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GLOSSARY of HISTOLOGICAL & MICRO-ANATOMICAL TERMS
from the Department of Anatomy, University of New South Wales, Sidney Australia,
Galen, Claudius? Clarissmus. ?129,130-200,201 AD Rome physician to Marcus Aurelius; famous early anatomist (however many statements based on animal dissections); great cerebral vein of Galen; collected medical works of Galen.
Gallocyanin a purple synthetic basic dye used to staining nuclei acids.
gamete G. = a wife, from gamein = to marry; a mature male germ cell (spermatozoon) or female germ cell (ovum); their union produces a zygote, q.v.
ganglion (-a, -ions) G. = knot, swelling; an accumulation of nerve cell somas outside the central nervous system; also applied to cells forming optic nerve axons within the central nervous system; also small synovial swelling under skin.
gap junction intercellular junction for communication between cells (see nexus).
Gärtner, Hermann Treschow. 1785-1827 Copenhagen physician & anatomist; G.'s duct = longitudinal duct of epoöphoron (q.v) = remains of mesonephric duct.
Gasser, Johann Ludwig. 1757-1765 Vienna anatomist; Gasserian ganglion = semilunar ganglion of trigeminal nerve (actually described by a student of Gasser, Raimund Hirsch, 1765).
gastric adj. L. gastricus, from G. gaster = stomach, belly; relating to the stomach.
gastric pit foveola gastrica, q.v.
gelatine L. = protein derived by hydrolysis (boiling) of collagen present in skin, bone and joints.
gemmules L. gemmula = a little bud; minute processes on dendrites of a neuron.
genital adj. L. genitalis = of birth.
Gennari, Francesco 1750-? Parma anatomist; stria of G. = the distinct outer stria of Baillarger (q.v.) in the visual part of the cerebral cortex (1782); hence striate cortex, q.v.
Gerlach, Joseph von. 1820-1896 Erlangen anatomist; invented method of injecting cadavers with carmine & gelatine; G.'s tonsil = tubal tonsil; G.'s valve = a fold of mucosa sometimes seen at entrance to vermiform appendix; G.'s valvulae = trabecular meshwork of pectinate ligament.
germinal L. germen = an offshoot; germinal epithelium of ovary (but not a source of germ cells!).
germinativum L. germinare = to sprout; deepest layer or stratum of epidermis = Malpighian layer.
Gerota, Dumitru. 1867-1939 Roumanian anatomist; G.'s fascia = perirenal fascia.
gingiva (-ae) L. = the gum.
Giraldès, Joachim Albin Cardozo Cazado. 1808-1875 Paris surgeon from Portugal; died of a wound acquired during an autopsy; organ of G. (1859) = paradidymis, q.v.
glabella L. glaber = smooth; space between eyebrows, often devoid of hair.
glabrous adj. L. glaber = smooth; of non-hairy skin.
gland L. glandula, dim of L. glans = an acorn, a pellet; term used to describe mesenteric lymph nodes (Herophilus, c. 300 BC).
glia G. gloia = glue; neuroglia is the non-nervous supporting tissue of central nervous system; gliosis = hyperplasia of astrocytes, q.v.
Glisson, Francis. 1597-1677 Cambridge classicist & physician; described bile duct and its sphincter (cf. Oddi); G.'s capsule = fibrous capsule of liver.
glomerulosa adj. L. = like a little ball; e.g., zona glomerulosa = superficial zone in adrenal cortex where cells are arranged in small clusters.
glomerulus (-i) L. = a little ball, dim. of L. glomus (from L. glomerare = to roll up, as in conglomerate); renal glomerulus = a cluster of capillaries in kidney cortex = Malpighian corpuscles; olfactory glomerulus = a ball of nerve cells and fibres in the olfactory bulb, where primary olfactory fibres synapse with mitral cells, q.v.
glomus (-mera) L. = a ball; cluster or conglomeration of small arteries or arterioles and nerve fibres, e.g., carotid glomus, at bifurcation of common carotid; choroidal glomus, at site where choroid plexus enters inferior horn of lateral ventricle; coccygeal glomus (or body) = glomus coccyxgeum, associated with median sacral artery at coccyx, cf. glands of Luschka.
glottis G. = larynx; now the space between the vocal cords.
glycan G. glykos = sweet.
glycocalyx G. " + kalyx = cup; layer like a husk rich in carbohydrates outside cell plasma membrane.
glycogen G. " + gennan = to produce; a polysaccharide ("animal starch") in liver, muscle, etc. yielding glucose on .hydrolysis.
glycosaminoglycan (abb. GAG) chemical constituent of glycocalyx.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1749-1832 German poet & scientist; G.'s bone = premaxilla; G.'s theory of vertebral origin of skull; G.'s theory of colour.
Golgi, Camillo. 1844-1926. Italian histologist; shared Nobel prize in 1906 with Cajal, q.v.; Golgi apparatus (or G. complex) = an organelle consisting of a system of cytoplasmic membranes; G. technique = a histological staining technique for impregnation of single neurons (cf. Cajal); G. cells of nervous system; G. corpuscle = a sensory receptor in tendon, tendon; axon collaterals of G; Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles = corpuscular nerve endings.
Goll, Friedrich. 1829-1903 Zurich pharmacologist; column of G. = funiculus gracilis of spinal cord (1860).
Gomori, George. American histochemist 1904- ; trichrome and histochemical stains.
gomphosis G. gomphos = wedge-shaped nail or bolt used in ship-building; a peg-in-socket joint (Galen, c. 180 AD); junction of tooth in alveolar socket.
gonad G. gone = seed; organs containing germ cells, i.e., ovary and testis.
Gowers, William Richard (Sir). 1845-1915 London physician & neurologist; tract of G. = superficial anterolateral fasciculus of spinal cord = anterolateral spinocerebellar tract.
Graaf, Regnier de. 1641-1673 Delft physician, anatomist; contemporary of Swammerdam & Leewenhoek; described corpus luteum; Graafian follicle = a mature ovarian follicle (1672).
granulosa L. granulum = little grain; cells around ovarian oocyte.
granulosum L. " ; referring to granule-containing cells in epidermis.
gray matter parts of central nervous system where there are relatively fewer myelinated fibres; central part of spinal cord; cortex of cerebrum and cerebellum; cf. white matter.
ground substance colloidal material, with variable viscosity, of the intercellular spaces of connective tissue; usually homogeneous and scarcely stainable.
Guérin, Alphonase F.M. 1816-1895 French surgeon; G.'s valve = fold of mucous membrane in navicular fossa of urethra.
gyrus G. gyros = circle, arc; one of the coils or convolutions of cerebral cortex, separated by sulci or fissures.
H-band abb. of Hell-band Ge. hell = light + band; also Henle's band; light band within A-band of the myofibril.
haematocrit G. haima = blood + krinein = to separate; the proportion by volume of erythrocytes (packed by centrifugation of a thin tube containing blood).
Haematoxylin a basic dye from a South American tree; its oxidation product haematein is used with mordants for histological staining of nucleic acids.
haemopoiesis G. haima = blood + poiein = to make; production of the cellular elements of blood, in bone marrow, etc. (also haematopoiesis).
Haller, Albrecht von. 1708-1777 Göttingen anatomist, surgeon & botanist; eminent scientist & poet; dissected over 400 cadavers and wrote extensive anatomical bibliography; ductulus aberrans of H. = a diverticulum of the canal of the ductus epididymidis; H.'s layer = vascular lamina of the choroid, q.v.; H.'s rete = rete testis.
haploid G. haplos = plain, simple; having the simplest (i.e., single) set of self-contained chromosomes in germ cells; cf. diploid.
Hartmann, Robert. 1831-1893 German anatomist; H.'s pouch = outpouching of gall bladder near its junction with cystic duct.
Hassall, Arthur Hill. 1817-1894 London chemist, botanist & physician; H.'s corpuscles = concentrically laminated corpuscles of thymus (1846).
haustrum (-a) L. haurire = to draw water in a bucket; sacculated pouches of colon.
Havers, Clopton. ?1655,1657-1702 London physician & anatomist; Haversian canals = minute vascular canals in compact bone (1691); Haversian glands = pads, folds or fringes containing fat in a synovial membrane (1691); Haversian lamellae = bony lamellae in an osteon (1691); Haversian system = an osteon (1691), q.v.; cf. Leeuwenhoek's canals.
Heidenhain, Martin. 1864-1949 Tübingen pathologist & histologist; H.'s azan = a histological dye; H.'s crescent cells = serous demilunes.
Heidenhain, Rudolph Peter Heinrich. 1834-1897 Breslau physiologist & histologist; described gastric parietal cells.
Heister, Lorenz. 1638-1758 Altdorf anatomist, surgeon & botanist; Helmstädt surgeon & botanist; H.'s valve = spiral folds of cystic duct.
helicine adj. G. helix = coil, snail; e.g, helicine arteries of ovarian medulla, penis, etc.
helicotrema G. " + trema = a hole; union of scala tympani and scala vestibuli at apex of cochlear canal.
hemidesmosome G. hemi = half + desmosome; found in cells of basal stratum of stratified epithelia.
Henle, Freidrich Gustav Jacob. 1809-1885 Zurich, Heidelberg & Göttingen anatomist; loop of H. = ansa nephronis (q.v.) of renal tubule (1866); endoneurium; H.'s layer = outer layer of cells of inner root sheath of hair follicle.
Hensen, Victor. 1835-1924 Kiel physiologist & embryologist; H.'s duct = ductus reuniens of membranous labyrinth; H.'s knot (or node) of embryonic disc; H.'s line = light band in middle of dark band of sarcomere = H-band, q.v.
hepatocyte G. hepar = liver + kytos = hollow vessel; liver parenchymal cell.
Herring, Percy T. 1872-1967 St. Andrews physiologist; H. bodies = axonal varicosities containing granules of neurophysins (q.v.) in pars nervosa of hypophysis.
heterochromatin G. heteros = other + chromatin; other than euchromatin.
Highmore, Nathaniel. 1613-1685 Dorsetshire physician; body of Highmore = mediastinum testis (1651).
hilum or hilus (-a) L. = a trifle; depression in a seed; a depression at vascular entrance/exit of a gland or organ.
hircus (-ci) L. = a he-goat; hair of arm-pits which had a goat-like smell; tragus of pinna with its tuft of goat's-beard-like hairs.
His, Wilhelm (the elder). 1831-1904 Basle, Leipzig anatomist; copula of H. = bond joining ventral ends of third pharyngeal arches in embryo (1880).
His, Wilhelm (the younger). 1863-1934 Leipzig, Basle, Göttingen & Berlin anatomist; bundle of H. = atrioventricular bundle of conducting tissue in heart (1893).
histiocyte a macrophage, q.v.
histochemistry G. histos = web, tissue + chemeia = chemistry; application of specific chemical reagents to a histological section to reveal the location (topography) of natural substances within the various tissues of the section; cf. cytochemistry.
histology G. histos = web, woven material, sail of a ship + logos = knowledge, study; microscopic anatomy, as opposed to macroscopic anatomy.
Hoboken, Nicolas van. 1632-1678 Harderwyck anatomist; valves of H. = internal valve-like folds of umbilical vessels.
holocrine G. holos = entire + krinein = to separate; a type of secretion where entire cell forms the secretory product, as in sebaceous glands.
Hooke, Robert. 1635-1703 English scientist; skilled in use of compound microscope; described cells in cork.
Howship John, 1781-1841, English surgeon; H.'s lacunae or foveolae= small depressions in bone where resporption of bone by osteoclasts takes place.
humour L. umor = a fluid; aqueous humour and vitreous humour of the eye.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1825-1895 English anatomist & naturalist; H.'s layer = the layer of cells lying inside Henle's layer (q.v.) in root-sheath of hair follicle,
hyaline adj. G. hyalos = glassy, translucent, crystalline; hyaline cartilage with its glassy appearance.
hyaloid adj. G. " + -oeides = form of.
hyaluronidase testicular enzyme, present in semen, depolymerises hyaluronic acid of ground substance.
hydatid G. hydatis = watery vesicle; a cyst; e.g., appendix testis is the hydatid of Morgagni.
hydroxyapatite crystalline, inorganic component of matrix of mature bone.
hymen G. = a membrane, also Greek god of marriage; membrane partially covering entrance to vagina (Vesalius, c. 1550).
hyperplasia G. hyper = above, an excess of + plassein = to form; growth of organ due to increase in cell number.
hypertrophy G. " + trophe = nourishment; growth of organ or tissue (e.g., muscle) due to increase in cell size.
hypodermis G. hypo = under, a lack of + dermis; subcutaneous connective tissue = superficial fascia.
hyponychium G. " + onyx = nail; thickened stratum corneum under the free end of a nail.
hypophysis G. = an undergrowth; pituitary gland under the brain; cf. epiphysis.
hypoplasia G. " + plassein = to form; reduction in tissue or organ size.
hypothalamus G. " + thalamus; below the thalamus, q.v.