Chemical Weapons Precursor for the production
of sarin-family nerve agents
(only comprehensive for the US)
EPA PC Code:
Bandage, Basf Wood
Potassium fluoride (K(HF2))
Bifluorure de potassium [French]
Hydrogen potassium fluoride
Potassium hydrogen difluoride
Potassium hydrogen fluoride
Potassium monohydrogen difluoride
Safety Data Sheet. Kingway Chemical.
line as of January 1, 2002 - Solvay
of Germany. Description of Potassium
bifluoride as a component of wood preservatives. http://www.solvay.com/fluor/en/download/anorganisch/kaliumhydr.pdf
Safety Data Sheet for Potassium Hydrogendifluoride ([synonym]).
LA-CO INDUSTRIES, Inc./Markal Co. Product
Name: SILVER BRAZING FLUX PASTE Revision #: 1.5 Date Prepared:
March 1, 1995. Date Revised: August 6, 2002.
Chemical Weapon Precursor
chemicals that are also used as fluorine pesticides. A
comparison of the Australia group list of chemical weapon
precursors and the CWC schedules of chemicals, by RJ Mathews.
Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin. Issue No. 21. Page 2,
highlighted in red]:
"... some of the precursor chemicals which are early
in the production process and/or are widely produced in industry
(and hence not considered suitable for effective monitoring
under the CWC [Chemical Weapons Convention]) have been included
on the AGL [Australia Group List], because they are either
known or suspected to have been sought for CW purposes. Such
precursors include: ¥ the fluoride chemicals (14 [potassium
fluoride], 24 [hydrogen fluoride], 41 [potassium
bifluoride], 42 [ammonium bifluoride],
43 [sodium bifluoride] and 44
[sodium fluoride]) for
the production of sarin-family nerve agents..."
The list of precursor chemicals and their CAS Nos. appear
on page 3. Also available at:
& Biological Weapons. Fluorine chemicals.
1995 UN Monitoring and Verification of
Iraq's Compliance. The organofluorines on this list include
highlighted in red):
Potassium fluoride (7789-23-3)
Ammonium bifluoride (1341-49-7)
Sodium bifluoride (1333-83-1)
Sodium fluoride (7681-49-4)
Potassium bifluoride (7789-29-9)
Also included are fluoropolymers
(e.g. Aflex COP, Aflon COP 88, F 40, Ftorlon,
Ftoroplast, Neoflon, ETFE, Teflon, PVDF, Tefzel, PTFE, PE TFE
500 LZ, Haller).
2000 - BIOCIDES (II). Refined aquatic environmental risk assessment
of 28 priority biocides. B.J.W.G. Mensink. November 2000. RIVM
report 601506005. RIVM = Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid
en Milieu. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment.
wood preservative products - partial
quantum-mechanical discussion of the bifluoride ion. Thesis
by Martin Karplus. In partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. California Institute
of Technology. Pasadena, California. Acknowledgements to several
people (including Dr. Linus Pauling) were cited and also:
"Generous financial assistance was supplied by the Allied
Chemical and Dye Corporation."
Excerpts from Introduction:
... In spite of the recognized importance of the hydrogen
bond, no one has given a detailed discussion of the forces
involved in its formation. Since the bifluoride ion (FHF)
is the simplest hydrogen bonded species, it appears best suited
for a theoretical attack. This
thesis is an attempt to develop a semi-theoretical method
applicable to highly ionic systems and to apply this method
to a treatment of the bifluoride ion. It is hoped that the
results contribue to a better understanding of the hydrogen
bond and provide an illustration of the power of quantum-mechanical
methods in chemistry.