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GLOSSARY of HISTOLOGICAL & MICRO-ANATOMICAL TERMS
from the Department of Anatomy, University of New South Wales, Sidney Australia,
Ebner, Victor (Ritter von Rosenstein). 1842-1925 Innsbruck & Vienna histologist; E.'s glands = serous lingual glands; E.'s lines = fibrils in dentine and cementum of teeth; E.'s reticulum = network of cells in seminiferous tubules.
eccentric G. ek = out(side) + kentron = centre.
eccrine G. " + krinein = to separate; of sweat secretion, or of sweat glands.
ectoderm G. ek = outside + derma = skin; outer cell layer of embryo giving rise to CNS, skin, glands, etc.
ectopic G. ek = out + topos = placed; displaced; in an abnormal position; opposite to entopic.
ectoplasm G ektos = outside + plasma = a thing formed; outermost layer of cytoplasm.
Edinger, Ludwig. 1855-1918 Franfurt-am-Main anatomist & neurologist; skilled violinist; bequeathed his own brain for study; nucleus of Edinger-Westphal = oculomotor nucleus (1885); cf. Westphal.
efferent L. ex = away + ferre = to carry; centrifugal; e.g., motor nerves are efferent with respect to central nervous system; efferent arteriole of renal glomerulus; opposite to afferent, q.v.
effete worn out.
Ehrlich, Paul. 1854-1915 German pathologist & bacteriologist; named mast cells, q.v.; E.'s haematoxylin.
elastin G. elastikos = impulsive (as in elastic recoil); protein component of yellow fibres of elastic tissue.
electron-dense appearing dark in electron microscope; scatters electrons.
electron-lucent appearing light in electron microscope; transmits electrons; opposite to electron-dense.
eleidin G. elaia = oil; acidophilic substance in oily granules in cells of stratum lucidum of epidermis.
embolus G. embolos = wedge, something inserted; something blocking the lumen of a blood vessel.
embryo G. embryon = fruit of womb before birth, from bryein = to grow, swell out.
emphysema G. emphysan = to inflate; pathological distension of tissues by gas.
en bloc F. = in the block; of dyeing tissues in the block before sectioning the block in a microtome.
en face F. = face on; e.g. an aerial view of a surface.
enamel OF. esmail = enamel, from L. smatto = I smelt; hard prismatic white substance covering crown of tooth, like the enamel fused to surface of objects.
enarthrosis G. en = in + arthron = a joint; a ball-and-socket joint.
encephalon G. enkephalos = brain, from en = in + kephalos = head.
end artery a small artery that ends in branches which do not have sufficient anastomoses other arteries to keep the organ alive if the end artery is occluded, e.g., artery to the vermiform appendix (Cohnheim, c. 1860).
end-bulb the sensory corpuscle at the peripheral end of a sensory nerve, e.g., end-bulb of Krause.
endo- or ento- G. endon = within.
endocardium G. " + kardia = heart; the tunica intima of the heart.
endochondral G. " + chondros = cartilage; of ossification taking place in a cartilage model.
endocrine G. " + krinein = to separate; formation of internal secretions (= hormones) with release into blood or lymph stream.
endoderm or entoderm G. " + derma = skin; inner cell layer of embryo giving rise to digestive system, glands, liver, part of urinary system, etc; also called entoderm.
endolymph G. " + L. lympha = clear fluid, water; fluid inside the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear.
endometrium G. " + metra = womb; mucosal lining of uterus.
endomysium G. " + mys = muscle; fine connective tissue supporting single muscle cells within a muscle fascicle.
endoneurium G. " + neuron = sinew (nerve); delicate connective tissue supporting individual nerve fibres within a peripheral nerve fascicle.
endoplasm G. " + plasma = a thing formed; central, more fluid part of cytoplasm.
endoplasmic reticulum G. " + plasma = a thing formed + reticulum = a small net (-work), dimutive of L. rete, q.v.; a connecting network of membranous channels and sacs in cytoplasm; of two types: rough e.r. with many ribosomes on surface, and smooth e.r., without ribosomes; cf. ergastoplasm.
endosteum G. " + osteon = bone; vascular membrane and osteoblasts lining medullary cavity of a bone.
endotendineum G " L. tendo = sinew; connective tissue within a sinew (also endotenon).
endothelium G. " + thele = nipple; the special name for epithelium (q.v.) lining blood and lymph vessels.
enteroendocrine G. enteron = intestine + endon = within + krinein = to separate.
entoderm G. entos = within + derma = skin; see endoderm.
enzyme G. en = in + zyme = leaven (an early use of biotechnology!).
Eosin G. eos = dawn, rose-coloured; an acidic dye staining the basic cytoplasmic proteins pink.
eosinophil G. " + philein = to love; a type of blood cell with distinct cytoplasmic granules which stain pink with eosin.
eosinophilic having an affinity for eosin dye.
ependyma G. epi = upon + endyma = a garment, an upper garment, a wrap; a vest or singlet, hence an inner garment; cellular layer lining cerebral ventricles and central canal of spinal cord.
epi- G. = upon, on.
epicardium G. " + kardia = heart; outer layer of heart, including connective tissue (i.e., its tunica adventitia) and mesothelium of the serous visceral pericardium.
epidermis G. " + derma = skin; superficial layer of skin.
epididymis (-dymides) G. " + didymos = twofold, double, testis; hence an organ on the posterosuperior aspect of the duplicated organ, the testis, with a duct through which spermatozoa pass; cf. ductus epididymidis.
epidural space space external to the dura mater in the spinal cord.
epiglottis G. " + glottis = throat, larynx; leaf-shaped structure of the upper part of larynx at root of tongue.
epimysium G. " + mys = muscle; loose connective tissue investing several muscle fascicles = muscle fascia, q.v.
epineurium G. " + neuron = sinew; loose connective tissue investing several nerve fascicles.
epiphysis (-ses) G. epi = upon + physis = a growth; extremities of long bones, covering the actual sites of growth (= metaphysis); also epiphysis cerebri = pineal gland.
epiploic G. epiploon = a net; relating to greater omentum, resembling a net with adipose tissue deposits (Galen, c. 180 AD).
epithelioid cells G. -oeides = like; cells that appear like those of an epithelium but are not, e.g., lymphocytes around the germinal centre of an active lymphatic follicle; juxtaglomerular cells of an afferent arteriole in the kidney.
epithelium (-ia) G. epi = upon + thele = nipple, ridge of the lip; cells that cover the ridges of the lip (Ruysch, c. 1700); cells covering organs and structures, or lining spaces, tubes (Henle, c. 1870); many epithelia separate the inside the body from the outside world and its inward extensions.
eponychium G. " + onyx = nail; horny structure (i.e., stratum corneum) of skin fold covering root of a nail; cuticle of a nail.
epoöphoron G. " + oöphoron = ovary; minute tubules in mesosalpinx derived from upper part of embryonic mesonephros.
ergastoplasm G. ergon = work + plasma = a thing formed; cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid as a site of protein synthesis; synonym for rough endoplasmic reticulum.
erythroblast G. erythros = red + blastos = germ; early stage in development of an erythrocyte.
erythrocyte G. " + kytos = hollow vessel; red blood cell (without a nucleus).
erythropoiesis G. " + poiesis = making; process of erythrocyte production in bone marrow, liver, etc.
euchromatin G. eus = good + chroma = colour; chromatin rich in nucleic acid.
Eustachio, Bartolomeo. ?1513,1524-1574 Rome anatomist & physician to Pope; studied teeth; described thoracic duct (vena alba magna), cochlea, larynx; Eustachian tube = the cartilaginous part of auditory tube (1562).
evagination L. evaginare = to unsheath; protrusion of an organ or a surface.
exocrine G. exo = outside + krinein = to separate; of glands retaining connection with epithelial surface (opposite to endocrine).
extrafusal L. extra = out + fusus = a spindle; of normal skeletal muscle fibres other than the intrafusal (q.v.) fibres of the muscle spindle.
extravasation L. extra = out + vas = vessel; leakage, e.g., of urine from urinary tract.
exudate L. ex = out + sudare = to sweat.
Fabricius of Aquapendente, Hieronymus. ?1533,1537-1619 Studied under Fallopius; Padua anatomist; taught William Harvey; described valves in veins; bursa of F. = peritoneal blind pouch near anus in birds, producing lymphocytes.
facet F. facette = a face.
Fallopius, Gabriele. 1523-1563 Ferrara, Pisa & Padua anatomist & botanist; described accurately the inner ear, ethmoid bone, lacrimal duct, vagina, placenta; disproved earlier notion that ovarian ligaments conducted ovum to uterus; Fallopian tube = uterine tube (1561).
fascia (-ae) L. = a band, bandage; fibrous membrane covering and supporting muscles, cf. epimysium; hypodermis.
fascia adherens L. " + adhaerere = to stick to; most prominent component of the intercalated disc joining two cardiac muscle muscle cells; resembles zonula adherens of epithelium.
fascicle L. fasciculus = a little bundle, dim L. facis (fasces was a symbolic bundle of rod with an axe in the middle); e.g., a bundle of nerve fibres, of muscle fibres.
fasciculata adj. L. " ; e.g., zona fasciculata = middle zone in adrenal cortex where cells are arranged in columns.
Fast green a synthetic dye resistant to fading used in histology & cytology.
fenestrated adj. L. fenestra = window; 1. of an aperture in a cell membrane (e.g., in a capillary endothelial cell) often closed by a membrane; 2. of an aperture in an elastic sheet in tunica media of an artery.
Ferrein, Antoine. 1692-1769 Paris surgeon & physician. F.'s processes = medullary rays of kidney.
fibre L. fibra = fibre (Vesalius, c. 1550); original meaning was a lobe, e.g., of lung, liver, or bowels examined for prophecies.
fibril L. fibrilla = a small fibre (from L. fibra = fibre); subunit of a fibre, i.e., many fibrils bundle together to form a fibre; cf. microfibril.
fibroblast L. fibra = fibre + G. blastos = germ; young flat, elongated cell forming collagen.
fibrocartilage L. " + cartilago = gristle; a type of cartilage with many collagen fibres.
fibrocyte L. " + kytos = a vessel; mature form of the fibroblast, especially in tendon.
field of view the circular field seen when looking into an optical device.
filiform L. filum = a thread + forma = form; hair-like, of thread of keratin emerging from the apex of a filiform lingual papilla.
fimbria L. = a fringe; e.g., fimbria at ovarian end of uterine tube; fimbria of 3rd ventricle of brain.
flavum L. flavus = yellow (often due to presence of large amount of elastic tissue); ligamentum flavum of vertebral column.
Flechsig, Paul Emil. 1847-1929 Leipzig psychiatrist; named pyramidal tract; nucleus of F. = superior vestibular nucelus; fasciculus of F. = fasciculus lateralis proprius of spinal cord; F.'s law of myelination.
flocculus L. = a little tuft, dim. L. floccus; small lobe beneath each cerebellar hemisphere.
folium (-ia) L. = a leaf; 1. folds of cerebellar cortex; 2. leaf-like foliate papillae of tongue.
follicle L. folliculus = little bag (dim. of L. follis).
Fontana, Abbada Felice ?1720,1730-1805. Pisa philosopher; Director, Florence Museum of Natural Science; F.'s spirals = spiral pattern of nerves in a peripheral nerve fascicle; spaces of F. = spaces in the pectinate ligament of the iridocorneal angle of the iris through which the aqueous humour flows into the scleral venous canal (of Schlemm).
formalin fixative; aqueous solution of 37% formaldehyde, possibly with trace amounts of methanol.
fornix (-ices) L. = a cellar, a vault, the arch of a vault, a prostitute's cellar or brothel (hence fornication); conjuctival fornix = recess where palpebral conjunctiva joins to bulbar conjunctiva; vaginal fornices = vaults surrounding intravaginal part of cervix; fornix of the brain = arched bundle of fibres.
fossa (-ae) L. = a trench or ditch; axillary fossa = armpit; fossa ovalis = opening in thigh through which saphenous vein passes; fossa ovalis cordis = remnant of embryonic foramen ovale in heart; navicular fossa, q.v.
fourchette F. = fork; fold of mucous membrane at junction of posterior parts of labia majora.
fovea L. = a pit or depression.
fovea centralis L. = central depression; pit in retina which is site of maximum acuity.
foveola (-ae) L. = a little pit (dim. of L. fovea).
foveola gastrica L. = a little pit of the stomach; a gastric pit = a groove into which several gastric glands drain.
frenulum L.= a small bridle, dim L. frenum; frenulum linguae (when short - "tongue-tied").
fundus L. = bottom, base (as in fundamental); refers to region of organ (e.g., stomach, uterus, eye), gland (e.g., gastric glands).
fungiform L. fungus = mushroom + forma = a shape; of lingual papillae.
funiculus (-i) L. = a little cord (dim. L. funis = cord); a cordlike structure composed of longitudinally oriented fibres, vessels, etc., e.g., funiculi of white matter of spinal cord; funiculus spermaticus = spermatic cord; funiculus umbilicus = umbilical cord
fusiform L. fusus = spindle + forma = shape; see extrafusal/intrafusal.