Environ Geochem Health. 2007 Feb
8; [Epub ahead of print]
Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient
of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil).
Mirlean N, Roisenberg A.
Department of Geosciences, FURG, Av. Italia, km-08, Campus Carreiros,
Rio Grande, 96201-900, RS, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil
and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate fertilizer
factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride
in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l(-1) and 5 mg l(-1),
respectively, and were dependent on pH. The
fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial
horizon of soil in quantities comparable to those in the manufactured
end-products-up to 23,000 mg kg(-1). Fluoride distribution
in the environment is controlled by physical-chemical parameters
of emission, rain intensity and soil properties. The highest fluoride
concentrations were registered at a close distance of up to 2
km from the factory. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater
resembled the same distribution in rainwater due to the high permeability
of the local soils. Fluoride penetration to the groundwater also
depended on the type of vegetation cover. The groundwater in woodland
areas was less affected by contamination of fluoride than in the
grassland areas, most probably because of the influence of eucalyptus
throughfall, which increases the pH of wet precipitates.
PMID: 17288010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007 Jan;4(1):17-25.
Chemical characteristics of aerosol mists in phosphate
fertilizer manufacturing facilities.
Hsu YM, Wu CY, Lundgren DA, Nall JW, Birky BK.
Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.
Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program
(NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified
as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was
conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and
concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations
as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using
dichotomous samplers. The locations were selected where sulfuric
acid mist may potentially exist, including sulfuric acid pump
tank areas, belt or rotating table phosphoric acid filter floors,
sulfuric acid truck loading/unloading stations, phosphoric acid
production reactors (attack tanks), and a concentrated fertilizer
granulator during scrubbing with a weak sulfuric acid mixture.
An ion chromatography system was used to analyze sulfate and other
water soluble ion species. In general,
sulfate, fluoride, ammonium, and phosphate were the major species
in the fertilizer facilities. For the rotating table/belt
phosphoric acid filter floor, phosphate and fluoride were the
dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentrations were
170 and 106 microg/m3, respectively.
For the attack tank, fluoride was the dominant species for PM10,
and the maximum concentration was 462 microg/m3. At the
sulfuric acid pump tank, sulfate was the dominant species, and
the maximum PM10 sulfate concentration was 181 microg/m3. The
concentration of PM10 sulfate including ammonium sulfate, calcium
sulfate, and sulfuric acid were lower than 0.2 mg/m3 at all locations.
The aerosols at the filter floor and the attack tank were acidic.
The coarse mode aerosol at the sulfuric acid pump tank (an outdoor
location) was acidic, whereas the fine mode aerosol was neutral
PMID: 17162477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Jan 2;581(1):168-73.
Epub 2006 Aug 7.
On-line flow injection solid sample introduction, leaching
and potentiometric determination of fluoride in phosphate rock.
Department of Chemistry, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 150459,
Postal Code 13115, Zarka, Jordan. email@example.com <firstname.lastname@example.org>
A flow injection method with on-line solid sample dissolution
was developed for the determination of fluoride in phosphate rock.
The fluoride was selectively leached (98-102.4 % recovery) from
a 50-mg powdered phosphate rock sample with 0.50 M citric acid.
Using the zone sampling technique the fluoride in the buffered
leachate was determined by injecting 87 muL into the carrier stream
using a fluoride ion-selective electrode detector. The sensing
element of the electrode was housed in a home-made sleeve-type
flow-through cell. On-line solid sample digestion with 0.50 M
citric acid at 55 degrees C resulted in minimum dissolution of
interfering iron and aluminum ions with improved accuracy and
calibration linearity. The incorporation of relatively high level
of fluoride in the carrier stream (40 microg mL(-1)) facilitated
the determination of high levels of fluoride in phosphate rock
(up to 4.1%) with out the need for excessive on-line dilution.
The optimized flow system was applied for the determination of
fluoride in phosphate rocks samples and a reference material at
a rate of nine samples per hour with a relative standard deviation
(n=5) of 2.95-4.0 %. Comparison of the proposed flow injection
method with the standard method, which involves steam distillation
from sulfuric acid solution and manual titration with thorium
nitrate, showed no evidence of bias at the 95% confidence level.
PMID: 17386441 [PubMed - in process]
Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2006 Nov;27(11):2279-82.
[Sequential extraction experiments applied to study chemical
mobility of fluorine in rocks]
[Article in Chinese]
Xu LR, Liang HD, Luo KL, Feng FJ, Tan JA.
Key Laboratory of Coal Resources, Ministry of Education, China
University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083, China.
Sequential extraction experiments were used to study the chemical
mobility of fluorine in rocks. The results
show that there are quite big differences in chemical mobility
of fluorine in rocks of different types. Fluorine in carbonate
rock is very active, in which the proportion of leachable fluorine
is generally more than 75%. Fluorine in black rocks of Lower Cambrian
is closely related to their different metamorphosed grades, in
which fluorine in black carbonaceous slate with higher metamorphosed
grade mostly has lower leachability than black shale and black
siliceous rock. Generally speaking, the leachable percentage of
fluorine is high in phosphorite rocks and low in phyllite. The
leachable fluorine in diabase is in direct proportion to its fluorine
concentration. There are some differences in chemical mobility
of fluorine in stone coal of different ages. Fluorine in stone
coal of Silurian has higher leachability than stone coal of Cambrian.
PMID: 17326440 [PubMed - in process]
Environ Monit Assess
patterns of nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride
concentrations in the Woodbine Aquifer
of north-central Texas.
PF, Sanmanee S.
Department of Geography and Environmental Science Program, University
of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA. email@example.com
A geographic information system was used to map and analyze nitrate,
chloride, sulfate, and fluoride concentrations in 110 wells tapping
the Woodbine Aquifer. The study area, covering nine counties in
north-central Texas, includes large percentages
of both urban and agricultural land uses. Land use maps
were compared with solute concentration data, and statistics were
applied to detect associations between solutes, well depth, and
land use. Anthropogenic sources such as
fertilizer applications and natural sources such as gypsum,
lignite, and clay deposits controlled
nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations, each inversely
correlated with well depth. However, only one nitrate observation--from
a shallow well in the aquifer's outcrop zone--surpassed the maximum
contaminant level (MCL) of 44.3 mg L(-1). By comparison, nearly
half of the sulfate and several of the chloride observations surpassed
the MCL of 250 mg L(-1) for each of those ions. Volcanic
ash deposits influenced fluoride concentrations, which directly
correlated with well depth. There were no statistically
significant associations between solute concentrations and land
use. Low recharge rates and confining layers have mitigated anthropogenic
impacts on solute levels in the aquifer.
PMID: 12602633 [PubMed - in process
- World Health Organization, Geneva.
Environmental Health Criteria 227.
224 page report was released on August 8, 2002.
Excerpt: The concentration of fluoride in food products is not
significantly increased by the addition
of superphosphate fertilizers, which contain significant concentrations
of fluoride (1-3%) as impurities, to agricultural soil,
due to the generally low transfer coefficient from soil to plant
material. However, a recent study suggests that, given
the right soil conditions and application of sufficient fluoride
as an impurity in phosphate fertilizers to soils, plant uptake
of fluoride can be increased... Aluminium smelters, brickworks,
phosphorus plants and fertilizer and fibreglass plants have all
been shown to be sources of fluoride that are correlated with
damage to local plant communities... there is a potential risk
from fluoride-contaminated pasture and soil ingestion due to the
long-term use of phosphate fertilizers containing
fluoride as an impurity.
Full report available at: http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/canada.2001.inorganic.f.pdf
2001 - Scientific Supporting Document.
Ecosystem Health: Science-based Solutions Report No. 1-1. National
Guidelines and Standards Office, Environmental Quality Branch.
Environment Canada. Ottawa. Cat.
no. Enl-34/3-2001E. August, 2001.
Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life: Inorganic
fluorides act as enzyme inhibitors and have wide-ranging effects.
Adverse effects observed in aquatic organisms include: changes
in blood composition; reduced size and growth; slowed embryonic
and developmental life stage; impaired reproduction; and abnormal
or impaired behavior (e.g., fish migration). Inorganic
fluorides are also neurotoxic, causing adverse effects on the
central nervous system. Inorganic fluoride toxicity is negatively
correlated with water hardness (calcium) and positively corelated
Sources. In Canada, the primary anthropogenic
emission sources of inorganic fluorides are phosphate fertiliser
production (34.6%), and aluminum smelting operations (35.2%).
Other important emission sources include coal burning facilities,
oil refining, steel production, chemical producers, primary copper
and nickel production, clay production, magnesium smelting, lead
and zinc smelting, glass and enamel making, brick and ceramic
manufacturing, production of glues and adhesives, fluoridation
of drinking water, fluoride-containing pesticides, waste from
sewage sludge, and the production of uranium trifluoriide (UF3)
and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) for the nuclear electric industry
Environ Pollut 2001;115(2):275-82
accumulation in pasture forages and
soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilisers.
P, Hedley MJ, Wallace GC, Roberts AH.
Fertilizer and Lime Research Center, Institute of Natural Resources,
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ingestion of soils with high fluoride
(F) concentration may cause chronic
fluorosis in grazing animals. Analysis of New Zealand pasture
soils with long-term phosphorus (P) fertilisation histories showed
that total surface soil (0-75 mm depth) F concentration increased
up to 217-454 mg kg-1 with P fertiliser application. One-third
to two-thirds of F applied in fertilisers
resides in the top 75 mm soil depth. Pasture forage accumulation
of F was low, and therefore,
F intake by grazing animals through pasture consumption
is expected to be much lower than F intake
by soil ingestion. Ten annual applications of single superphosphate
(30 and 60 kg P ha-1 year-1) to a Pallic Soil (Aeric Fragiaqualf)
significantly increased total F and
labile F (0.01 M CaCl2 extract) concentrations
to 200 and 120 mm depths, respectively, of the 300 mm depth investigated.
The mobility of F in the soil profile
was similar to two other elements, P and cadmium derived from
PMID: 11706800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Pollut 2001;112(3):321-7
of alkaline dust deposits from phosphate fertilizer production
on microbial biomass and enzyme activities in grassland soils.
U, Gunther T.
Biologisch-Pharmazeutische Fakultat, Institut fur Mikrobiologie,
Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat Jena, Philosophenweg 12, D-07743
Jena, Germany. email@example.com
Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and soil enzyme activities were
measured at 12 sites along a gradient of former emissions of phosphate
fertilizer production. Seven years after close down of operation,
still moderate to high total concentrations of the dust constituents
cadmium (up to 33 mg kg-1 dw), fluoride
(5300 mg kg-1 dw) and phosphorous
(120,000 mg kg-1 dw) were found in topsoils of contaminated sites.
Accumulation of partially decomposed plant matter, soil respiration
and dehydrogenase activity paralleled the increase of dust deposits,
whereas microbial biomass decreased along the gradient. A significant
negative correlation was obtained between the Cmic-to-Corg-ratio
and the concentration of contaminants. In contrast, the Cmic-specific
respiration (qCO2) and the dehydrogenase activity-to-Cmic-ratio
were positively correlated. The low Cmic-values and the enhanced
activities in the contaminated soils are suggested as a response
of microbial communities to environmental stress or ecosystem
disturbances. The apparently missing detrimental effects of the
alkaline deposits on soil microbial activities are probably due
to the low bioavailability of contaminants in the calcareous soil.
PMID: 11291438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sci Total Environ 2000
fluorosis in cattle and buffalo around Udaipur, India.
RC, Dwivedi SK, Bhardwaj B, Swarup D.
Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar,
Signs of dental discolouration, difficulty in mastication, bony
lesions, lameness, debility and mortality in domesticated animals,
reared around superphosphate fertiliser plants located approximately
15 km north of Udaipur, Rajasthan prompted us to investigate for
the occurrence of fluorosis. Out of 166 animals clinically examined,
the prevalence rate was 17.4% (4/23) in calves below 1 year of
age, 37.2% (16/43) in cattle between 1 and 3 years, 61.3% (46/75)
in cattle above 3 years and 72% (18/25) in buffalo above 1 year.
Dental fluorosis was common in buffalo compared to cattle of all
the age groups. Fluoride levels in
fodder and water, consumed by the animals were much higher than
the recommended permissible limit. Mean fluoride
concentrations in serum and urine were 1.53 +/- 1.27 and 26.4
+/- 6.17 mg l(-1) in calves below 1 year of age, 0.56 +/- 0.17
and 26.2 +/- 3.86 mg l(-1) in cattle of 1-3 years, 0.49 +/- 1.13
and 27.5 +/- 4.63 mg l(-1) in cattle above 3 years and 0.60 +/-
0.07 and 28.6 +/- 4.73 mg l(-1) in buffalo over 1 year, respectively.
The values were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than those
of control animals kept over a 15-km distance from the factories.
Fluoride concentrations in the environmental
sample collected from the affected locality were 534.4 +/- 74.9
mg kg(-1) in fodder, 1.19 +/- 0.29 mg l(-1) in pond water and
0.479 +/- 0.351 mg l(-1) in tube well water.
It was concluded that the consumption of fodder and water contaminated
by the fumes and dusts emitting from superphosphate fertiliser
plants resulted in the development of chronic fluorotic lesions
in cattle and buffalo.
PMID: 10843338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Full report available at: http://www.acresusa.com/toolbox/reprints/phosphate-fluoride%20link_jun00.pdf
2000 - Acres USA. Vol. 30, No. 6
- Page 17
Phosphate-Fluoride Link. An analysis of substance abuse in conventional
Saf 2000 Mar;45(3):260-5
method for evaluation of noxiousness of inorganic pollutants in
industrial wastes: calculation of a safety index for monitoring
F, Villaescusa I, Woo NY, Soleilhavoup JP, Murat JC.
Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Pollution, Faculte de Medecine,
Universite Paul Sabatier, 37 allees Jules Guesde, Toulouse, 31073,
This article deals with a biological test of safety applicable
to industrial wastes. The test is based on the measurement of
the growth rate of cultured human cells exposed to waste samples
with different dilutions. As a first approach, 15 chemicals in
which discharge concentrations are submitted to sanitary regulations
were tested one by one. For Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Ag, Co, Mg, sulfates,
and fluorides, it was possible to
detect concentrations that are below the allowed limit. For Hg,
Al, As(V), Cr(III), Fe, and Pb, the concentrations that affect
cell growth are higher than the allowed limit. Tests were also
performed using actual samples (liquid effluent from a laundry
and sludge from waste-water treatment plants). Results indicate
that, in contrast to chemical analyses, the current biological
test has the advantage of providing an indication of global toxicity,
integrating all substances and factors that can be harmful to
life processes. From the sludge data and the observed threshold
of concentration that does not affect cell growth, a numeric safety
index has been calculated which indicates
the amount of sludge that could be dispersed, as a fertilizer,
per hectare of agricultural soil. Such an index could be
conveniently used for designing sewage sludge disposal strategies.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
PMID: 10702345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Full report available at: http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/fertilizer.pdf
1999. Report No. EPA 747-R-98-003. 393 pages.
REPORT ON FERTILIZER USE, CONTAMINANTS AND REGULATIONS
by BATTELLE for the National Program
Chemicals Division Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D.C. 20460. Contract
Int Arch Occup Environ
Health 1998 Sep;71 Suppl:S97-100
of the working-environment harmful factors and health risk of
workers in a nitrogen fertilizer plant.
Z, Todorova K, Anastasova N, Chuturkova R, Yaneva A, Sabeva Y.
Varna Branch of National Center of Hygiene Medical Ecology and
Nutrition, HEI Varna, Bulgaria.
The authors examined the influence of harmful factors of the working
environment such as: microclimate, dust, noise, vibrations, and
chemical noxes such as: ammonia, nitric oxides, hydrogen fluoride
and gaseous fluorides, on the health
status of workers involved in the production of fertilizers and
ammonia in a nitrogen fertilizer plant. Various biochemical examinations
of 158 workers were carried out. The morbidity rate for 1993-1995
was also studied. The biochemical monitoring indicated a statistically
significant dependence of the abnormalities of the biochemical
parameters on the professional exposure. The metabolic disturbances
were proved by serum creatinine and urea elevations and rising
urinary ammonia concentrations, by disturbances of the liver function
consisting in an enhanced transaminase activity, and by disorders
of the mineral metabolism presented with an increased urinary
phosphorus excretion at a low serum phosphorus level as well as
with increased serum and urinary fluorine
concentrations. The temporarily registered
morbidity rate showed a tendency towards an increase in diseases
of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system.
PMID: 9827892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Aust Vet J 1998
gypsum fertiliser ingestion as a significant contributor
to a multifactorial cattle mortality.
CA, Ottaway SJ.
NSW Agriculture, Orange Agricultural Institute, New South Wales.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of claims that heavy metal contamination
from an open-cut mine caused the death of 226 cattle on a nearby
farm over a period of 18 months, and to investigate other possible
PROCEDURE: A retrospective assessment of previous investigations
combined with additional chemical analyses.
RESULTS: Extensive chemical analyses produced no evidence of heavy
metal contamination associated with the mine. Analysis of bones
indicated exposure to fluoride in
greater than normal amounts. The main source of fluoride
seems to have been gypsum that was included in a feed supplement
and also ingested from fertiliser dumps on paddocks. The gypsum
itself may have contributed significantly to the ill health. Other
factors probably affected some classes of animals, notably the
CONCLUSIONS: What originally seemed to be a disease problem of
single aetiology probably was an expression of interacting multifactorial
causes. This investigation has highlighted
the potential toxicity of gypsum to livestock and the need for
further studies to establish its basis.
PMID: 9741727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
From Toxline at Toxnet
CANADIAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE; 78 (2). 1998.
Attenuation of cadmium, fluoride and uranium
in phosphogypsum process water by calcareous soil.
POULSEN L, DUDAS MJ
Dep. Renewable Resources, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3,
Concerns about contaminant migration from phosphogypsum (PG)
repositories prompted the present study. A sequential batch procedure,
in which acidic process water (PW) from a phosphate fertilizer
plant was reacted with samples of a calcareous till, was employed
to determine the attenuation of environmentally sensitive elements
by reaction with typical subsoils at PG waste repositories. PW
leachates were monitored for total soluble
fluoride (F) and pH during the experiment. Soil samples
were analyzed for pH, F, cadmium (Cd), uranium (U), and calcium
carbonate (CaCO3) equivalent at the end of the study. Leachate
pH increased from <2 to 5.5 where it stabilized; soil pH stabilized
at 6.5. Fluoride solution concentrations
were reduced within regulatory limits. Soils accumulated Cd, F,
and U in excess of background concentrations (up to 99x, 83x,
and 12.5x, respectively). Soil carbonates persisted after
leachate was buffered near pH 4.5, and played a major role in
Cd attenu [abstract truncated]
Int Arch Occup Environ
impairment among children living in the vicinity of a fertilizer
M, Saric M.
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb,
The study included 162 second-grade children (85 boys and 77 girls)
aged 8-9 years, attending two schools in an area with a fertilizer
production plant, and 59 second-graders of the same age (32 boys
and 27 girls) from a small neighbouring town located 20 km west
of the plant, without any particular source of pollution. During
the period from December 1990 to May 1991 the incidence of acute
respiratory diseases was surveyed in children and their family
members, and forced expiratory volumes were measured in selected
second-graders in December 1990 and April 1991. In the area with
the fertilizer plant as well as in the compared area ammonia,
hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen dioxide,
total suspended particulate matter and smoke were measured daily
in ambient air and inside the school buildings. The mean concentrations
of pollutants during the study period were below the recommended
limits, with only a few exceptions, but daily fluctuations, particularly
of ammonia and hydrogen fluoride
in the area around the plant happened to exceed these values.
The observed differences in the levels of air pollution correlated
to some extent with the health parameters followed up during the
study period. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases corresponded
to the registered differences in the exposure to measured pollutants.
Forced expiratory volume values in the compared groups of children
did not consistently reflect the differences in exposure levels.
PMID: 9352334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig
of Poznan inhabitants to fluorides. II. Fluorides
in urine and hair of school children]
[Article in Polish]
Oporowska-Moszyk K, Senczuk W.
Zaklad Toksykologii, Akademia Medyczna w Poznaniu.
In view of the plans of fresh water fluoridation in Poznan the
necessity arose of obtaining of information about the exposure
to fluoride compounds. The reported study
was carried out in Poznan and environs. Urine and hair samples
of children were obtained. The determinations were done with a
ion- selective electrode. The mean fluoride concentrations in
urine were between 0.3 and 0.9 mg F-/dm3. The concentration in
hair was 2.2 mg F-/g in Poznan and 3.3 mg F-/g in Lubon. These
values were, however, not exceeding the acceptable ones. In Lubon
the concentrations of fluorides in hair was 50% higher
than in Poznan. The authors believe that
the possible cause was Fertilizer Chemical Works in that location.
Publication Types: Clinical Trial
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Soil Res 1996 34: 1Ð54
the behaviour and environmental impact of contaminants in fertilizers.
MJ, Tiller KG, Naidu R, & Stevens DP
J Am Vet Med Assoc
1993 Oct 15;203(8):1176-7
superphosphate fertilizer poisoning in pregnant ewes.
Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University
of California, Davis 95616.
Consumption of superphosphate fertilizer by 200 pregnant ewes
resulted in signs of toxicosis in 41 ewes, 14 of which died. Predominant
clinical signs were marked teeth grinding, voluminous diarrhea,
CNS depression, apparent blindness, and a stiff-legged atactic
gait. Biochemical abnormalities were hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia,
and a high anion gap. The primary toxic
principal in superphosphate fertilizers is the fluorine contaminant;
however, calcium pyrophosphate and calcium orthophosphate also
contribute to toxicosis, which results in acute proximal renal
tubular necrosis. Voluntary consumption of superphosphate fertilizer
in well-fed livestock is not expected, and was believed to be
related to the lack of availability of salt.
PMID: 8244868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
SOIL SCI SOC AM J;
56 (3). 1992. 961-966.
as affected by suspension fertilizers containing fluorosilicic
FJ, COPELAND JP, DILLARD EF, BURNELL JR
Agric. Res. Dep., Natl.
Fertilizer Environmental Res. Cent., Tenn. Valley Auth., Muscle
Shoals, Ala. 35660-1010.
acid (H2SiF6) is a suggested additive to suspension fertilizers
produced from monoammonium phosphate (MAP) to prevent gelling
of the suspension. A greenhouse study was conducted to
determine if F added to soil via P suspension fertilizers was
detrimental to corn (Zea mays L.) growth. The F sources consisted
of reagent-grade NH4F, NH4SiF6, and three P suspension fertilizers.
Equilibria constants and measurements with a F- ion selective
electrode (ISE) indicated SiF62- dissociates to component in soils.
At an initial soil pH of 5.8, an 11% dry-matter weight decrease
was observed when a suspension fertilizer with 89 g F kg-1 was
added to soil to supply a rate of 170 mg F kg-1 soil. An adequate
level of F in P suspension fertilizers is between 16 and 23 g
kg-1 and this level did not affect corn dry-matter weight with
application rates | 32 mg F kg-1 soil. At high soil F-applications
rates from 30 to 170 mg F kg-1 soil, F was not suspected to be
the phytotoxic a [abstract truncated]
Environ Pollut. 1991;69(1):17-23.
Studies on the progeny of rice plants grown
at an unpolluted and polluted site.
Anbazhagan M, Bhagwat KA.
Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, M.S. University
of Baroda, Baroda 390 002, India.
Oryza sativa L. cv. GR3 was grown near to a fertilizer plant
and the growth of its seed progeny was evaluated at sites near
to, and distant from, the fertilizer plant. The grain yield was
reduced in plants grown at the polluted site, with reduced panicle
length and increased sterility index. This decrease in grain yield
was higher in the progeny plants than in the normal polluted plants.
The polluted progeny grown at a control site showed a normal yield,
but an increased sterility index. Accumulation
of total sulphur and fluoride was higher in the leaves of polluted
rice plants. It was evident that tolerance to air pollution was
reduced in the progeny plants due to an additional dosage of sulphur
and fluoride pollutants and to unfavourable climatic factors.
Further, pollution effects were not carried over in progeny
plants when grown in an unpolluted environment.
PMID: 15092167 [PubMed]
Gig Tr Prof Zabol
conditions and health-related measures in the processing of waste
products of phosphorus-containing mineral
[Article in Russian]
Rumiantsev GI, Khodykina TM, Arkhangel'skii
VI, Nesterenko LN.
In the processing of the waste products of phosphorus containing
fertilizer production, several major health-related factors were
identified depending on the industrial site's peculiarities: unfavourable
microclimate conditions (both cold and heat), relative temperature
differences, noise and vibration caused by the equipment, semi-product's,
additives' and finished product's dusts,
fluorine- and phosphorus-containing substances' affects
and poor illumination. The proposed data were used for health-related
improvements in the occupational conditions.
PMID: 1655585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Czas Stomatol 1990
surfaces in workers exposed to fluorides]
[Article in Polish]
Szajewska-Jarzynka W, Kosmider K, Smilgin
Imprint preparations were taken by Eifinger's method from the
labial surfaces of upper incisors from 65 workers working at least
since 10 years at the production of phosphate
fertilizers, and from 33 subjects without occupational
exposure to any industrial harmful agents, at least in the last
10 years. Differences were noted in the dental imprints in subjects
exposed to fluorides in relation
to controls in microscopic examinations.
PMID: 1966560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Toxline at Toxnet
Br J Ind Med 1990
in the urine, hair, and nails of phosphate
W, Krechniak J.
Department of Toxicology, Medical Academy in Gdansk, Poland.
This study evaluated the exposure of fertilizer manufacturing
workers employed on different posts and exposed to fluorine (7782414)
compounds. Exposure was divided into high (mean hydrogen-fluoride
(7664393) (HF) concentration ranged from 0.5 to 3.0mg/m3), medium
(mean HF concentrations were below 0.5 mg/m3), and low exposure.
Fluoride concentrations were determined in the urine, hair, and
nails of 106 employees (88 men and 28 women). The
fluoride content examined for workers in the highest exposure
group employed in a phosphate fertilizer facility were higher
than comparisons with the highest increase in fluoride content
found in hair. In highly exposed workers the results exceeded
even more than a hundred fold the normal value. Positive
correlations were found between group means for fluoride concentrations
between urine and hair, hair and nails, as well as urine and nails.
Individual values in the total population gave a positive correlation
only for concentrations in urine and nails. No correlation was
found between the period of employment and the fluoride content
in indicator media.
From Toxline at Toxnet
FLUORIDE; 23 (3). 1990. 129-136.
Exposure to fluorides in the French phosphate
HERY M, DIEBOLD F, HUBERT G, GERBER JM,
Inst. Natl. Recherche Securite, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy,
Exposure to fluorides was assessed in seven French fertilizer-production
plants. Results show that the short-term limit value of hydrogen
fluoride is often exceeded and that long-term values are generally
respected, except in the case of superphosphate
production, where almost fifty percent of sampling results are
over limit values.
From Toxline at Toxnet
NORW J AGRIC SCI; 4 (3). 1990. 239-250.
Cadmium and fluoride uptake by oats and
rape from phosphate fertilizers in two different soils: Cadmium
and fluoride uptake by plants from phosphorus fertilizers.
Agricultural University Norway, Dep. Soil Sciences, P.O. Box
28, N-1432 As-NLH, Norw.
The effects of rates and sources of phosphate fertilizers on
the uptake of cadmium (Cd) and fluoride (F) by oats (Avena sativa
L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown in loam and peat soils
were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. NPK fertilizers
containing low (2.6 mg kg-1) and high (40 mg kg-1) Cd and single
superphosphate (SSP) containing 15 mg Cd kg-1 at rates ranging
from 30 to 180 mg P kg-1 soil were used as P fertilizers. While
grain and straw yields of both oats and rape were generally unaffected
by P fertilization, the P concentration in grain and straw tended
to increase with increased rates of P fertilization. At higher
rates of high Cd NPK and SSP, the concentration of Cd in the grain
and straw of oats and rape was generally increased, and more so
in the peat soil than in the loam soil. In the peat soil, Cd in
the grain increased from 0.8 mg kg-1 in the control to 0.21 mg
kg-1 at the highest rate of SSP in the first year. The corresponding
values in the [abstract truncated]