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GLOSSARY of HISTOLOGICAL & MICRO-ANATOMICAL TERMS
from the Department of Anatomy, University of New South Wales, Sidney Australia,
I - band abb. of isotropic band G. isos = equal + tropos = a turning, direction; equal properties in every direction; of transverse bands in skeletal muscle which do not rotate the plane of polarised light, cf. A-band.
-iculus L. = a diminutive suffix.
ileum G. eilein = to twist; distal part of small intestine (1618).
ilium L. = the flank.
immunoglobulin L. immunis = free from service, exempt + globulus = a little sphere; one of a class of proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains and functioning as an antibody.
incisor adj. L. incidere = to cut into, to notch; of the four front upper and lower teeth.
incus L. = an anvil; middle ossicle of middle ear (Vesalius, c. 1550).
infundibulum L. = a funnel, from L. infundere = to pour into; funnel-shaped part of an organ.
inspissated L. inspissatus = thickened; concentrated by absorption.
insulin L. insula = island; hormone secreted by beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.
integument L. in = on + tegere = to roof, to cover (L. tegmen = a roof) ; a covering, hence the skin, consisting of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis.
intercalated L. inter = between + calare = to proclaim, calatus = inserted; of a duct inserted between the end of the gland (acinus, or alveolus) and a larger duct; of a disc inserted between the ends of two cardiac fibres.
interneurone abb. of internuncial neuron, q.v.
internode L. " + nodus = knot; a segment of myelinated nerve fibre between adjacent nodes of Ranvier, q.v.
internuncial neuron L. " + nuncius = a messenger; a nerve cell relaying an impulse from one cell to the next; an interneurone.
interstice (-es) L. " + sistere = to set; a space or gap in a tissue or in an organ.
interstitial adj. L. " ; located inbetween, e.g., cells of Leydig.
interstitium L. " ; the interstices, q.v.
intestine contraction of L. quod intus est = that which is inside; L. intestina = the guts, entrails (Celsus, c. 10 AD).
intima L. = innermost; cf. tunica intima.
intrafusal L. intra = with + fusus = spindle; of the fibres in a muscle spindle = neuromuscular spindles.
intramural L. intra = within + murus = wall; within the wall of an organ.
intussusception L. intus = within + suscipere = to receive; an invagination; the slipping ("telescoping") of one part of the intestine into a lower part.
invagination L. invaginare = to ensheath; process of pushing inwards and thereby creating a sheath.
involution L. in = into + volvere = to roll; retrogressive change with size decrease.
iris L. = a rainbow; the coloured membrane around the pupil in anterior segment of eye; a diaphragm in a microscope that can open or close a central pupil-like aperture.
isotropic G. iso = same + tropos = a turning; having the same properties in all directions.
isthmus G isthmos = a narrow passage, a land-bridge; a connecting band.
iter L. = a journey, a passage-way; a way between two anatomical structures, e.g., iter of Sylvius = midbrain aqueduct; iter chordae tympani (anterior, posterior).
Jacobson, Ludwig Levin. 1783-1843 Copenhagen anatomist & physician; military surgeon; organ of J. = vomeronasal o., q.v.
jejunum G. nestis = fasting, translated into L. jejunus = empty, fasting; second part of small intestine emptier than the rest (Galen, c. 180 AD).
junctional complex EM term for terminal bar of epithelial cells.
juxtaglomerular adj. L. iuxta = near, adjacent to + glomerulus = a little ball; e.g., epithelioid cells containing renin granules close to the glomerulus.
juxtaglomerular complex or apparatus a cluster of structures outside a glomerulus in the renal cortex, consisting of juxtaglomerular cells (see above), the polkisson cells (q.v.) and the macula densa (q.v.).
karyon G. = nucleus, nut.
karyolysis G. " + lysis = a loosening; disappearance of nucleus on cell death.
karyorrhexis G. " + rhexis = rupture; fragmentation of a nucleus during cell death and apoptosis.
karyotype G. " + typos = mark; a photomicrograph of all chromosomes from a nucleus arrested in metaphase, which chromosomes are then cut out and arranged in order of size.
keratin G. keras = horn; protein of hair, nails, horny tissue.
keratohyaline protein (derived from eleidin) in granules in cells of stratum granulosum of epidermis.
Kerckring, Theodorus. 1640-1693 Amsterdam & Hamburg physician; valves of K. = plicae circulares (q.v.) in small intesine.
kinocilium G. kinesis = movement + cilium = eyelash; unique long cilium on hair cells of sensory epithelium of labyrinth.
Krause, Karl Friedrich Theodor. 1797-1868 Hannover anatomist; glands of K. = accessory lacrimal glands near superior fornix of conjunctiva; K.'s membrane = Dobbie's line = Z-disc of sarcomere of striated muscle cell; K.'s corpuscles = sensory end-bulbs in skin.
Kupffer, Karl Wilhelm von. 1829-1902 Kiel, Munich anatomist; K. cell = a stellate, sinusoidal macrophage of the liver (1876).