Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms. Toxicity Studies for Bifenthrin on All Organism Groups - Toxicology studies on aquatic organisms from science journals.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAll.jsp?Rec_Id=PC32863

Bromethalin - Rodenticide - CAS No. 63333-35-7

Ecological Toxicity Data. Primary toxicity to mammals is very high for all five of these rodenticides. Primary toxicity to birds is high to very high for the single-feeding compounds (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, bromethalin)... Toxicity to aquatic organisms ranges from moderate to very high.
Ref: US EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Rodenticide Cluster. EPA738-R-98-007. July 1998

-- Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) - Very highly toxic
-- Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) - Very highly toxic

Ref: Table 46 - Bromethalin Freshwater Fish Acute Toxicity (page 64)
US EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Rodenticide Cluster. EPA738-R-98-007. July 1998 

Carbon Tetrafluoride - Former US EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 75-73-0

Carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and carbon hexafluoride (C2F6) are emitted as by-products of the primary aluminum production process. Both are potent greenhouse gases, with global warming potentials of approximately 6,500 and 9,200 times that of CO2, respectively, and lifetimes that exceed 10,000 years.
Ref: Mitigating Climate Change. US Department of State
http://www.state.gov/www/global/oes/97climate_report/part4b.html

Carfentrazone-ethyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 128639-02-1

-- Plants. In terrestrial plant testing, the onion is the most sensitive plant with regard to seedling emergence (EC25 0.009 lb/A a.i.) and the tomato is the most sensitive in regard to vegetative vigor (EC25 0.0012 lb/a.i.). On the basis of the NOEL's the radish and lettuce were most sensitive; both had vegetative vigor NOEL's of 0.0004 pounds a.i./A. Carfentrazone-ethyl is highly toxic to aquatic plants.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Carfentrazone-ethyl Reason for Issuance:New Chemical Registration Date Issued: September 30, 1998.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/carfentrazone.pdf

Phototoxic Pesticide. Light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides (LDPHs). US EPA identified the herbicides Acifluorfen, Azafenidin, Carfentrazone-ethyl, Flumiclorac-penty, Flumioxazin, Fluthiacet-methyl, Fomesafen, Lactofen, Oxadiargyl, Oxadiazon, Oxyfluorfen, Sulfentrazone, Thidiazimin as phototoxic pesticides that act by inhibiting protoporphyringen oxidase in the heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. [10 out of the 13 pesticides that EPA identified are organofluorines].
SEE http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/PHOTOTOXICITY.PAGE.htm
Ref: December 11, 2001 - US EPA.
Revised Environmental Fate and Effects Division Preliminary Risk Assessment
for the Oxyfluorfen Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document
(also at:
http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/oxyfluorfen/oxyefedchap.pdf ).

Environmental aspects... its major metabolites are mobile to very highly mobile in soil and have potential to leach, though significant downward leaching was not detected in field trials.
Ref: April 2000 - Australia. Evaluation of the new active CARFENTRAZONE-ETHYL in the product AFFINITY 400 DF HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. NRA Ref. 51555.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/carfentrazone-e.aus.2000rpt.pdf
Also available at
http://www.apvma.gov.au/publications/prscar.pdf

Chlorfenapyr - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 122453-73-0

Environmental Toxicity Data: Based on standard laboratory tests on this formulation and the active ingredient chlorfenapyr, this product is very toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and toxic to algae.
Ref: Pylon miticide. Material Safety Data Sheet. February 13, 2001.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/chlorfenapyr.msds.2001.pdf

Physical Property Data Related to Water Contamination Potential
Ref: Pesticide Action Network
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/PCW/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35810
Water Solubility (Avg, mg/L) 0.13
Adsorption Coefficient (Koc) 104.9
Hydrolysis Half-life (Avg, Days) 30.0
Aerobic Soil Half-life (Avg, Days) 1,370

--- Long-term exposure to chlorfenapyr leads to reduced egg production, reduced hatching success and reduced nestling survival in the avian species tested. The fact that these effects occur at a chlorfenapyr doses above 0.059 mg/kg-bw/day (NOEL) active ingredient in the diet make chlorfenapyr one of the most reproductively toxic pesticides to avian species that EFED has evaluated. (page 13)
-- Freshwater Fish. Acute and chronic risk quotients for freshwater fish are listed in Table 47. The results indicate that acute high risk, restricted use, and endangered species LOCs are exceeded for freshwater fish for aerial applications in regions 3, 4, and 7. The chronic risk LOC is not exceeded for freshwater fish when the 60-day EEC is employed. However, the finding that chronic risks are not anticipated is of low confidence because of the limited availability of chronic effects testing data in freshwater fish, and the persistence of the compound. (page 9)
-- Chlorfenapyr Stability in Soil and Its Implications for Risks From Repeated Annual Use. Laboratory aerobic soil and field dissipation studies for chlorfenapyr show that the compound is very stable. Indeed, chlorfenapyr’s persistence in soil from annual treatment to annual treatment would contribute to increasing soil residues with time. Multiple-year applications of chlorfenapyr to cotton fields would therefore result in asymptotic increases in soil concentrations. As discussed for multiple-year uniform applications in the environmental fate section, the 90 percent upper bound for aerobic soil metabolism half-life (1.4 years, approximately the same as the 1.3 year field disipation half-life), yields a calculated asymptotic first-order value approaching 2.5 times the annual application amount (1.5 leftover from previous applications plus 1.0 from the current year application). Using the average aerobic soil half-life of 0.96 year, rather than the upper 90% limit of 1.4 years, the asymptotic value becomes 2.0 times the annual amount (1.0 residual plus 1.0 current). Under the assumption of minimal incidental soil ingestion, the effects of chlorfenapyr accumulation in soil to approximately 1.7 to 2.5 times the first year soil residue are essentially negligible, and do not alter the outcome of the risk assessment. However, if higher incidental soil ingestion rates are assumed (e.g., Bier et al. (1994) suggests soil incidental ingestion rates as high as 30% for some probing birds), then accumulation in soil may influence the outcome of the risk assessment to a greater extent. In addition, if other routes of exposure were to be considered (e.g., dermal), accumulation of chlorfenapyr from multiple years of use would serve to increase the exposure of chlorfenapyr in birds in any given year. (page 15)
-- Aquatic. At the time EPA requested sediment toxicity testing, the only protocol which had been fully developed was a 10-day acute sediment toxicity test. However, at this time EPA has developed a provisional guideline protocol for a 28-day chronic sediment test. Although specific criteria for requiring a chronic toxicity test have yet to be published, one criterion will include the persistence of the compound. Since chlorfenapyr has been characterized as a persistent compound, EFED will require a chronic sediment toxicity test. In the case of marine sediment toxicity, a chronic test is clearly justified because the LOCs appear to be exceeded by the results of the acute study submitted by the registrant. Because of the recent development of protocols for chronic sediment toxicity testing, EFED recommends that any study protocols (including the selection of test species) developed by the registrant to address these data requirements be submitted to the Agency for approval prior to test initiation. (page 18)
Ref: Calculating Avian and Mammalian Dietary Exposure Levels. . US EPA.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/chlorfenapyr/memoeco2.pdf

According to Kelley R. Tucker, Director of the American Bird Conservancy's Pesticides and Birds Campaign: "Testing and close scientific evaluation by EPA and independent scientists clearly revealed the persistence of this pesticide and its chronic and reproductive risks to birds," she explained. Laboratory studies of chlorfenapyr showed declines in test birds of close to 50% in number of eggs laid, number of viable embryos, and number of normal hatchlings, leading EPA science staff to label chlorfenapyr as "one of the most reproductively toxic pesticides to avian species [the Division] has evaluated." It was also found to persist in soils for over a year, leading many to question its hidden, long-term effects on the environment.
Ref: March 16, 2000, press release from the American Bird Conservancy. "EPA Decision Prevents Pesticide Threat to Birds Successful campaign, led by the American Bird Conservancy, halts hazardous pesticide."
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/chlorfenapyr.abc.mar.2000.htm

Chlorfluazuron - Insecticide - CAS No.71422-67-8

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of aldicarb, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl toward mature Aporrectodea caliginosa earthworms. The effects of the LC(25) values of these pesticides on the growth rate in relation to glucose, soluble protein, and activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (AcP), and alkaline phosphatase (AIP) were also studied. The results showed that aldicarb was the most toxic of the tested pesticides, followed in order by cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorfluazuron, atrazine, and metalaxyl. A reduction in growth rate was observed in all pesticide-treated worms, which was accompanied by a decrease in soluble protein and an increase in transaminases and phosphatases. Relationships between growth rate, protein content, transaminases, and phosphatases provided strong evidence for the involvement of pesticidal contamination in the biochemical changes in earthworms, which can be used as a bioindicator of soil contamination by pesticides.
Ref: Environ Toxicol. 2003 Oct;18(5):338-46.
Comparative toxicity and biochemical responses of certain pesticides to the mature earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa under laboratory conditions.
Mosleh YY, Ismail SM, Ahmed MT, Ahmed YM.

1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane - Solvent, EPA Inert List 2 - CAS No. 75-68-3

"Dangerous for the ozone layer"
Ref: OBSERVATION LIST: examples of substances requiring particular attention second, revised edition, 1998. Issued by the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sweden.dangerous.subs.1998.pdf

Chlorodifluoromethane - Insecticide, Fungicide, Propellant - CAS No. 75-45-6

"Dangerous for the ozone layer"
Ref: OBSERVATION LIST: examples of substances requiring particular attention second, revised edition, 1998. Issued by the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sweden.dangerous.subs.1998.pdf

Abstract: Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22), the most widely used substitute for chlorofluorocarbons, is currently emitted into the atmosphere at a global rate of about 220,000 tyr-1. In this work, national emissions of HCFC-22 for the year 1990 are estimated using the calculated emissions of CFC-12 as a surrogate distribution function. The releases so calculated match the sp arse published data in most cases.
Ref: Estimated national releases to the atmosphere of chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) during 1990; by Pauline M. Midgley and Archie McCulloch. Atmospheric Environment ; Volume 31, Issue 6 , March 1997, Pages 809-811.

Clodinafop-propargyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 105512-06-9

-- Ecological Characteristics. Aquatic: Clodinafop-propargyl is highly toxic to freshwater fish and no more than moderately toxic to freshwater invertebrates (LC50 = 0.30 ppm and EC50 > 2.0 ppm, respectively). The primary degradate, CGA-193469, is no more than moderately toxic to freshwater invertebrates (EC50 > 9.2 ppm). Plants: Tier II seedling emergence tests with clodinafop-propargyl indicate that ryegrass (shoot weight) at 0.031 lb. ai/Acre is the most sensitive species of all monocot and dicots tested. For Tier II vegetative vigor, corn (phytotoxicity) at 0.0048 lb. ai/Acre is the most sensitive species of all species tested. Aquatic plant testing with clodinafop-propargyl indicates that the vascular plant, Lemna gibba, and the nonvascular plant, Navicula pelliculosa, are the most sensitive species (EC50 > 2.4 ppm and 3.0 ppm, respectively). Based on the estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) of clodinafop-propargyl and its acid metabolite, CGA-193469, the use of DiscoverŞ Herbicide is not expected to pose a risk to non-target organisms, with the exception of non-target plants. There is a concern for endangered terrestrial plants inhabiting dry and semi-aquatic areas adjacent to wheat fields when DiscoverŞ is applied by air.
-- Potential to Contaminate Drinking Water. The likelihood of drinking water contamination by the parent compound, clodinafop-propargyl, is low due to high sorption and rapid degradation in the environment. However, the major degradate, CGA-193469, is persistent and highly mobile in low and moderate organic matter soils and has the potential to contaminate drinking water...
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration. June 6, 2000.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/clodinafop.pdf

Cloransulam-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 147150-35-4

-- The structurally-similar transformation products occur in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism studies and appear persistent under anaerobic conditions. Cloransulam-methyl is highly mobile while the major transformation product also appears to be mobile in soils. Cloransulam-methyl dissipated relatively rapidly from the upper 15 cm of bare ground plots. Transformation products indicate that metabolism and photolysis are likely to be major routes of transformation of cloransulam-methyl in the field. Leaching may play an important role in dissipation of cloransulam-methyl from the surface layer. So while cloransulam-methyl and its transformation products are likely to be only of slight persistence in the surface, the chemicals may become more persistent when leached into the subsurface. A label Groundwater Application Advisory is required and prospective groundwater monitoring studies are a condition of registration.
-- Due to concerns about the mobility and potential persistence of cloransulam-methyl and its structurally-similar, biologically active transformation products in the subsurface and ground water, and surface water the following label statements are required: Groundwater Advisory This chemical and its transformation products demonstrate the properties and characteristics associated with chemical detected in ground water. The use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in ground-water contamination. Surface Water Advisory This chemical can contaminate surface water through spray drift.
-- Under some conditions, this chemical, and/or its transformation products, may have a high potential for runoff into surface water (primarily via dissolution in run off water) for several weeks post-application. Vulnerable Conditions include poorly draining or wet soils with readily visible slopes toward adjacent surface waters, frequently flooded area, areas over-laying extremely shallow ground water, areas with in-field canals or ditches that drain to surface-water, areas not separated or adjacent surface waters with vegetated filter strips, and areas over-laying tile drainage systems that drain to surface water.
-- Prospective groundwater monitoring studies are a condition of registration. The Health Level in water for cloransulam-methyl and/or its acid, cloransulam, is 1000 ppb based on an RfD of 0.1 mg/kg bw/day, and a 10 kg child consuming 1 Liter of water of day. An Ecotoxicity Level will be determined, if necessary, upon receipt and review of the Tier II Phytotoxicity Studies required as a condition of registration. DowElanco agreed to exposure reductions if residues of cloransulam-methyl occur at or above 50% of the health level (500 ppb) in public and private wells. DowElanco will develop modeling scenarios for each of the prospective groundwater monitoring sites simulating conditions over a maximum of 100 years.
Ref: USEPA. Pesticide Fact sheet. Cloransulam-methyl. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration Date Issued: October 29, 1997.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/cloransulam.pdf

Cyfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 68359-37-5

Aquatic acute toxicity values for cyfluthrin include a rainbow trout 96-hour LC 50 of 0.68 ppb, a bluegill 96-hour LC 50 of 1.5 ppb, and a daphnid 48-hour EC 50 of 0.14 ppb. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing cyfluthrin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the available environmental toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for the protection of saltwater life have been proposed
(and were put into legislation in 1989) for the following chemicals used as mothproofing agents;
PCSDs; cyfluthrin; sulcofuron; flucofuron and permethrin... toxicity of cyfluthrin to saltwater life at
concentrations above the EQS of 0.001 mg l-1 in the water column.

Ref: UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation. Mothproofing chemicals.
http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/activities/water-quality/wq8_25.htm
or http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flucofuron.UK.Moth.water.htm

Cyhalothrin - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 68085-85-8

Highly toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and honeybees.
"Cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin are very toxic to fish in clean water under laboratory conditions. The available data, summarized in Table 6, demonstrate a similar high acute toxicity for both cold and warm water species of fish... Cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin have been shown to be toxic to honey-bees (Apis mellifera) in laboratory tests (Table 10)."
Ref: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 99: International Programme on Chemical Safety
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc99.htm#SubSectionNumber:6.2.2

Cyhalothrin, lambda - Insecticide - CAS No. 91465-08-6

WHO/IPCS evaluated lambda-cyhalothrin and classified it as "Moderately Hazardous" (Class II), on the basis of acute oral toxicity data (WHO 1999). The hazards and risks were summarized as follows: harmful; irritating to eyes, skin and upper respiratory system; ingestion could lead to neurological symptoms such as tremors and convulsions; a hazard of ingested liquid formulations is aspiration of the solvent into the lungs (chemical pneumonitis); very toxic to fish and honey bees.
... Lambda-cyhalothrin is highly toxic to fish, aquatic arthropods and honey-bees but WHO concluded that recommended use rates would not lead to levels presenting environmental hazards.
Ref: 1999. FAO Specifications and Evaluations for Plant Protection products. Lambda-Cyhalothrin.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Specs/pdf/Lam_cyha.pdf

Highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates.
"Cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin are very toxic to fish in clean water under laboratory conditions. The available data, summarized in Table 6, demonstrate a similar high acute toxicity for both cold and warm water species of fish... Cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin have been shown to be toxic to honey-bees (Apis mellifera) in laboratory tests (Table 10)."
Ref: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA 99: International Programme on Chemical Safety
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc99.htm#SubSectionNumber:6.2.2

Abstract: In Pakistan there is little data on environmental contamination of rural water sources by pesticides. This study evaluated pesticide contamination of groundwater in four intensive cotton growing districts. Water samples were collected from 37 rural open wells in the areas of Bahwalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab and analysed for eight pesticides which are mostly used. Information on types of pesticide used and distance to nearest pesticide mixing area and application areas was obtained for each site. From the eight pesticides analysed, six pesticides were detected in the water samples. Only cypermethrin and cabosulfan were not detected. The percentage of detection of bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, carbofuran, endosulfan, methyl parathion and monocrotophos was, respectively 13.5%, 5.4%, 59.4%, 8%, 5.4% and 35.1% in July; 16.2%, 13.55%, 43.2%, 8%, N.D. (not detected) and 24.3% in October. Maximum contamination levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were not exceeded. The study has shown the need for monitoring pesticide contamination in rural water resources, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in Pakistan. The conclusions and recommendations will be disseminated to senior decision makers in central and local governments, extension agents and farmers.
Ref: Pesticides in shallow groundwater of Bahawalnagar, Muzafargarh, D.G. Khan and Rajan Pur districts of Punjab, Pakistan; by Tariq MI, Afzal S, Hussain I. Environ Int. 2004 Jun;30(4):471-9.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15031006&query_hl=11

Abstract: The rainbow trout fish cell lines RTG-2 and RTL-W1 were used to determine the cytotoxic effects of the pesticides bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, quinalphos and chlorpyrifos. Cytotoxicity was measured by EROD and beta-Gal enzymatic activities, the neutral red (NR) uptake assay, and the FRAME KB protein (KBP) assay. The beta-Gal activity was unaffected by the pesticide exposure. The EROD activity was induced by cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (RTG-2 and RTL-W1) and by bifenthrin (RTL-W1). Dose dependent inhibition responses were observed for EROD activity in cells exposed to quinalphos (RTL-W1) and chlorpyrifos (RTG-2 and RTL-W1). RTL-W1 offered a better response for EROD induction. The EC50 values on EROD endpoint were more sensitive than NR and KBP. The acute fish toxicity of chlorpyrifos and quinalphos depends highly on the species; the species sensitivity distributions cover several orders of magnitude and the values obtained for EROS were within the lowest part of the reported ranges.
Ref: In vitro toxicity of selected pesticides on RTG-2 and RTL-W1 fish cell lines; by Babin MM, Tarazona JV. Environ Pollut. 2005 May;135(2):267-74.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15734586&query_hl=11

Abstract: The use of pyrethroid insecticides is increasing for agriculture, commercial pest control, and residential consumer use. In addition, there is a trend toward the use of newer and more potent compounds. Little is known about the toxicity of sediment-associated pyrethroid residues to aquatic organisms, yet recent work has shown they commonly are found in aquatic sediments in the heavily agricultural Central Valley of California, USA. Minimal data exist on the sensitivity of standard sediment toxicity testing species to pyrethroids, despite two or more decades of agricultural use of these compounds. Sediment concentrations causing acute toxicity and growth impairment to the amphipod Hyalella azteca were determined for six pyrethroids in three sediments, ranging from 1.1 to 6.5% organic carbon (OC). In order of decreasing toxicity of sediment-associated residues, the compounds tested were bifenthrin (average 10-d median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.18 microg/g OC), lambda-cyhalothrin (0.45 microg/g OC), deltamethrin (0.79 microg/g OC), esfenvalerate (0.89 microg/g OC), cyfluthrin (1.08 microg/g OC), and permethrin (4.87 microg/g OC). In a sediment containing about 1% OC, most pyrethroids, except permethrin, would be acutely toxic to H. azteca at concentrations of 2 to 10 ng/g dry weight, a concentration only slightly above current analytical detection limits. Growth typically was inhibited at concentrations below the LC50; animal biomass on average was 38% below controls when exposed to pyrethroid concentrations roughly one-third to one-half the LC50. Survival data are consistent with current theory that exposure occurs primarily via the interstitial water rather than the particulate phase. A reanalysis of previously reported field data using these toxicity data confirms that the compounds are exceeding concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species in many agriculture-dominated water bodies.
Ref: Use and toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides in the Central Valley, California, USA; by Amweg EL, Weston DP, Ureda NM. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 Apr;24(4):966-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15839572&query_hl=11

Dichlofluanid - Fungicide, Acaricide, Wood Preservative - CAS No.1085-98-9

Very high toxicity to aquatic organisms.
Ref: Examples of substances requiring particular attention. Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health. NATIONAL CHEMICALS INSPECTORATE. Order No 510 622. Second, revised edition, 1998.

Dichlofluanid is toxic to the freshwater algae Scenedesmus subspicatus which had 96 h EbC50 and ErC50 values of > 1 mg l -1 ; this was the highest concentration tested. Dichlofluanid is toxic to Daphnia magna, with an acute study resulting in a 48 h EC50 value of 0.42 mg ai l -1 and a NOEC of 0.07 mg l -1 . In a chronic study, Daphnia reproduction was inhibited by 51.7 % at 0.2 mg ai l -1 . Acute toxicity studies on the rainbow trout and blue gill sunfish resulted in 96 h LC50 values of 0.010 and 0.030 mg ai l -1 respectively, with NOECs of < 0.024 and < 0.0026 mg l -1 for bluegill sunfish and rainbow trout respectively. A study investigating the effects of dichlofluanid on carp resulted in a NOEC of 0.05 mg l -1 ... Although no marine data were submitted, dichlofluanid was shown to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The species most sensitive to chronic effects was Daphnia magna, with a 24 - d NOEC (reduced reproduction) of 40 µg ai l -1 .
Ref: January 2003 - Evaluation on: Booster biocides in antifouling products. Full review of Dichlofluanid. No. 206. Evaluation of Fully Approved or Provisionally Approved Products. Prepared by : The Health and Safety Executive Biocides & Pesticides Assessment Unit, Magdalen House, Stanley Precinct Bootle Merseyside L20 3QZ Available from: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX, UK.

Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in 1987. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This ban has led to an increase in alternative coating products containing the above biocides. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are: Irgarol 1051, diuron, Sea-nine 211, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, TCMS (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole], and zineb. Since 1993, several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European coastal environment as a result of their increased use. More recently, the presence of these biocides was also revealed in waters from Japan, United States, Singapore, Australia and Bermuda. This paper reviews the currently available data on the occurrence of these biocides in the aquatic environment. Some data dealing with the environmental fate, partitioning, behaviour and risk assessment of antifouling paint booster biocides are also reported in order to discuss the detected levels of contamination.
Ref: Worldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a review. I. K. Konstantinou, and T. A. Albanis. Environment International; Volume 30, Issue 2 , April 2004, Pages 235-248.

Dichlorodifluoromethane - (CFC 12) - Insecticide, Fungicide, Propellant; EPA List 2 Inert - CAS No. 75-71-8

US EPA: Class 1 Ozone-Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 100 years
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods.html

Environmental Contamination Concerns
A. Surface Water. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process with estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and a model lake being four hours and five days, respectively. Hydrolysis is not expected to occur. Bioconcentration in organisms is low to moderate; BCF (Bioconcentration factor: the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism to that in surrounding water) is from 11-86. Biodegradation, adsorption to sediment, and abiotic degradation are insignificant. Large volumes of Freon may sink to the bottom and gradually bubble up to the surface if the water is not too cold (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B).
B. Groundwater. In general, Freons that are spilled onto soil have the potential to leach into groundwater, because they do not bind well to soil (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Fully halogenated hydrocarbons such as Freons 11, 12, and 113 are very resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are likely to be persistent contaminants if they reach groundwater.
D. Soil. If Freon is spilled onto soil, a portion may evaporate from the surface and the remainder will leach downward into the soil. Mobility through the soil is expected to be moderate based on estimated Koc values. Freon does not bind well to soil, and leaching to groundwater is possible (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001B).
E. Air. Once released to air, Freon exists solely as a gas. In the atmosphere, fully halogenated Freons diffuse to the troposphere, where they are very stable and can be transported great distances. Wet deposition may result in some loss, but re-volatilization into the atmosphere is likely. The only degradation process is diffusion to the stratosphere, where photolytic destruction of Freons results in depletion of stratospheric ozone, thereby increasing the amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earthĠs surface (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B).

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised). Released November 7, 2003) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Many gases emitted as a result of industrial and agricultural activities can accumulate in the earth's atmosphere and ultimately contribute to alterations in the vertical distribution and concentrations of stratospheric ozone. Among the most important are those trace gases that have long residence times in the atmosphere. This allows accumulation in the troposphere and a gradual upward migration of the gases into the stratosphere where they contribute to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric and chemical processes involved are extremely complex. Trace gases of particular concern include certain long lived chlorofluorocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113. Since the transport of these gases to the stratosphere is slow, their residence times there are long, and the removal processes are slow, any effect on stratospheric ozone already seen is probably the result of anthropogenic emissions of these gases several decades ago. Those gases already in the atmosphere will continue to exert stratospheric ozone depletion effects well into the next century. /Chlorofluorocarbons/ [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.47 (1990)]
Ref: Dichlorodifluoromethane. TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/dichlorodifluorometh.toxnet.htm

-- The realization that certain chlorofluorocarbons can accumulate in the upper atmosphere and deplete the earth's ozone layer has had a major impact on chemicals like dichlorodifluoromethane which are used in large quantities and have the stability to reach the stratosphere. Uses such as propellants in aerosols which had accounted for about 75% of the release of dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane, the chemicals of greatest concern (refrigerants and foams accounted for about 14 and 12%, respectively), were banned in the US after Dec 15, 1978(1). Previously dichlorodifluoromethane was the principal propellant for non-food aerosols(1) and 60% of dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane production went into aerosols(1). [(1) Smart BE; Kirk Othmer's Encycl Chem Tech 3rd NY,NY: Wiley Interscience 10: 829-70 (1980)]
Ref: Dichlorodifluoromethane. TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/dichlorodifluorometh.toxnet.htm

Dichlorofluoromethane (CFC-21) - Propellant, EPA List 2 Inert - CAS No. 75-43-4

US EPA: Class II Ozone-Depleting Substance. All the class II substances and their isomers are regulated under the accelerated phaseout.
Ref:
http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods2.html

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are known to release chlorine radicals into the stratosphere. Chlorine radicals act as catalysts to reduce the net amount of stratospheric ozone.Stratospheric ozone shields the earth from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (i.e., 290 to 320 nanometers). Decreases in total column ozone will increase the percentage of UV-B radiation, especially at its most harmful wavelengths, reaching the earth's surface...Exposure to UV-B radiation has been implicated by laboratory and epidemiologic studies as a cause of two types of nonmelanoma skin cancers: squamous cell cancer and basal cell cancer. Studies predict that for every 1 percent increase in UV-B radiation, nonmelanoma skin cancer cases would increase by about 1 to 3 percent... Because this increased UV-B radiation can be reasonably anticipated to lead to cancer and other chronic human health effects and significant adverse environmental effects, EPA believes there is sufficient evidence for listing the following HCFCs [Dichlorofluoromethane was included] that are commercially viable on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA sections 313(d)(2)(B) and (C). EPA is proposing that the following HCFCs be added individually to EPCRA section 313:
Ref: USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Dichlorotetrafluoroethane (CFC-114) - Propellant; Former EPA List 2 Inert - CAS No. 76-14-2

US EPA: Class 1 Ozone-Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 300 years
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods.html

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons are known to release chlorine radicals into the stratosphere. Chlorine radicals act as catalysts to reduce the net amount of stratospheric ozone.Stratospheric ozone shields the earth from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (i.e., 290 to 320 nanometers). Decreases in total column ozone will increase the percentage of UV-B radiation, especially at its most harmful wavelengths, reaching the earth's surface...Exposure to UV-B radiation has been implicated by laboratory and epidemiologic studies as a cause of two types of nonmelanoma skin cancers: squamous cell cancer and basal cell cancer. Studies predict that for every 1 percent increase in UV-B radiation, nonmelanoma skin cancer cases would increase by about 1 to 3 percent... Because this increased UV-B radiation can be reasonably anticipated to lead to cancer and other chronic human health effects and significant adverse environmental effects, EPA believes there is sufficient evidence for listing the following HCFCs [Dichlorofluoromethane was included] that are commercially viable on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA sections 313(d)(2)(B) and (C). EPA is proposing that the following HCFCs be added individually to EPCRA section 313:
Ref: USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Diflovidazin - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 162320-67-4

Very toxic to aquatic organisms
Ref: Diflovidazin. FAO Specifications and Evaluations for Agricultural pesticides.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. 2003.
Species Test Results
Daphnia magna Acute toxicity EC50 = 0.23 mg/l (24h)
EC = 0.14 mg/l (48h)
Daphnia magna Reproduction toxicity 7 day EC50 = 0.38 mg/l
14 day EC50 = 1.22 mg/l
21 day EC = 0.73 mg/l

Diflubenzuron - Chemosterilant, Insecticide - CAS No. 35367-38-5

Measured aquatic acute toxicity data for diflubenzuron include a 48-hour LC 50 of 4.55 ppb for daphnids. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing diflubenzuron on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the environmental toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993).
As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Diflufenican - Herbicide - CAS No. 83164-33-4

-- Risk to mammals. Since new environmental fate and behaviour data have reported that diflufenican persists in the soil, there may be an increased risk of secondary poisoning to small mammals feeding on contaminated earthworms. Therefore, the risk of secondary poisoning to small earthworm eating mammals will be addressed using the available mammalian toxicity data.
... highly persistent in the soil with dissipation DT50 values of 311 to 733 days, as well as in the water body with little hydrolysis over a range of pH levels at 22C. This could lead to prolonged contamination of water due to run-off of soil containing residues and through direct contamination of water by overspray or spray drift (page 43).
Ref: September 1995. Evaluation on Diflufenican. Evaluation of fully approved or provisionally approved products. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX, UK.
http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/evallist_alphabet.htm

Diflufenzopyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 109293-97-2

A metabolite of diflufenzopyr known as M9: 8-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyridazine-2,5(1H, 6H)-dione
• Results of biotransformation studies using a loam soil under aerobic conditions indicate that diflufenzopyr will be non persistent, and transformation product M9 will be persistent (page 33)
• Results of biotransformation studies in a flooded sandy loam soil with pond water under anaerobic conditions indicate that diflufenzopyr is expected to be slightly persistent under anaerobic aquatic conditions. Of the two major transformation products that were formed, M1 was transient and M9 has potential for persistence in water and sediment under anaerobic conditions. (page 33)
• For biotic transformation in the terrestrial environment, diflufenzopyr was not persistent under aerobic soil conditions and transformation product M9 was persistent (page 37)
• For biotic transformation in the aquatic environment, diflufenzopyr was slightly persistent under aerobic aquatic conditions (McEwan and Stephenson 1979). Major transient transformation products M1 and M9 were detected at a maximum of 16% of the applied adioactivity, and were not expected to persist in the aquatic environment. Under anaerobic aquatic conditions, diflufenzopyr was slightly persistent (McEwan and Stephenson 1979). Of the two major transformation products that were formed, M1 was transient and M9 persisted in water. (page 38)
Ref: March 4, 2005 - DISTINCT. Proposed Regulatory Decision Document PRDD2005-01. Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Ottawa, Canada. The herbicide Distinct contains 20% diflufenzopyr (109293-97-2) and 50% dicamba

Dimefox - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 115-26-4

Toxic to bees. [Hartley, D. and H. Kidd (eds.). The Agrochemicals Handbook. Old Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom: Royal Society of Chemistry/Unwin Brothers Ltd., 1983.,p. A150/OCT 83]
Ref: Dimefox: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Base.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/dimefox.toxnet.hsdb.htm

Dinitramine - Herbicide - CAS No. 29091-05-2

Fish
Common, mirror, colored, carp Cyprinus carpio Moderately Toxic
Northern pike Esox lucius Highly Toxic
Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Moderately Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus Moderately Toxic
Coho salmon,silver salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Moderately Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Highly Toxic
Yellow perch Perca flavescens Highly Toxic
Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Moderately Toxic
Brown trout Salmo trutta Moderately Toxic
Lake trout, siscowet Salvelinus namaycush Moderately Toxic
Ref: Dinitramine: from Pesticide Action Network,
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/PCW/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?CAS_No=29091-05-2&Rec_Id=PC33330&Taxa_Group=Fish


Dithiopyr - Herbicide -
CAS No.
97886-45-8

Fish
Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus Moderately Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus Highly Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Highly Toxic
Zooplankton
Opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia Highly Toxic
Ref: Dithiopyr. Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Dithiopyr on All Taxa Groups. PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33292

Epoxiconazole - Fungicide - CAS No. 135319-73-2 (formerly 106325-08-0)

"Epoxyconazole 106325-08-0 Banned. Low degradability, toxic to water-living organisms and endocrine effects. 1997."
Definition: "Banned. A substance which for health or environmental reasons by an authority decision is either no longer approved for any area of application, or for which an approval or registration has been denied from the first instance."

Ref: Euopean Commission. Appendix 5. Substances which may not be included as active ingredients in approved pesticide products, Chapter 15, Section 2, subsection one.
http://www.kemi.se/lagar_eng/pdf/app5_8.pdf

Ethalfluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 55283-68-6

Ecological Effects
-- ... Technical ethalfluralin is highly to very highly toxic to rainbow trout and bluegill sunfish. The formulated product also is highly toxic to bluegill sunfish. Since ethalfluralin persists in soils and is very highly toxic to fish, an acute toxicity sediment study was submitted. This study shows that ethalfluralin released from soil sediments can be lethal to sunfish when concentrations in water reach 17 to 58 parts per billion (ppb). In an early life stage toxicity test with freshwater fish, ethalfluralin affected larval length and weight in trout. In invertebrate toxicity studies, technical ethalfluralin is very highly toxic and the formulated product is slightly toxic to Daphnia magna on an acute basis. In a life cycle study using daphnids, reproduction was the most sensitive parameter affected. Ethalfluralin is highly toxic to marine/estuarine fish, mollusks, and shrimp on an acute basis...
Ecological Effects Risk Assessment
-- ... Ground applications of ethalfluralin could result in potential risks to aquatic organisms from runoff and drift. Although neither high acute risk nor chronic risk to aquatic organisms is anticipated, the restricted use trigger has been exceeded for freshwater organisms, and endangered species triggers are exceeded for freshwater organisms and estuarine/marine invertebrates.
-- Endangered species levels of concern are exceeded for freshwater organisms and estuarine/marine invertebrates from unincorporated applications; for freshwater fish from incorporated applications; and for plants growing in wet areas receiving channelized runoff from treated sites (from unincorporated applications). Limitations may be imposed on the use of ethalfluralin to protect threatened and endangered species when EPA implements the Endangered Species Protection Program, later in 1995.
Ref: US EPA. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Ethalfluralin. March 1995.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/ethalfluralin.red.long.pdf

Etoxazole - Miticide, Ovicide - CAS No. 153233-91-1

Ecological Characteristics/Risk... etoxazole is considered very highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates in acute testing. Acute toxicity tests of etoxazole with freshwater fish are considered invalid for reasons including solubility problems and failure to use flow-through test methods, among others. Additional studies are required to characterize acute toxicity on freshwater fish. As with avian risk, however, significant exposure to aquatic, non-target organisms is not expected to occur. Therefore, chronic testing is not required.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. August 2002.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/etoxazole.pdf
 
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