toxic to aquatic crustacean invertebrates
chemical used on salmon farms to rid fish of sea lice. Allegations
of damage to small crustaceans and other marine wildlife,
which could be crucial to the survival of other species.
(only comprehensive for the US)
EPA PC Code:
(includes only a limited list of countries)
Germany, Hungary, Japan, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal,
Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar,
Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, South Africa
Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs)
Apricot, Asparagus, Barley, Broccoli,
Brussel sprouts, Buckwheat, Burdock, Button mushroom, Cabbage,
Cauliflower, Cherry, Corn, Cucumber, Eggplant, Grape, Grapefruit,
Lemon, Lettuce, Lime, Melons, Multiplying onion (inc Shallot),
Natsudaidai (whole), Nectarine, Other Cereal grains, Other
Citrus fruits, Other Cruciferous vegs, Pear, Peach, Pimento,
Plum, Potato, Pumpkin (inc Squash), Quince, Radish, Rice,
Rye, Soybeans, Strawberry, Sugar beet, Sweet Potato, Tea,
Tomato, Unshu orange, Welsh (inc Leek), Wheat
Note the very high levels - 20 ppm
- for Tea (Green, Black, Oolong, Wulung)
Nutreco ARC Ltd.
and synthesis of the environmental impacts of aquaculture.
The Scottish Association for Marine Science and Napier University.
Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.
25, 2002 - Leaked
government report reveals fish farm damage.
Press release from Friends of the Earth, Scotland.
1999 - Calicide
(Teflubenzuron) - Authorisation for use as an in- feed sea lice
treatment in marine cage salmon farms. Risk Assessment, EQS
and Recommendations. Policy No. 29.
Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Fish Farming
Advisory Group. Also available at http://www.sepa.org.uk/policies/pdf/29.pdf
Summary Report (Part 2). Committee
for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the
Evaluation of Medicinal Products. See
also Part 1 of the report published
in 1997 at http://www.emea.eu.int/pdfs/vet/mrls/022197en.pdf
that details metabolites, mechanism of action, and residue levels
reported from several different countries at
Residues in Food. FAO & WHO report -
Insect Growth Regulator. Article: Fire Ants: a look at new and
old approaches to control. By Sean Adams -
USDA ARS News and Information. January 30, 1997.
of Pesticide Chemicals, October 2001.
A listing of pesticides subject to analysis of residues in foods
and feeds by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Report Claims Toxins Are Hitting Marine Food Chain Fish
Published on: April 25, 2002
chemicals used on salmon farms could be killing off key
elements of the marine food chain, according to a report
leaked to a leading scientific magazine.
Scientist magazine has obtained a copy of a 178-page
report which forms part of the ongoing £4 million study
into the industry, which was launched by the UK government
in 1999. In the leaked document it is alleged that chemicals
such as cypermethrin, azamethiphos or
teflubenzuron are damaging small crustaceans and other marine
wildlife, which could be crucial to the survival of other
species. These chemicals are often used by farmers
to rid fish of sea lice.
report also claims that many fish farmers seriously hampered
the researchers in their efforts to collect information.
Project leader Kenny Black from Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory,
which has been carrying out much of the research, described
problems in getting access to sites and information as "very
of the Earth, who have campaigned against the industry for
many years, welcomed the report. Chief executive Kevin Dunion
said: "These worrying findings suggest that the impact
of salmon farming may not be localised, as the industry
and authorities have so far claimed. Despite being withheld
from the public these findings must be passed to the current
Parliamentary inquiry into the aquaculture industry."
the director at Dunstaffnage, Graham Shimmield, stresses
that the research is still in progress and that the impact
may not be as large as some have suggested.
experiments so far suggest that fish-farm chemicals may
have an effect," he said. "The challenge now is
to quantify that effect."
Catch - Fish farming is flourishing at the expense of
other marine life
New Scientist 27 April 2002.
chemicals used by salmon farms could be killing off tiny
animals that are vital to the marine food chain, scientists
warn in a confidential report for the British government
leaked to New Scientist.
farming is one of the world's fastest growing food production
industries. For the first time, the total amount of Atlantic
salmon reared in cages in Norway, Chile, Scotland, Canada
and elsewhere is expected to top one million tonnes this
as the industry has grown, so have concerns about the pollution,
disease and genetic contamination it may spread. Now, evidence
from one of the biggest scientific investigations to date
suggests that the pesticides applied at hundreds of salmon
farms may be harming the marine environment.
fish are fed or bathed in cypermethrin, azamethiphos or
kill the sea lice that plague them. The lice damage the
health of the fish, and in turn the salmon farming business.
But shellfish farmers and environmentalists have long suspected
that the chemicals could be harming other marine wildlife.
fears prompted the British government to launch a £750,000
study in 1999, involving regulatory agencies, marine laboratories
and the salmon farming industry. New Scientist has seen
the 178-page second annual progress report of this study,
dated April 2001.
report includes the interim results of a study by the Plymouth
Marine Laboratory, which surveyed small invertebrates around
salmon farms in Loch Sunart and Loch Craignish on the west
coast of Scotland. The researchers found a drop in the number
of nematode worms in the sediment close to the fish farms.
They were also worried about "the almost complete absence"
of copepods, tiny crustaceans that are an important source
of food for young fish. Although this could be partly explained
by poor sampling, they believe it "suggests the possibility
of a large-scale effect that may be related to the use of
chemicals on the fish farms".
experiments at the Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory near Oban
back this up. They show that the chemicals either kill or
deform copepods at concentrations as low as 100 nanograms
a litre. So far, however, the Dunstaffnage researchers have
not been able to find the effect in the wild.
the past, the research effort was hampered by a lack of
cooperation from fish farmers. Dunstaffnage 's project leader,
Kenny Black, described this as "very frustrating" in the
leaked report. Now, though, relations are said to be much
salmon industry 's critics have seized upon the new findings.
Friends of the Earth Scotland says they suggest that salmon
farming is having a much wider impact than previously realised.
"This report reveals that salmon farming is a very dirty
business," adds Alan Berry, a former shellfish farmer who
voiced some of the original fears.
Dunstaffnage 's director, Graham Shimmield, stresses that
the research is still in progress. "Laboratory experiments
so far suggest that fish-farm chemicals may have an effect,"
he says. "The challenge now is to quantify that effect."
He cautions that the impact on marine wildlife may not be
as large as many critics suggest.
FR Doc. 93-18589 Filed 8-3-93; 8:45 am Filing.
Initial Filing of Pesticide Petition: Teflubenzuron 1. PP
3E4209. Biologic, Inc., 11 Lake Ave.
Extension, Danbury, CT 06811, has submitted to EPA
a petition for the insect growth regulator
teflubenzuron technical to establish
an import tolerance for various agricultural commodities as
at .4 ppm
pome fruits at .7 ppm
potatoes at .05 ppm
meat, meat byproducts, fat, kidney, and liver of cattle, goats,
hogs, horses, and sheep at .01 ppm
meat, meat byproducts, fat, kidney, and liver of poultry at
eggs at .05 ppm
milk at .01 ppm.