arteria mesenterica -- (one of two branches of the aorta that
pass between the two layers of the mesentery to the intestines)
There are between 100 and 150 lymph nodes in the mesentery
of the colon. Regional lymph nodes are the nodes along the
colon, plus the nodes along the major arteries that supply
blood to that particular colon segment.
||Pericolic, anterior cecal, posterior cecal,
ileocolic, right colic
||Pericolic, ileocolic, right colic, middle colic
||Pericolic, middle colic, right colic
||Pericolic, middle colic
||Pericolic, middle colic, left
colic, inferior mesenteric
||Pericolic, left colic, inferior
||Pericolic, inferior mesenteric,
superior rectal, superior hemorrhoidal, sigmoidal, sigmoid mesenteric
||Perirectal, left colic, sigmoid mesenteric,
sigmoidal, inferior mesenteric, superior rectal, superior hemorrhoidal,
||Perirectal, sigmoid mesenteric, inferior mesenteric,
lateral sacral, presacral, internal iliac, sacral promontory
(Gerota's) superior hemorrhoidal, inferior hemorrhoidal
||Perirectal, anorectal, superficial inguinal,
internal iliac, hypogastric, femoral, lateral sacral
|Lymph nodes along a "named
vascular trunk" (as defined by the fourth edition of the
AJCC staging manual) are those along a vein or artery that carries
blood to a specific part of the colon, for example, the inferior
and superior mesenteric arteries, sigmoidal artery, left or
right colic artery. In the fifth and sixth editions, the location
of the nodes does not affect assignment of the N category.
use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially
significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of
adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate
such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative
risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in
animal species are assumed to represent potential effects
in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.
Fluazifop-butyl (CAS # 69806-50-4) was evaluated for subacute
oral toxicity in Wistar albino rats (10/sex/group) administered
10 ml/kg doses in corn oil of 0, 4, 20, 100 and 500 mg/kg/day
by oral gavage, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Five-day weekly treatment
periods were each followed by 2-day recovery. High-dose males
only displayed overt toxicity and comprised the 2 study lethalities.
These two 500 mg/kg/day males were sacrificed in extremis on Days
11 and 14 with severe pharmacotoxic signs including piloerection,
reduced motor activity, retinal pallor, and a prone or hunched
posture. One rat was bleeding from the penis ... The decedent
animals were found with abnormal upper gastrointestinal contents,
and one rat exhibited congestion of mesenteric
lymph nodes with pallor of kidneys, liver and spleen...
[ICI AMERS INC; 14 Day Subacute Oral Toxicity Study with PP009
in Rats; 07/11/80; EPA Doc No. 88-920007017; Fiche No. OTS0545392].
-- Fuazifop butyl was evaluated for reproductive and developmental
effects in 2 successive generations of Charles River Wistar strain
rats (30/sex/group) exposed continuously to 0, 10, 80 and 250
ppm in the diet. Each respective parent generation had received
treatment for a minimum of 100 days (F0) and 120 days (F1) prior
to mating. F0 and F1 dams weaned their progeny for 25 days postpartum
to time of offspring selection for mating and continued study
(F1) or sacrifice (F1, F2)... Upon histological investigation,
increased incidence geriatric nephropathy (both sexes, 80 and
250 ppm), distension of mesenteric and/or
cervical lymph nodes (250 ppm) and increased severity of
nephrocalcinosis (females, 80 and 250 ppm), and an increased slight
testicular tubular atrophy in males (250 ppm) were noted. F2 female
progeny of 250 ppm exposed parents were found with significantly
increased absolute and relative spleen weights. Histological changes
were limited to marginal increases in hydronephrosis. [ICI AMERS
INC; Fluazifop butyl: Effects Upon Reproductive Performance of
Rats Treated Continuously Through 2 Generations (Final Report);
03/17/81; EPA Doc No. 88-920006849; Fiche No. OTS05543854]
Ref: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUAZIFOP-BUTYL.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 103361-09-7
52894-046; 184614; "Three-Month Subacute Toxicity Study of
S-53482 by Dietary Administration in Rats"; (Haruhiko Adachi;
Sumitomo Chemical Co., Environmental Health Science Laboratory,,
Ltd., Osaka, Japan; Study No. 1760; 4/26/91); Sixteen Crj:CD (SD)
rats/sex/group were treated in the diet with 0, 30, 300, 1000
or 3000 ppm of S-53482 (lot no. PYG-89021-M, purity: 94.8%). Six
of these animals/sex/group were treated for 5 weeks. The remaining
10 animals/sex/group were treated for 13 weeks ((M): 0, 1.94,
19.4, 65.2, 197.3 mg/kg/day, (F) 0, 2.22, 22.4, 72.8, 218.4 mg/kg/day).
One female in the 3000 ppm group died during week 12. The mean
body weights for the 3000 ppm males and females were 95.3 and
90.2% of the mean values for the control animals, respectively
at the termination of the study. ... Other noted lesions for the
3000 ppm females were focal or generalized necrosis in the liver
(0:0/10 vs. 3000: 4/10), extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver
(0: 0/10 vs. 3000: 5/10), myocardial fibrosis in the heart (0:
0/10 vs. 3000: 2/10), myelofibrosis and osteosis in the bone marrow
(0: 0/10 vs. 3000: 3/10), atrophy of the thymus and the presence
of thymal foam cells (0:0/10 vs. 3000: 3/10),
sinus histiocytosis in the mesenteric lymph node (0:0/10 vs. 3000:
3/10), and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the adrenal cortex
(0:0/10 vs. 3000: 3/10). Adverse effects indicated: anemia and
hepatic necrosis. Subchronic NOEL (M/F): 300 ppm ((M) 19.4 mg/kg/day,
(F) 22.4 mg/kg/day) (based upon hematologic effects noted for
the 1000 ppm treated animals); Study acceptable. (Moore, 5/20/02)
January 2003 (revised) -
Summary of Toxicological
Data. California EPA, Department of
Pesticides Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 2164-17-2
C -- Possible Human Carcinogen.
Statistically significant increases in combined adenomas/carcinomas
of the lung (M); Malignant
lymphocytic lymphomas (F); CD-1 mice.
26, 2006 . Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential by the
Office of Pesticide Programs. From: Jess Rowland, Chief Science
Information Management Branch Health Effect Division (7509C) Office
of Pesticide Programs, USEPA.
CAS No. 69377-81-7
In the combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats,
fluroxypyr 99.0% a.i. was administered to 50 Fischer 344 rats/sex/dose
via the diet at dose levels of 0, 100, 500, and 1,000, females
mg/kg/day for 24 months 10 rats/sex/dose for 12 months. There
was no apparent increase in the incidence of kidney tumors in
either sex. With the exception of an increased incidence of parafollicular
cell adenomas, single only, in males at 500 mg/kg/day, at the
doses tested, there was no apparent treatment-related increase
in any tumor type in either sex. The LOEL is 500 mg/kg/day, based
on increased kidney weight in both sexes, increased incidence
of atrophy, adipose tissue mesenteric tissues
in males and an increase in the severity of chronic progressive
glomerulonephropathy in the kidney in both sexes. The NOAEL is
100 mg/kg/day. Deaths occurred at 1,000 mg/kg/day in males within
the first 90 days on test 2 by day 28 and 3 more by day 56.
Ref: Federal Register. Fluroxypyr (Dow Agro).
September 30, 1998. Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 141112-29-0
An oncogenicity study
in mice administered 0, 25, 500 and 7,000 ppm with a NOEL of 25
ppm based on a slight effect on liver weight and body weight gain
at the LEL of 500 ppm. An increased incidence of hepatocellular
adenomas and carcinomas was observed at 7,000 ppm in both sexes.
Increased liver weight, non-neoplastic cellular changes in the
liver, and amyloidosis in the duodenum,
ileum, jejunum, kidneys, heart ventricle, mesenteric
lymph node, and thyroid were also observed at 7,000 ppm.
Ref: Federal Register: February 26, 1997
(Volume 62, Number 38)] [Notices] [Page 8737-8740]. Rhone-Poulenc
Ag Company; Pesticide Tolerance Petition Filing.
PFOS - Insecticide,
US EPA List 3 Inert
In the rat subchronic study, Goldenthal et al. (1978b) administered
CD rats, 5/sex/group, dietary levels of 0,
30, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PFOS
(FC-95) for 90 days. The males weighed 196-232 g and the
females weighed 165-206 g at study initiation. The dietary levels
were equivalent to doses of 0, 2, 6, 18, 60 and 200 mg/kg/day...
The rats were sacrificed after 90 days of treatment and a gross
necrospy was conducted... All of the rats
in the 300, 1000 and 3000 ppm groups died. Death occurred between
days 13-25 and days 18-28 for the males and females, respectively,
in the 300 ppm group...
The rats in all groups showed signs of toxicity including emaciation,
convulsions following handling, hunched back, red material around
the eyes, yellow material around the anogenital region, increased
sensitivity to external stimuli, reduced activity and moist red
material around the mouth or nose. Three males and two females
in the 100 ppm group died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Two of
the males and the two females died during week 5 and the third
male died during week 11 of the study... All rats in the 30 ppm
group survived until the end of the study... Histologic examination
also showed lesions in all treated groups. Centrilobular to midzonal
cytoplasmic hypertrophy of hepatocytes and focal necrosis was
observed in the liver; the incidence and relative severity were
greater in the males. In addition, especially among rats in the
300, 1000 and 3000 ppm groups, treatment related histologic lesions
were noted in the primary (thymus, bone
marrow) and secondary (spleen, mesenteric
lymph nodes) lymphoid organs, stomach, intestines, muscle
and skin. In the thymus, this consisted
of depletion in the number and size of the lymphoid follicles
and in the bone marrow hypocellularity was noted. The spleen was
slightly atrophied with a corresponding decrease in the size and
number of lymphoid follicles and cells and a similar depletion
was noted in the mesenteric lymph nodes.
Ref: August 31, 2000.
SUBJECT: Hazard Assessment of PFOS. FROM: Jennifer Seed, Branch
Chief, Existing Chemical Assessment Branch, Risk Assessment Division
(7403). THRU: Oscar Hernandez , Division Director, Risk Assessment
Division (7403). TO: Charlie Auer, Division Director, Chemical
Control Division (7405).
fluoride - Insecticide,
Wood preservative, US EPA List 4B Inert -
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism
responsible for alterations in NaF-induced contractions of blood
vessels from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In
the presence of AlCl3, NaF (¥7.5 mM) produced significantly
greater contractions in diabetic aorta and mesenteric artery compared
with age-matched controls. Pretreatment with 1 microM nifedipine
eliminated the enhanced contractile responses of diabetic vessels
to NaF, resulting in no difference in the magnitude of NaF-induced
contractions between control and diabetic vessels. In the presence
of 100 microM deferoxamine, an Al 3+ chela-tor, NaF-induced contractions
of diabetic vessels were markedly attenuated, whereas only the
responses to lower concentrations of NaF were reduced in control
vessels. No significant difference was found in the peak amplitude
of transient contractions induced by 10 microM cyclopiazonic acid
between control and diabetic vessels. The addition of 10 microM
okadaic acid produced attenuated contractions in diabetic vessels.
These findings indicate no involvement of the inhibitory effects
of NaF on endoplasmic reticular Ca 2+ -pump ATPase and protein
phosphatases in the genesis of the enhanced responsive-ness of
diabetic vessels to NaF. Western blot analysis showed a 2.5-fold
in-crease in the expression of G(qalpha) in diabetic aortic membranes.
In contrast, the G(ialpha) level was modestly decreased and the
G(salpha) and G(betagamma) levels were unchanged in diabetes.
The present results suggest that enhanced vascular contractions
to NaF in diabetes is attributed predominantly to a G protein-mediated
Ca 2+ channel acti-vation that results from markedly increased
G(qalpha) expression in vascular tissues under this pathological
Ref: Predominant contribution of the G protein-mediated
mechanism to NaF-induced vascular contractions in diabetic rats:
association with an increased level of G(qalpha) expression
Hattori Y, Matsuda N, Sato A, Watanuki S, Tomioka H, Kawasaki
H, Kanno M. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000 Feb;292(2):761-8 - As cited
and abstracted in Fluoride 2000; 33(2):97-98
1. Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that
alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated increases in tension and phosphoinositide
metabolism are enhanced in the aorta and mesenteric
arteries from diabetic rats. The purpose of the present
investigation was to determine whether contractile responses to
sodium fluoride (NaF), which directly stimulates GTP-binding proteins
(G-proteins), are also enhanced in diabetic arteries.
2. NaF (1-20 mM) in the presence of 10 microM aluminium chloride
produced slowly developing, concentration-dependent contractions
in mesenteric arteries from three month streptozotocin-diabetic
(60 mg kg-1, i.v.) male Wistar rats and age-matched control rats.
The maximum contractile response but not the sensitivity to NaF
was significantly greater in mesenteric arteries from diabetic
than from control rats, as was the response to noradrenaline (NA).
Maximum contractile responses of aorta and caudal artery from
diabetic rats to NaF were also significantly enhanced.
3. Removal of the endothelium and denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine
did not significantly alter the maximum contractile response of
mesenteric arteries from either control or diabetic rats to NaF.
Similarly, NaF had no effect on cyclic AMP levels in aorta, and
no difference in cyclic AMP levels, either basally or in the presence
of NaF, was detected between control and diabetic rat aorta.
4. Contractile responses of mesenteric arteries from both control
and diabetic rats to NaF were diminished in calcium-free Krebs
solution, but the NaF response remained significantly elevated
in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats compared to control.
5. Ryanodine (30 microM) which depletes intracellular calcium
stores, nifedipine (3 microM) which blocks dihydropyridine-sensitive
calcium channels and calphostin C (0.5 microM) which selectively
inhibits protein kinase C, all significantly inhibited maximum
contractile responses of mesenteric arteries from control and
diabetic rats to NaF. There were no significant differences between
control and diabetic arteries in the relative magnitude of the
inhibition produce by the three antagonist.
6. These data suggest that there may be
increased activation of the same signalling processes that mediate
NA-stimulated vasoconstriction, perhaps contraction-associated
G-proteins or the effectors coupled to these G-proteins, in response
to NaF in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats. This
may also be responsible for the enhanced contractile responses
of these arteries to alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation.
Ref: Br J Pharmacol 1996 May;118(1):115-22.
Enhanced contractile responses of arteries from streptozotocin
diabetic rats to sodium fluoride. Weber LP, Chow WL, Abebe
W, MacLeod KM.
- Insecticide, Insect growth regulator
- CAS No. 83121-18-0
-- In a 120-week long-term
toxicity/carcinogenicity study, rats were fed diets containing
0, 20, 100 or 500 mg/kg feed, equal to 0, 1, 4.8 or 24.8 mg/kg
bw/day in males and 0, 1.2, 5.9 and 29.9 mg/kg bw/day in females...
Histopathological examination indicated an increased incidence
of mesenteric lymph node haemangiomas in
males in the high dose group (17%) in comparison with rats
in concurrent controls (2%), but not when compared to the incidence
in historical controls. A significantly
increased incidence of pancreatic exocine carcinomas in male rats
in the high dose group (4.3%), compared to concurrent controls
(0 out of 50) and historical control groups (1.4% or 1 out of
69), was based on a low number of affected rats (2 out
of 47) and was therefore not considered to be treatment related.
January 1999 - Summary Report. Committee
for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the
Evaluation of Medicinal Products.
- Fungicide -
CAS No. 141517-21-7
In the rat chronic/carcinogenicity study, the NOAEL of 11.0 mg/kg
bw/day was set based on the reduction in body-weight gain in both
sexes, decreased food consumption and slightly increased incidence
of developmental cyst in pituitary gland and angiomatous
hyperplasia of the mesenteric node
in males. An effect on the liver (increased relative weight)
was seen only in females at the highest dose level of 73 mg/kg
Ref: January 30, 2004 - Regulatory
Note REG2004-03. Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency.
Also available at:
sodium - Herbicide- CAS
870.3150 90-Day oral
toxicity in nonrodents (dogs). NOAEL: 19.8/19.6 mg/kg/day (M/F)
LOAEL: 164.2/167.3 mg/kg/day (M/F): M
= decreased body weight gain (20%), slight hematological
effects, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity,
decreased thymus weight, thymic atrophy, increased glycogen in
liver, hemorrhage in mesenteric lymph nodes;
F = decreased body weight gain (44%), anemia with extramedullary
hematopoiesis in liver/ spleen and myeloidhyperplasia in bone
marrow, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity,
decrease thymus weight, thymic atrophy and hyaline tubular change
Ref: Federal Register: September 17,
2003 (Volume 68, Number 180)]. Trifloxysulfuron; Pesticide Tolerance.
Dogs were fed trifloxysulfuron at dietary concentrations of 0,
50, 500, 5000, 10 000 or 20 000 ppm for 90 days... Large
mesenteric lymph nodes with suppuration and an increased severity
of haemorrhage were observed in both sexes at ¥ 5000 ppm. Red
popliteal lymph nodes were observed with haemorrhage and haemosiderosis
in males at 20 000 ppm and chronic reactive hyperplasia
in females at 20 000 ppm. Small testes was observed in one male
at 10 000 ppm and testes weights were lower at 5000 and 10 000
ppm with reduced spermatogenesis observed in all males at ¥ 10
000 ppm and one at 5000 ppm. Prostatic atrophy was observed in
one male at 5000 and 10 000 ppm and all males at 20 000 ppm. Masses
on the heart, mottled lung and red small intestine were also observed
at necropsy. The NOEL in this study was 500 ppm, equal to 19.8
mg/kg bw/day in males and 19.6 mg/kg bw/day in females.
Ref: Public Release Summary on Evaluation
of the new active TRIFLOXYSULFURON SODIUM in the product ENVOKE
HERBICIDE. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and
Veterinary Chemicals. August 2002. Canberra Australia.