Altered Sex Ratio
altered sex ratio of Sea Lamprey from male to female .
is over 50 times more toxic in water at pH 6.5 than at pH
TFM is expected to remain in solution in the lake system and
persist for long periods of time... TFM is chemically and
biologically very stable. An examination of its structure,
i.e., aromatic, fluoro-containing, m-substituted phenol, shows
that the compound possesses many of the chemical features
known to impart persistence to organic compounds.
TFM is used, amphibians have regularly been found dead in
creeks immediately after treatment in Lake Erie watersheds
and elsewhere in the Great Lakes.
(only comprehensive for the US)
EPA PC Code:
approval date for use in the U.S.:
• 1958 is cited for use in
the Great Lakes
H4 F3 NO3
Canada, as of 2004:
Kinetic Industries Inc. US Fish & Wildlife Service
H & S Chemical
Sherwin Williams Chemicals
Lamprecid Technical (PCP 25287)
Sea Lamprey Larvicide Lamprecid (PCP 11763)
Lampricide Sea Lamprey Larvicide (PCP 21124)
Sea Lamprey Larvicide
Alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-4-nitro-meta-cresol
14, 2004: Canada. Re-evaluation.
Proposed Acceptablity for Continuing Registration. Report
No. PACR2004-11. Canada has based it's approval for continued
use on US EPA's RED (see below).
1999 - US
EPA RED (Reregistration Eligibility Decision)
Brief overview of actions
overview of actions
is the main chemical used to kill sea lamprey larvae in tributaries
to the Great Lakes, the Finger Lakes, and Lake Champlain. Since
1958, TFM has been used in the tributaries of the Great Lakes
on a rotational basis. The Sea Lamprey Control Program is the
responsibility of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, but it
is delivered by Fisheries and Oceans in Canada and the Fish
and Wildlife Service in the United States. Since
March 1990 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services are the only
"approved company" to use this lamprecide.
sheet 4. TFM and SEA LAMPREY CONTROL.
A Success Story. Why use TFM? Great Lakes Fishery Commission,
Ann Arbor, Michigan.
13, 2002 -
Vermont court decision
by William K. Sessions III, Chief Judge,
U. S. District Court. Plaintiffs: VT Public Interest Research
Group, National Audubon Society, and Sylvia Knight vs. US Fish
and Wildlife Service.
reports from Great
Lakes Fishery Commission's Sea Lamprey Research Program
GRANT PROJECT SUMMARY. Good overview
of the lamprey.
Lakes Fishery Commission. Program Requirements and Cost Estimates
for Fiscal Year 2002. Submitted to
the governments of Canada and the United States.
-2002. Sea Lamprey Management costs of the Great Lakes Fishery
30, 2001 -
Plan to release TFM
into Vermont Rivers draws lawsuit over possible environmental
and health impacts. Vermont Public
Interest Research Group.
Completion Report. Genetic assignment
of larval parentage as a means of assessing mechanisms underlying
adult reproductive success and larval dispersal by: K.T. Scribner
and M.L. Jones. GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION
on the role of sperm-activating proteins and the mechanism of
protease-inhibitor(s) reaction for controlling fertilization
in sea lamprey by Konrad Dawbrowski
and Andrzej Ciereszko. Great Lakes Fishery Commission 2001 Project
Mechanisms in Great Lakes Sea Lamprey Populations: An Integrated
Program of Research and Assessment by
Michael L. Jones and Amy L. Derosier. Great Lakes Fishery Commission
Project Completion Report.
of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population
dynamics in lampricide treated and untreated tributaries of
Lake Champlain by Adam Zerrenner and
J. Ellen Marsden. Great Lakes Fishery Commission 2001 Project
of Decision Analysis to Great Lakes sea lamprey management
by: M. Jones and S. Haeseker. Great Lakes
Fishery Commission 2001 Project Completion Report.
Collection of Lamprey Brains and Pituitaries for Purification
of Hormones by: S. Sower, L. Hanson,
and J. Bence. GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION 2000 Project Completion
Production of Petromyzonol Sulfate From Lamprey Liver Cell Cultures
and Culture of Sea Lamprey Pituitary Cells by
Paul Collodi. Great Lakes Fishery Commission 2001 Project Completion
Burdens in Great Lakes Sea Lamprey: A
1998 Spatial Survey by: D.M Whittle. GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION
2000 Project Completion Report
TFM or a Barrier With the Net Present Cost Method by
Ted Cowan. GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION 1999 Project Completion
to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in sea lamprey.
Ronald J. Scholefield
and James G. Seelye. National Fishery
Research Center Hammond Bay Biological Station Millersburg,
of changes in dissolved oxygen on the toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol
(TFM) to sea lamprey and rainbow trout. James
G. Seelye and Ronald J. Scholefield. Technical Report No. 56.
Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Ann Arbor,
of 3-trifluormethyl-4-nitrophenol as a selective sea lamprey
larvicide; by Vernon C. Applegate,
John H. Howell, James W. Moffett. United States Bureau of Commercial
Fisheries; B. G. H. Johnson; Fisheries Research Board of Canada;
and Manning A. Smith, Dept. of Chemistry, Bucknell University.
TECHNICAL REPORT No. 1. GREAT LAKES FISHERY COMMISSION 1451
Green Road P.O. Box 640 Ann Arbor, Michigan
EPA Index of Cleared Science Reviews.
From the Table below, approximately 400,000 pounds of TFM were
put into streams, creeks, and lakes in the Great Lakes Basin between
1993-1997. Many of these areas are prime fishing spots. Yet, there
are no tolerances for TFM in the US because EPA considers the
use of this compound to be non-food: "Based on current use
pattens and exposure profiles, residues in and on food and/or
feed or in drinking water are not expected to occur. Therefore,
a dietary risk assessment is not required (Nov 1999 EPA
1: Summary of TFM use by the USFWS in the Great Lakes Region
EPA RED, November 1999
active ingredient used
lampricide 3-trifhtoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) was developed
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at the Hammond Bay
where 6,000 chemical compounds were screened in search of
a selective toxicant (Applegate et al. 1957). Lampricide
treatments of Lake Superior tributaries began in 1958 (Applegate
et al. 1961), and 72 of the most-heavily infested streams
were treated by
1958 and 1992, 857 lampricide applications were made on
43 streams in Canada (280 treatments) and 84 streams in
the United States (577 treatments). Approximately 20% of
these streams were treated only once, but some were treated
as many as 23 times. During the past ten years, treatments
have been conducted regularly on 32 tributaries in Canada
and 44 tributaries in the United States. In addition to
stream treatments, lentic areas off the mouths of 13 Canadian
rivers have been treated with granular Bayer 73.
Ref: Hansen, M. J. [ED.].
1994. The state of Lake Superior in 1992. Great Lakes Fish.
Comm. Spec. Pub. 94-l. 3110 p. Also available at: http://www.glfc.org/pubs/SpecialPubs/Sp94_1.pdf
on fish TFM became a concern in 1992, when Fisheries and
Oceans staff identified previously undetected metabolic
effects in fish at sites that had been treated. The Commission
responded quickly, helping to fund research by Fisheries
and Oceans. The research found that
the TFM batches contained trace amounts of dioxin. Though
it was not the most toxic form, fish are known to be sensitive
to dioxins, especially in their developmental stages. The
source of the dioxin was traced to a by-product of the chemical's
production, and concentrations varied widely from one batch
to another. The research led to a change in the manufacturing
process, and the Commission now requires
manufacturers to produce TFM without dioxins.
Ref: The importance of maintaining up-to-date information
on the environmental impacts of pesticide use for sea lamprey
The sensitivity of mudpuppies, frog tadpoles, and adult frogs
to use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in the Great
Lakes has been noted on many occasions. TFM has been used
annually since 1958 for the control of sea lampreys throughout
the Great Lakes. Amphibians regularly have been found dead
in creeks immediately after TFM treatment (Gilderhus and Johnson
1980, Matson 1990). Laboratory tests have confirmed that species
native to the Great Lakes Basin, such as the grey tree frog,
northern leopard frog, and bullfrog, are sensitive to levels
of TFM used for sea lamprey control (Chandler and Marking
1975). Mudpuppy population size decreased by a minimum of
29 per cent after a spray event in the Grand River of Ohio
(Matson 1990)... Ref:
Conservation Priorities for the Amphibians and Reptiles of
Canada. Sept 2000 report published by World
Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation
Network. Prepared by David Seburn and Carolyn Seburn.
Pest Management Authority stated:
Canadian labels of all TFM end-use products must be amended
to include the following statements to protect workers and
the "Environmental Hazards" section:
“This chemical is toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates.
Non-target aquatic organisms may be killed at rates recommended
on this label.”
“The directions for use must be strictly followed
to minimize hazards to non-target organisms. Do not contaminate
water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment
“Local and appropriate provincial pesticide regulatory
authorities must be consulted about use permits that may
be required before product is applied.”
“Municipalities that use streams requiring treatment
as potable water sources must be notified of the impending
treatment at least 24 hours prior to application.”
“Agricultural irrigators that use streams requiring
treatment as a source of irrigation water must be notified
of the impending treatment at least 24 hours prior to application.
Agricultural irrigators must turn off their irrigation systems
during treatment and for a 24 hour period aftertreatment.”
the “Directions for Use” section:
“Do not apply this product by air.”
the “Precautions” section:
“Wear a long sleeved shirt, long pants,
rubber boots with socks, chemical
resistant gloves, a chemical resistant apron or chemical
and a face shield during mixing, loading, application, clean
up, repair and
other handling activities.”
should wash hands before eating, drinking, chewing gum,
tobacco, or using the toilet.”
“Users should remove clothing/personal protective
if pesticide comes in contact with skin through soaked clothing
Then wash skin thoroughly and put on clean clothing. Wash
clothing before reuse.”
“Users should remove personal protective equipment
handling this product. Wash the outside of gloves before
soon as possible, wash thoroughly and change into clean
“Do not apply this product in a way that will contact
workers or other
persons, either directly or through drift.”
Lakes Fishery Commission Fact Sheets, online August 2004:
Sheet 3: What are sea lampreys? How did sea lampreys spread
into the Great Lakes?
Sheet 4: TFM and sea lamprey control. A success story.
Why use TFM.
Sheet 5: Sea lamprey barriers. New technologies help solve
an old problem.
Sheet 6: Sterile-Male-Release-Technigue. An innovative
sea lamprey control method.
From the November 1999 US
EPA's Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for TFM
TFM treatments have been associated with induction of hepatic
mixed function oxyganase activity and altered levels of circulating
steroids in fish and induced hepatic vitellogenesis in primary
cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (Hewitt et al. 1997).
As such, TFM acts as an estradiol agonist and has a demonstrated
endocrine disrupting effect. Since the data on various developmental
stages represented disjointed acute studies, chronic toxicity
data on fish were not available and as such, a fish full life
cycle study of both technical grade TFM and TFM/niclosamide
mixture is required to address this deficiency.
of sea lamprey peaked in several Great Lakes before chemical
control began. The sex ratio in these peak populations were
predominately males (68-71%). Following a decade of lampricide
treatments, populations of sea lampreys showed marked declines
and the sex ratios in these populations shifted toward a predominance
of females accounting for 72% of the population (Henrich,
et al, 1979). This publication by Henrich concludes that lampricides
reduced the populations of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes
and contributed to the sequential shifting of the sex composition
from a predominance of males to a predominance of females.
There are no data to support that the endocrine mediated effect
associated with TFM is related to the observed sex-ratio shifts
among TFM-treated populations of sea lamprey [page 23].
to TFM during embryonic development increased the frequency
of abnormalities that lead to increased mortalities and stream
treatments with lampricides have resulted in a shift
in sex ratios among lampreys over a 16-yr period. TFM
treatments have been associated with induction of hepatic
mixed function oxyganase activity and altered levels of circulating
steroids in fish and induced hepatic vitellogenesis in primary
cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes. As such, TFM
acts as an estradiol agonist and has a demonstrated endocrine
disrupting effect. The potential for TFM to result
in endocrine disrupting effects on fish populations in treatment
areas has been considered remote based on the fact that streams
are treated at most once every 3 to 5 years, exposure duration
is less than 24 hours and TFM has not been demonstrated to
persist in treatment areas (Hewitt et al. 1998). However,
the duration of exposure to fish downstream of the application
site has not been adequately characterized and thus the potential
for an endocrine disrupting effect cannot be dismissed [page
TFM is chemically and biologically very stable. The compound
possesses many of the chemical features known to impart persistence
to organic compounds... TFM was converted to reduced-TFM with
a half-life of less than one week under both aerobic and anaerobic
aquatic metabolism conditions. It must be stressed that when
reduced-TFM is reported as a reaction product, degradation
has not occurred. TFM has just undergone a chemical reduction
and under appropriate conditions, reduced-TFM may be re-oxidized
to TFM... TFM is expected to remain in solution in the lake
system and persist for long periods of time... TFM (C7 H4
F3 NO3 ; M.W. 207.11) is chemically and biologically very
stable. An examination of its structure, i.e., aromatic, fluoro-containing,
m-substituted phenol, shows that the compound possesses many
of the chemical features known to impart persistence to organic
compounds. Its pKa is 6.07 and the effect of pH on the toxicity
appears to follow closely to the concentration of the lipid-soluble,
free phenol form of TFM. This pH sensitivity is used to maximize
effectiveness. As pH increases, toxicity, bioaccumulation,
and adsorption to sediment decrease. Aqueous solubility of
the sodium salt is 5 g/L.[page 24-25].