- Pertaining to skeletal muscle and its nerve-supply.
- Affecting or characteristic of both neural and muscular
The broad category of neuromuscular disorders or diseases
covers conditions that involve the weakness or wasting
of the body muscles.
These problems may arise in the spinal cord, the peripheral
nerves or the muscle fibers. Some may be hereditary, while
others are acquired.
Commonly recognized conditions fall into the categories
of myopathies, which are diseases of the muscle like muscular
dystrophy, disorders of the junction where the nerve impulses
are transmitted to the muscle like myasthenia gravis,
and neuropathies, which are diseases of the peripheral
nervous system like diabetic neuropathy. Those specific
disorders are discussed here.
use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially
significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of
adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate
such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative
risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in
animal species are assumed to represent potential effects
in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
This is not an exhaustive list. The
category of "neuromuscular"
has been added as of July 2004 and is not complete.
When time allows more information will be added.
- CAS No. 76703-62-3
- Rat (Gamma cyhalothrin).
male/female =3.4/4.2 mg/kg/day
LOAEL: male/female = 6.6/8.8 mg/kg/day (mortality
in males, neuromuscular effects in both
sexes, dermatitis, and gross and microscopic skin lesions
April 8, 2004. Federal Register. Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Gamma-Cyhalothrin.
Tolerances for Residues. FINAL RULE.
- Insecticide - CAS No. 158062-67-0
Combined Chronic/ carcinogenicity (rats).
NOAEL is 200
ppm (equivalent to 7.32/8.92mg/ kg/day in males/females). LOAEL
is 1,000 ppm (equivalent to 36.5/44.1mg/ kg/day in males/females)
based on decreased body weights and body
weight gains, and increased incidences of keratitis
in males and striated muscle fiber atrophy
in females. At the
high dose there was an incidence (12%)of nasolacrimal duct squamous
cell carcinomas slightly outside
the historical control range (0-10%) in male rats. A correlation
between the incidence of inflammation and the fluctuating incidence
of nasal tumors was made across dose groups. EPA did not consider
the nasolacrimal duct tumors to be treatment-related. Female rats
had a significant increasing trend in nasolacrimal duct squamous
cell carcinomas at < 0.05, and at the high dose was slightly
above the historical control mean (0.8%) and range (0-4%). EPA
considered the nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas to be
possibly treatment related, but that a clear association with
treatment could not be made.
August 31, 2005. Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.