2006 Abstracts
Abstracts on PFOS and PFOA for the following years:

Note: PFOS and PFOA are a class of perfluorinated chemicals that are best known for their use in the production of Teflon and other stain resistent materials. The interest of the FAN Pesticide Project in this issue is due to the use of several of the PFOS and PFOA chemicals as "inerts" in pesticides. However, most, but not all, have been deleted from use since 2001. The so-called "inerts" used in pesticides can account for as much as 99%, or more, of a pesticidal formulation. US EPA's policy is to allow the public information only on the "active substance" and to deny the public the names of the chemicals used as "inerts" in specific pesticide products -- even though the majority of inerts are toxic and biologically active.

• See the molecular structure for some of these chemicals

• The following is a selected list of abstracts. For more see PubMed or Toxnet.

Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Feb;77(1):87.
Effects of prenatal perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure on lung maturation in the perinatal rat. Birth Defects Research (Part B) 74:405-416, 2005.

Grasty RC, Bjork JA, Wallace KB, Wolf DC, Lau CS, Rogers JM.

No abstract.

Dr. Douglas C. Wolf of the Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, contributed substantively to the histologic analyses of the lung presented in this article, in particular providing the data for Figure 2. His insights into the overall project were very important. Dr. Wolf should have been listed as a coauthor on this article but was inadvertently not included.

PMID: 16496299 [PubMed - in process]

Toxicology. 2006 Oct 3;227(1-2):156-64. Epub 2006 Aug 12.Click here to read Links

Pharmacokinetic modeling of saturable, renal resorption of perfluoroalkylacids in monkeys--probing the determinants of long plasma half-lives.

Andersen ME, Clewell HJ 3rd, Tan YM, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW.

CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2137, United States.

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) compounds associated with surface protection product manufactures are distributed globally. The 3-5-year half-lives, reproductive and liver toxicity in animals, and lack of understanding of the factors regulating retention in the body have led to a world-wide public concern for use of these materials. Using a novel physiologically-motivated pharmacokinetic model for renal clearance, perfluoroalkylacid pharmacokinetics in monkeys was successfully described by renal resorption via high efficiency transporters for both intravenous and oral dosing. Intravenous dosing with both PFOA and PFOS in Cynomolgus monkeys produced time course curves consistent with a two-compartment distribution. Extending the PK model for intravenous dosing to examine blood and urine time course data for repeated oral dosing clearly identified the saturable renal resorption. Resorption depends on kinetic factors for transport (T(mC), transport maximum; K(T), transport affinity) and free fraction in plasma (f(plasma)). For PFOA, these parameters were estimated to be 5mg/(h kg) (T(mC)), 0.055 mg/L (K(T)), and 0.02 (f(plasma)). PFOS has longer half-life and had respective values of 13.6 mg/(h kg), 0.023 mg/L, and 0.025. PFOS appeared to have a higher transport capacity and lower affinity than PFOA. Human kinetics indicates even higher resorption efficiency.

PMID: 16978759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Mar;22(2):157-60.

[Effects of peroxisome proliferators PFOA on immune system of mice.]

[Article in Chinese]

Yang J, Li A, Yang Q, Li X.

Department of Medical Oncology of the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

AIM: To examine the effects of peroxisome proliferators (PP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), on mouse immune system.
METHODS: Male C57B/6 mice were received the diet containing PFOA and the following parameters were examined, including weight and cell number of thymus and spleen, cell cycle of thymocytes by PI staining, cell phenotype in thymus and spleen by flow cyto metry (FCM) analysis, IgM and IgG production by the protein-A plaque and ELISA assay, and proliferation of splenocytes in response to ConA or LPS by (3)H-TdR labeling.
RESULTS: Severe thymic and splenic atrophy was observed in mice administrated with potent PP, e.g., PFOA. Number of both T and B cells in spleen was decreased upon treatment. Thymocytes were decreased over 90% by treatment, among which the immature CD4(+) CD8(+) population was decreased most dramatically. The most obvious change in thymocytes occurred in the S and G2/M phases. PFOA also prevented the increase both in plaque formation by anti-IgM and -IgG and in serum level of IgM and IgG that normally evoked by immunization with horse red blood cells. Following withdrawal of PFOA from diet, the above parameters rapidly returned to normal.
CONCLUSION: Potent PP significantly inhibits mouse immune system.

PMID: 16507247 [PubMed - in process]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):748-51.

Is fish a major source of fluorinated surfactants and repellents in humans living on the Baltic Coast?

Falandysz J, Taniyasu S, Gulkowska A, Yamashita N, Schulte-Oehlmann U.

Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Concentrations of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdansk at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate in the human body. Food chain is an important route of exposure for all 10 perfluoroalkyl compounds detected in nonoccupationally exposed humans. Individuals who declared to have a high fish intake in their diet (mainly Baltic fish) on average contained the highest load of all 10 fluorochemicals when compared with the other human subpopulations. Baltic seafood has been found to highly influence human body burden of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA, and to a lesser extent PFOA.

PMID: 16509313 [PubMed - in process]

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2006;57(2):113-24.

[Perfluorinated chemicals in the environment, food and human body]

[Article in Polish]

Falandysz J, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Jecek L, Rostkowski P, Gulkowska A, Mostrag A, Walczykiewicz B, Zegarowski L, Falandysz J, Zalewski K.

Zaklad Chemii Srodowiska i Ekotoksykologii Uniwersytet Gdanski 80-952 Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18.

Some data on production, toxicity, properties, uses, analytics as well as an environmental occurrence of PFCs in Poland are reviewed. In total 16 fluorochemicals were detected in surface water (Radunia River and Gulf of Gdansk), beaver's liver (Warmia and Mazury region), cod and eider duck blood (Gulf of Gdansk), young cattle blood (County of Stezyca) and human blood (Gdansk Coast; donors which declared elevated Baltic fish intake) in Poland. In blood of the Gdansk Coast inhabitants PFHxS, PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA and PFDo-DA were found. In surface water for the first time were found fluorochemicals such as PFBuS, PFOcDA, PFBA and PFPeA, while in beavers' liver also PFTeA and N-Ethyl FOSA.

PMID: 17044304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2006;57(2):99-112.

[Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances in blood--Polish WWF study]

[Article in Polish]

Strucinski P, Goralczyk K, Ludwicki JK, Czaja K, Hernik A, Korcz W.

Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny 00-791 Warszawa, ul. Chocimska 24.

In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund) was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals (known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed, the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from 6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 (concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49 to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide - PFOSA, perfluorononanoic acid - PFNA, and perfluorododecanoic acid - PFDA). The predominant compound in this class of contaminants was PFOS with the concentration ranging from 4,4 to 14 ng/ml of blood. The limited number of samples does not allow for making an analysis of potential impact of different factors on concentrations of particular contaminants in human blood. Results obtained in this survey confirm the ubiquitous contamination by a cocktail of hazardous chemicals of every person tested. Humans being a part of the environment are being contaminated with the same chemicals which are present in surrounding air, water, food, consumer articles, etc.

PMID: 17044303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):924-30.

Formation of C7F15COOH (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids during the atmospheric oxidation of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol.

Wallington TJ, Hurley MD, Xia J, Wuebbles DJ, Sillman S, Ito A, Penner JE, Ellis DA, Martin J, Mabury SA, Nielsen OJ, Sulbaek Andersen MP.

Ford Motor Company, SRL-3083, P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, Michigan 48121-2053, USA.

Calculations using a three-dimensional global atmospheric chemistry model (IMPACT) indicate that n-C8F17CH2CH2OH (widely used in industrial and consumer products) degrades in the atmosphere to give perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFOA is persistent, bioaccumulative, and potentially toxic. Molar yields of PFOA depend on location and season, are in the range of 1-10%, and are of the correct order of magnitude to explain the observed levels in Arctic fauna. Fluorotelomer alcohols such as n-C8F17CH2CH2OH appear to be a significant global source of persistent bioaccumulative perfluorocarboxylic acid pollution. This is the first modeling study of the atmospheric chemistry of a fluorotelomer alcohol.

PMID: 16509338 [PubMed - in process]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Jan 1;40(1):32-44.

Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates.

Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH.

Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

This review describes the sources, fate, and transport of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in the environment, with a specific focus on perfluorooctanoate (PFO). The global historical industry-wide emissions of total PFCAs from direct (manufacture, use, consumer products) and indirect (PFCA impurities and/or precursors) sources were estimated to be 3200-7300 tonnes. It was estimated that the majority (approximately 80%) of PFCAs have been released to the environment from fluoropolymer manufacture and use. Although indirect sources were estimated to be much less importantthan direct sources, there were larger uncertainties associated with the calculations for indirect sources. The physical-chemical properties of PFO (negligible vapor pressure, high solubility in water, and moderate sorption to solids) suggested that PFO would accumulate in surface waters. Estimated mass inventories of PFO in various environmental compartments confirmed that surface waters, especially oceans, contain the majority of PFO. The only environmental sinks for PFO were identified to be sediment burial and transport to the deep oceans, implying a long environmental residence time. Transport pathways for PFCAs in the environment were reviewed, and it was concluded that, in addition to atmospheric transport/degradation of precursors, atmospheric and ocean water transport of the PFCAs themselves could significantly contribute to their long-range transport. It was estimated that 2-12 tonnes/ year of PFO are transported to the Artic by oceanic transport, which is greater than the amount estimated to result from atmospheric transport/degradation of precursors.

PMID: 16433330 [PubMed - in process]

Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1952-7.

Responses of the liver to perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length in male and female mice: in relation to induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase.

Kudo N, Suzuki-Nakajima E, Mitsumoto A, Kawashima Y.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Sakado, Saitama, Japan.

The potency of the induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acylglycerophoshocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase was compared among perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with 6-9 carbon chain length in the liver of male and female mice. All PFCAs examined induced hepatomegaly and peroxisomal beta-oxidation and the potency was in the order of perfluorononanonic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHeA) when compared with the relative doses to induce the two parameters. Microsomal 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase was induced by PFHA, PFOA and PFNA, as was peroxisomal beta-oxidation. No significant sex-related difference was observed in the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by any PFCAs examined. PFNA and PFOA accumulated in the liver of both male and female mice in a dose-dependent manner. PFHA accumulated in the liver to a lesser extent; little PFHeA accumulated in the liver. Hepatic concentrations of PFNA, PFOA and PFHA were higher in male mice than those in female mice. One linear regression line was confirmed between the activities of peroxisomal beta-oxidation and hepatic concentrations of PFHeA, PFHA, PFOA and PFNA in male mice regardless of their carbon chain lengths, and the activities were saturable at the concentrations over approximately 500 nmol/g liver. Similar linear regression line was obtained between the two parameters in female mice. These results suggest
(i) that the longer the perfluoroalkyl chain becomes, the more PFCA accumulates in the liver of both male and female mice,
(ii) that the accumulated PFCAs induce hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase, and
(iii) that the difference observed in the accumulation of PFHA, PFOA and PFNA in the liver between male and female mice is not enough to produce obvious sex-related difference in the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation.

PMID: 16946516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Aug;48(8):759-70.

Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate: relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources.

Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, Freeman D, Desai C, Shaw LM.

University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4284, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine serum (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA]) in residents near a fluoropolymer production facility: the contributions from air, water, and occupational exposures, personal and dietary habits, and relationships to age and gender.
METHODS: The authors conducted questionnaire and serum PFOA measurements in a stratified random sample and volunteers residing in locations with the same residential water supply but with higher and lower potential air PFOA exposure.
RESULTS: Serum (PFOA) greatly exceeded general population medians. Occupational exposure from production processes using PFOA and residential water had additive effects; no other occupations contributed. Serum (PFOA) depended on the source of residential drinking water, and not potential air exposure. For public water users, the best-fit model included age, tap water drinks per day, servings of home-grown fruit and vegetables, and carbon filter use.
CONCLUSIONS: Residential water source was the primary determinant of serum (PFOA).

PMID: 16902368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Jan;25(1):227-32.

Effects of air cell injection of perfluorooctane sulfonate before incubation on development of the white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryo.

Molina ED, Balander R, Fitzgerald SD, Giesy JP, Kannan K, Mitchell R, Bursian SJ.

Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Fifty white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs per group were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, or 20.0 microg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/g egg before incubation to investigate the effects of PFOS on the developing embryo. Hatchlings were weighed, examined for gross developmental abnormalities, and transferred to a battery brooder, where they were raised for 7 d. Chicks were then weighed, and 20 birds per treatment were randomly chosen for necropsy. The brain, heart, kidneys, and liver were removed and weighed. Livers were processed further for determination of PFOS concentrations and histological assessment. Hatchability was reduced significantly in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The calculated median lethal dose was 4.9 microg PFOS/g egg. Perfluorooctane sulfonate did not affect posthatch body or organ weights. Exposure to PFOS caused pathological changes in the liver characterized by bile duct hyperplasia, periportal inflammation, and hepatic cell necrosis at doses as low as 1.0 microg PFOS/g egg. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in the liver increased in a dose-dependent manner. Based on reduced hatchability, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was 0.1 microg PFOS/g egg.

PMID: 16494246 [PubMed - in process]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):715-20.

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in human blood samples from China.

Yeung LW, So MK, Jiang G, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Song M, Wu Y, Li J, Giesy JP, Guruge KS, Lam PK.

Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.

Perfluorooctanesulfonylfluoride (POSF)-based compounds have been manufactured and used in a variety of industrial applications. These compounds degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) which is regarded as a persistent end-stage metabolite and is found to accumulate in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) have been found in human sera from the United States. In this study, concentrations of PFHxS, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), PFOS, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and PFOSA were measured in 85 samples of whole human blood collected from nine cities (eight provinces) in China, including Shenyang (Liaoning), Beijing (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan), Jintan (Jiangsu), Wuhan (Hubei), Zhoushan (Zhejiang), Guiyang (Guizhou), Xiamen (Fujian), and Fuzhou (Fujian). Among the 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) measured, PFOS was the predominant compound. The mean concentration of PFOS was greatest in samples collected from Shenyang (79.2 ng/mL) and least in samples from Jintan (3.72 ng/mL). PFHxS was the next most abundant perfluorochemical in the samples. No age-related differences in the concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFHxS were observed. Gender-related differences were found,with males higher for PFOS and PFHxS, and females higher in PFUnDA. Concentrations of PFHxS were positively correlated with those of PFOS, while concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA were positively correlated with those of PFOA. There were differences in the concentration profiles (percentage composition) of various PFCs in the samples among the nine cities.

PMID: 16509308 [PubMed - in process]

J Carcinog. 2006 Nov 27;5:26.

Hepatocellular proliferation in response to agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha: a role for kupffer cells?

Alsarra IA, Brockmann WG, Cunningham ML, Badr MZ.

University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that PPARalpha agonists stimulate Kupffer cells in rodents which in turn, release mitogenic factors leading to hepatic hyperplasia, and eventually cancer. However, Kupffer cells do not express PPARalpha receptors, and PPARalpha agonists stimulate hepatocellular proliferation in both TNFalpha- and TNFalpha receptor-null mice, casting doubt on the involvement of Kupffer cells in the mitogenic response to PPARalpha agonists. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether the PPARalpha agonist PFOA and the Kupffer cell inhibitor methylpalmitate produce opposing effects on hepatocellular proliferation and Kupffer cell activity in vivo, in a manner that would implicate these cells in the mitogenic effects of PPARalpha agonists.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intravenously via the tail vein with methylpalmitate 24 hrs prior to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and were sacrificed 24 hrs later, one hr after an intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Sera were analyzed for TNFalpha and IL-1beta. Liver sections were stained immunohistochemically and quantified for BrdU incorporated into DNA.
RESULTS: Data show that PFOA remarkably stimulated hepatocellular proliferation in the absence of significant changes in the serum levels of either TNFalpha or IL-1beta. In addition, methylpalmitate did not alter the levels of these mitogens in PFOA-treated animals, despite the fact that it significantly blocked the hepatocellular proliferative effect of PFOA. Correlation between hepatocellular proliferation and serum levels of TNFalpha or IL-1beta was extremely poor.
CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that mechanisms involving Kupffer cells play an eminent role in the hepatic hyperplasia, and consequently hepatocarcinogenicity attributed to PPARalpha agonists. This conclusion is based on the above mentioned published data and the current findings showing animals treated with PFOA alone or in combination with methylpalmitate to have similar levels of serum TNFalpha and IL-1beta, which are reliable indicators of Kupffer cell activity, despite a remarkable difference in hepatocellular proliferation.

PMID: 17129391 [PubMed - in process]

Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2006 Jan;56(1):48-55.

Characterizing perfluorooctanoate in ambient air near the fence line of a manufacturing facility: comparing modeled and monitored values.

Barton CA, Butler LE, Zarzecki CJ, Flaherty J, Kaiser M.

DuPont Engineering Technology, Wilmington, DE 19898, USA.

In order to improve our understanding of the nature, measurement and prediction of salts of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in air, two studies were performed along the fence line of a fluoropolymer manufacturing facility. First, a six-event, 24-hr monitoring series was performed around the fence line using the OSHA versatile sampler (OVS) system. Perfluorooctanoate concentrations were determined as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Those data indicated that the majority of the PFOA was present as a particulate. No vapor-phase PFOA was detected above a detection limit of approximately 0.07 microg/m3. A follow-up study using a high-volume cascade impactor verified the range of concentrations observed in the OVS data. Both studies aligned with the major transport direction and range of concentrations predicted by an air dispersion model, demonstrating that model predictions agreed with monitoring results. Results from both monitoring methods and predictions from air dispersion modeling showed the primary direction of transport for PFOA was in the prevailing wind direction. The PFOA concentration measured at the site fence over the 10-week sampling period ranged from 0.12 to 0.9 microg/m3. Modeled predictions for the same time period ranged from 0.12 to 3.84 microg/m3. Less than 6% of the particles were larger than 4 microm in size, while almost 60% of the particles were below 0.3 microm. These studies are believed to be the first published ambient air data for PFOA in the environment surrounding a manufacturing facility.

PMID: 16499146 [PubMed - in process]

January 20, 2006

US EPA Science Advisory Board

Review of EPA's Draft Risk Assessment of Potential Human Health Effects Associated with PFOA and Its Salts

Excerpt: Comment on the Proposed Descriptor for the Carcinogenic Potential of PFOA

Most Panel members concluded that the experimental weight of evidence with respect to the carcinogenicity of PFOA was stronger than proposed in the draft document, and suggested that PFOA cancer data are consistent with the EPA guidelines descriptor ‘likely to be carcinogenic to humans’. According to EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment 1 (also known as EPA’s Cancer Guidelines), this descriptor is typically applied to agents that have tested positive in more than one species, sex, strain, site or exposure route, with or without evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Conclusions of these Panel members were based on the following:

• While human data are ambiguous, two separate feeding studies in rats demonstrate that PFOA is a multi-site carcinogen.

• Uncertainties still exist (see Issue 1 comments) as to whether PPAR-alpha agonism constitutes the sole MOA for PFOA effects on liver. This was based on the fact that PFOA, but not the prototypical PPAR-alpha agonist, WY14,643, increases liver weights in PPAR-alpha knockout mice, a finding of uncertain significance in the absence of liver histopathology and replication of this finding. Further, mitochondrial proliferation was suggested in the document as a basis of liver toxicity in monkeys exposed to PFOA.

• The exclusion of mammary tumors in the draft document based on comparisons to historical control levels from other laboratories was deemed inappropriate, since the most appropriate control group is a concurrent control group. Using that comparison, increases in both fibroadenomas (22%, 42% and 48% for rats treated with 0, 30 and 300 ppm APFO (ammonium perfluorooctanoate or C8, the ammonium salt of PFOA), respectively) and adenocarcinomas (15, 31% and 11%, respectively) were seen in the Sibinski et al. (1987) 2 yr PFOA feeding study.

• Insufficient data are currently available to determine the MOA for the observed Leydig cell tumors, pancreatic acinar cell tumors and mammary gland tumors. In the absence of a defined MOA for these tumor types, they must be presumed to be relevant to humans, as suggested by EPA’s Cancer Guidelines.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Jan 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Occurrence of Perfluoroalkyl Surfactants in Water, Fish, and Birds from New York State.

Sinclair E, Mayack DT, Roblee K, Yamashita N, Kannan K.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York, 12201-0509, USA,

Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and several other perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) were determined in nine major water bodies (n = 51) of New York State (NYS). These PASs were also measured in the livers of two species of sport fish (n = 66) from 20 inland lakes in NYS. Finally, perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of 10 species of waterfowl (n = 87) from the Niagara River region in NYS. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS) were ubiquitous in NYS waters. PFOA was typically found at higher concentrations than were PFOS and PFHS. Elevated concentrations of PFOS were found in surface waters of Lake Onondaga, and elevated concentrations of PFOA were found in the Hudson River. PFOS was the most abundant perfluorinated compound in all fish and bird samples. PFOS concentrations in the livers of fishes ranged from 9 to 315 ng/g wet weight. PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamide) concentrations in smallmouth and largemouth bass (taken together) caught in remote mountain lakes with no known point sources of PAS contamination were 14 to 207, < 1.5 to 6.1, and < 1.5 to 9.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively. PFOS concentrations in the livers of birds ranged from 11 to 882 ng/g wet weight. PFOS concentrations were 2.5-fold greater (p = 0.001) in piscivorous birds than in non-piscivorous birds. However, PFOA, PFOSA, and PFHS were not found in bird livers. Overall, average concentrations of PFOS in fish were 8850-fold greater than those in surface water. An average biomagnification factor of 8.9 was estimated for PFOS in common merganser relative to that in fish. This study highlights the significance of dietary fish in PFOS accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, our results provide information on the distribution of PASs in natural waters, fish, and several bird species in NYS.

PMID: 16435086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Toxicol Sci. 2006 Jan 16; [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure during Pregnancy in the Mouse.

Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ.

Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids that have wide commercial applications, has recently been detected in humans and wildlife. The current study characterizes the developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse. Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were given 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg PFOA by oral gavage daily from gestational day (GD) 1 to 17; controls received an equivalent volume (10 ml/kg) of water. PFOA treatment produced dose-dependent full-litter resorptions; all dams in the 40 mg/kg group resorbed their litters. Weight gain in dams that carried pregnancy to term was significantly lower in the 20 mg/kg group. At GD 18, some dams were sacrificed for maternal and fetal examinations (group A), and the rest were treated once more with PFOA and allowed to give birth (group B). Postnatal survival, growth and development of the offspring were monitored. PFOA induced enlarged liver in group A dams at all dosages, but did not alter the number of implantations. The percent of live fetuses was lower only in the 20 mg/kg group (74% vs. 94% in controls), and fetal weight was also significantly lower in this group. However, no significant increase in malformations was noted in any treatment group. The incidence of live birth in group B mice was significantly lowered by PFOA: ca. 70% for the 10 and 20 mg/kg groups compared to 96% for controls. Postnatal survival was severely compromised at 10 or 20 mg/kg, and moderately so at 5 mg/kg. Dose-dependent growth deficits were detected in all PFOA-treated litters except the 1 mg/kg group. Significant delays in eye-opening (up to 2-3 days) were noted at 5 mg/kg and higher dosages. Accelerated sexual maturation was observed in male offspring, but not in females. These data indicate maternal and developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse, leading to early pregnancy loss, compromised postnatal survival, delays in general growth and development, and sex-specific alterations in pubertal maturation.

PMID: 16415327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Chemosphere. 2006 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]
Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to other persistent organic pollutants in human blood.

Karrman A, van Bavel B, Jarnberg U, Hardell L, Lindstrom G.

Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, SE-701 82 Orebro, Sweden.

In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB, sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied. Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the few other countries from which data is available today.

PMID: 16403420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jan;114(1):100-5.
Estrogen-like properties of fluorotelomer alcohols as revealed by mcf-7 breast cancer cell proliferation.

Maras M, Vanparys C, Muylle F, Robbens J, Berger U, Barber JL, Blust R, De Coen W.

Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

We investigated estrogen-like properties of five perfluorinated compounds using a combination of three in vitro assays. By means of an E-screen assay, we detected the proliferation-promoting capacity of the fluorotelomer alcohols 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctan-1-ol (6:2 FTOH) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decan-1-ol (8:2 FTOH). The more widely environmentally distributed compounds perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorononanoic acid did not seem to possess this hormone-dependent proliferation capacity. We investigated cell cycle dynamics using flow cytometric analyses of the DNA content of the nuclei of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exposure to both fluorotelomer alcohols stimulated resting MCF-7 cells to reenter the synthesis phase (S-phase) of the cell cycle. After only 24 hr of treatment, we observed significant increases in the percentage of cells in the S-phase. In order to further investigate the resemblance of the newly detected xenoestrogens to the reference compound 17beta-estradiol (E2), gene expression of a number of estrogen-responsive genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. With E2, as well as 4-nonylphenol and the fluorotelomer alcohols, we observed up-regulation of trefoil factor 1, progesterone receptor, and PDZK1 and down-regulation of ERBB2 gene expression. We observed small but relevant up-regulation of the estrogen receptor as a consequence of exposures to 6:2 FTOH or 8:2 FTOH. The latter finding suggests an alternative mode of action of the fluorotelomer alcohols compared with that of E2. This study clearly underlines the need for future in vivo testing for specific endocrine-related end points.

PMID: 16393665 [PubMed - in process]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Dec 1;40(23):7167-74.

Poly and perfluorinated carboxylates in North American precipitation.

Scott BF, Spencer C, Mabury SA, Muir DC.

Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada.

Although perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) have been detected in a number of environmental matrices, there are very few reports on concentrations in precipitation. In this study PFCAs, fluorotelomercarboxylates (FTCAs), and fluorotelomer-unsaturated carboxylates (FTUCAs), were determined in wet only precipitation samples from nine sites in North America. The analytical method involved derivatization of the carboxylates and measurement of the 2,4-difluoroanilide by GC-MS. Samples from three remote sites in Canada had low concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (<0.1-6.1 ng/L). Significantly higher concentrations of PFOA were found at 4 northeastern United States and 2 southern urban Canadian sites, with Delaware having the highest levels (85 ng/L PFOA, with a range of 0.6-89 ng/L) and a maximum flux of 13 000 ng/m2. 8:2- and 10:2 FTCAs and FTUCAs were detected at all 4 U.S. sites and 2 urban Canadian sites (<0.07-8.6 ng/L), most frequently at the Delaware site. Longer chained PFCAs (deca-, undeca-, and dodeca-perfluorocarboxylates) were detected (<0.07-5.2 ng/L) at 2 urban Ontario sites but not determined in other samples. Air mass back trajectory results for 3 U.S. sites indicate highly populated urban areas in the New York to Washington corridor as the main sources of PFOA, although low PFOA levels associated with air masses coming off the Atlantic Ocean imply multiple sources.

PMID: 17180963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Dec 15;40(24):7642-8.

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in albatrosses, elephant seals, penguins, and polar skuas from the Southern Ocean.

Tao L, Kannan K, Kajiwara N, Costa MM, Fillmann G, Takahashi S, Tanabe S.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used as surfactants in industrial and commercial products for over 50 years. Earlier studies of the geographical distribution of PFCs focused primarily on the Northern Hemisphere, while little attention was paid to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, livers from eight species of albatrosses, blood from elephant seal, and blood and eggs from penguins and polar skua collected from the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic during 1995-2005 were analyzed for 10 PFCs. In addition, for comparison with the Southern Ocean samples, we analyzed liver, sera, and eggs from two species of albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were found in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. PFOS was the major contaminant, although the concentrations were <5 ng/g, wet wt, in 92% of the albatross livers analyzed. PFOA was detected in 30% of the albatross livers, with a concentration range of <0.6-2.45 ng/g,wet wt. Other PFCs, including long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), were below the limits of quantitation in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. In liver, sera, and eggs of albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean, long-chain PFCAs (perfluorononanoate, perfluorodecanoate, perfluoroundecanoate, and perfluorododecanoate) were found at concentrations similar to those of PFOS and PFOA. The mean concentration of PFOS in livers of Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean (5.1 ng/g, wet wt) was higher than that in several species of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean (2.2 ng/g, wetwt). Species-specific differences in the concentrations of PFOS were noted among Southern Ocean albatrosses, whereas geographical differences in PFOS concentrations among the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and South Atlantic Ocean were insignificant. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were, respectively, 2- and 17-fold higher in liver than in sera of Laysan albatrosses. PFOS was found in the blood of elephant seals from Antarctica at concentrations ranging from <0.08 to 3.52 ng/mL. PFOS was found in eggs (2.1-3.1 ng/g) and blood (<0.24-1.4 ng/ mL) of polar skuas but was not detected in penguins from Antarctica. Our study documents the existence of low but detectable levels of PFOS and PFOA in Southern Hemisphere fauna, suggesting distribution of these compounds on a global scale.

PMID: 17256507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006 Sep;35(5):560-3.

[Comparison of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid in serum of non-occupational human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas]

[Article in Chinese]

Jin YH, Dong GH, Shu WQ, Ding M.

School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to illustrate the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) levels in serum of non-occupational exposure human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas and to compare the distributing character and region difference of PFOS and PFOA in those two region human.
METHODS: Sera samples of non-occupational human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas were collected, and the concentration of PFOS and PFOA in serum were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Selective Detector (HPLC/MS-MIS).
RESULTS: The average Shenyang and Chongqing fluorochemical concentrations, respectively, were as follows: PFOS, 22.40 microg/L vs 7.40 microg/L, PFOA, 4.32 microg/L vs 1.00 microg/L. Statistical analysis indicated that serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Shenyang human than in Chongqing human. Furthermore, there are sex differences in PFOS and PFOA concentrations in serum at all location. In Shenyang the concentration of PFOS in females were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in males. The correlations of PFOS (r = 0.298) and PFOA (r = 0.271) with age were significant in females from Chongqing area, and especially the correlations were higher in older females (age t 50) than the groups of age < 13 and 13 - 50 years old.
CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that there are predominant regional differences and distributing character for both PFOS and PFOA concentrations in Shenyang and Chongqing areas, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in serum were correlated with age and sex.

PMID: 17086703 [PubMed - in process]

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2006 Sep;13(5):299-307.

Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters.

Skutlarek D, Exner M, Farber H.

University of Bonn, Institute for Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Water Chemistry, Germany.\

GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, particularly in wildlife animal and human samples (Giesy and Kannan 2001, Houde et al. 2006, Prevedouros et al. 2006). Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interference and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans (Guruge et al. 2006, FSA UK 2006a, FSA UK 2006b, 3M 2005, OECD 2002, Yao and Zhong 2005). They possess compound-dependent extreme recalcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in animals and humans (Houde et al. 2006).
METHODS: Surface and drinking water samples were collected from different sampling sites: Surface waters: samples taken from the rivers Rhine, Ruhr, Moehne and some of their tributaries. Further samples were taken from the Rhine-Herne-Canal and the Wesel-Datteln-Canal. Drinking waters: samples taken in public buildings of the Rhine-Ruhr area. After sample clean-up and concentration by solid-phase extraction, the perfluorinated surfactants were determined using HPLC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: All measured concentrations (sum of seven mainly detected components) in the Rhine river and its main tributaries (mouths) were determined below 100 ng/L. The Ruhr river (tributary of the Rhine) showed the highest concentration (94 ng/L), but with a completely different pattern of components (PFOA as major component), as compared with the other tributaries and the Rhine river. Further investigations along the Ruhr river showed remarkably high concentrations of PS in the upper reaches of the Ruhr river and the Moehne river (tributary of the Ruhr) (Ruhr: up to 446 ng/L, Moehne: up to 4385 ng/L). The maximum concentration of all drinking water samples taken in the Rhine-Ruhr area was determined at 598 ng/L with the major component PFOA (519 ng/L).
DISCUSSION: The surface water contaminations most likely stem from contaminated inorganic and organic waste materials (so-called 'Abfallgemisch'). This waste material was legally applied to several agricultural areas on the upper reaches of the Moehne. Perfluorinated surfactants could be detected in some suchlike soil samples. They contaminated the river and the reservoir belonging to it, likely by superficial run-off over several months or probably years. Downstream, dilution effects are held responsible for decreasing concentrations of PS in surface waters of the Moehne and the Ruhr river. In analogy to the surface water samples, PS (major component PFOA) can be determined in many drinking water samples of the Rhine-Ruhr area where the water supplies are mainly based on bank filtration and artificial recharge.
CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations found in drinking waters decreased with the concentrations of the corresponding raw water samples along the flow direction of the Ruhr river (from east to west) and were not significantly different from surface water concentrations. This indicates that perfluorinated surfactants are at present not successfully removed by water treatment steps.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Because of their different problematic properties (persistence, mobility, toxicity, bioaccumulation), the concentrations of specific perfluorinated surfactants and their precursors in drinking waters and food have to be minimised. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take the initiative to establish suitable legal regulations (limitations/ban) concerning the production and use of these surfactants and their precursors. Furthermore, it is indispensable to protect water resources from these compounds. A discussion on appropriate limit values in drinking water and foodstuffs is urgently needed. Concerning the assumed soil contamination, the corresponding regulation (Bioabfall-Verordnung 1998--Regulation on Organic Waste 1998) should be extended to allow the control of relevant organic pollutants.

PMID: 17067024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):4916-21.

Perfluorinated contaminants in sediments and aquatic organisms collected from shallow water and tidal flat areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan: environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate in aquatic ecosystems.

Nakata H, Kannan K, Nasu T, Cho HS, Sinclair E, Takemurai A.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Japan.

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Despite studies reporting the occurrence of PFCs in aquatic organisms, the fate of PFCs in tidal flat and marine coastal ecosystems is not known. In this study, we determined concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFHS, and PFOSA in sediments; benthic organisms, including lugworm, mussel, crab, clam, oyster, and mudskipper fish from tidal flat; and shallow water species, such as filefish, bream, flounder, shark, finless porpoise, gull, and mallard collected from the Ariake Sea, Japan. PFOS and PFOA were detected in most of the samples analyzed, followed by PFNA, PFOSA, and PFHS. In shallow water species, PFOS was the dominant contaminant, and elevated concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, such as marine mammals and omnivorous birds. These results suggest biomagnification of PFOS through the coastal food chain. In contrast, PFOA was the most abundant compound in tidal flat organisms and sediments. PFOA concentrations in sediments, lugworms, and omnivorous mudskippers in tidal flat were approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than the levels of PFOS. This indicates differences in exposure pattern and bioavailability of PFOS and PFOA between shallow water and tidal flat organisms. The accumulation profiles of PFCs were compared with those of organochlorines (polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB), organotin (tributyltin,TBT), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flat and shallow water samples collected from the Ariake Sea. Concentrations of PFCs in sediments and in tidal flat organisms were significantly lower than that found for PCBs, TBT, and PAHs. Nevertheless, PFOS concentrations in shallow water species were comparable to and/or significantly greater than those of other classes of contaminants. This implies that the aqueous phase is a major sink for PFCs, which is different from what was observed for nonpolar organic pollutants.

PMID: 16955886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):4943-8.

Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters.

Kannan K, Perrotta E, Thomas NJ.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters collected from the California coast during 1992-2002. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1-884 and <5-147 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated otters did not affectthe concentrations of perfluorochemicals in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from 1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992to 1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern and suggests the need for further studies.

PMID: 16955890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Sep;25(9):2374-80.

Perfluorinated compounds in streams of the Shihwa Industrial Zone and Lake Shihwa, South Korea.

Rostkowski P, Yamashita N, So IM, Taniyasu S, Lam PK, Falandysz J, Lee KT, Kim SK, Khim JS, Im SH, Newsted JL, Jones PD, Kannan K, Giesy JP.

Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, Poland.

Concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorobutanesulfonate, perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorodecanoate, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate, and perfluorohexanoate, were measured in the streams of the Shihwa and Banweol industrial areas on the west coast of South Korea as well as the adjacent Lake Shihwa (an artificial lake) and Gyeonggi Bay. Perfluorinated alkyl compounds were concentrated from water using solid-phase extraction and were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/ triple-quadrapole tandem mass spectrometry. Of the PFAs measured, PFOS and PFOA occurred at the greatest concentrations. Concentrations of PFOS ranged from 2.24 to 651 ng/L, and concentrations of PFOA ranged from 0.9 to 62 ng/L. The concentrations of PFOS observed in Lake Shihwa were among the greatest ever measured in the environment. These results suggest local industrial sources of PFOS and PFOA as well as other PFAs. Because of dilution, the greatest concentrations occur in a rather restricted area, near the points of discharge of the streams that empty into the lake. The greatest measured concentration of PFOS exceeded the threshold for effects predicted for predatory birds consuming aquatic organisms continuously exposed to this level.

PMID: 16986792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Sep 15;40(18):5647-52.

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from China.

Dai J, Li M, Jin Y, Saito N, Xu M, Wei F.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080, P.R. China.

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are important perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in various applications. Recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The giant panda and the red panda belong to the order Carnivora, but are highly specialized as bamboo feeders. Both species are considered rare and endangered. In this study, we report for the first time on levels of PFOS and PFOA in serum of the giant panda and the red panda captured in zoos and animal parks from six provinces in China. PFOS was the predominant compound in all panda samples measured (ranging from 0.80 to 73.80 microg/L for red panda and from 0.76 to 19.00 microg/L for giant panda). The PFOA level ranged from 0.33 to 8.20 microg/L for red panda, and from 0.32 to 1.56 microg/L for giant panda. There was a positive significant correlation between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the serum obtained from pandas. No age- or sex- related differences were observed in concentrations of the fluorochemicals in panda sera. Greater concentrations of the fluorochemicals were found for those individuals collected from zoos near urbanized or industrialized areas than for other areas. These data combined with other reported data suggest that there are large differences in distribution of perfluorinated compounds in terrestrial animals.

PMID: 17007121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Water Sci Technol. 2006;54(11-12):317-25.

Photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic acid in water under irradiation of 254 nm and 185 nm light by use of persulfate.

Chen J, Zhang P.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water using two types of low-pressure mercury lamps, one emitting 254 nm and the other emitting 254 nm and 185 nm, by use of persulfate (K2S2O8) as an oxidant was investigated. PFOA was significantly decomposed under irradiation of 185 nm light, while it was very slow and negligible under 254 nm light irradiation. This was due to its strong absorption of PFOA from deep UV-region to 220 nm and a weak absorption from 220-460 nm. The addition of K2S2O8 led to efficient PFOA decomposition and defluorination no matter what light irradiation. Sulfate radical anion (SO4-), generated by photolysis of K2S2O8, initiated the oxidation of PFOA. Under irradiation of 185 nm light, PFOA was jointly decomposed through 185 nm light photolysis and initiation of sulfate radical. However, under irradiation of 254 nm light, PFOA decomposition was only initiated by sulfate radical. PFOA decomposed and defluorinated much faster under oxygen atmosphere than under nitrogen atmosphere, which suggested that oxygen molecules played an important role in PFOA decomposition.

PMID: 17302335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Dec 15;40(24):7854-60.

Struggle for quality in determination of perfluorinated contaminants in environmental and human samples.

van Leeuwen SP, Karrman A, van Bavel B, de Boer J, Lindstrom G.

Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Free University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The first worldwide interlaboratory study on the analyses of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in three environmental and two human samples indicates a varying degree of accuracy in relation to the matrix or analyte determined. The ability of 38 participating laboratories from 13 countries to determine the analytes in the various matrices was evaluated by calculation of z-scores according to the Cofino model. The PFCs which were reported most frequently by the laboratories, and assessed with the most satisfactory agreement, were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In general, the level of agreement between the participating laboratories decreased in the following order: PFC standard solution (76% satisfactory z-scores of <[2]1 for PFOS) < human blood (67%) < human plasma (63%) < fish liver extract (55%) < water (31%) < fish tissue (17%). This shows that relative good agreement between laboratories was obtained for the study of standard and human matrices. For the fish extract, most laboratories underestimated the actual PFOS concentration due to matrix effects. The results for the fish tissue and water are also poor, indicating that the extraction and cleanup steps require further improvement. It was concluded that the PFC determinations in various matrices are not yet fully mastered.

PMID: 17256538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmacokinetics and Acute Lethality of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to Juvenile Mallard and Northern Bobwhite.

Newsted JL, Beach SA, Gallagher SP, Giesy JP.

ENTRIX, Inc, 4295 Okemos Rd., Okemos, Michigan, 48864, USA,

Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed for 3 days while being given uncontaminated feed, and half of the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining birds were maintained for an additional two weeks prior to being euthanized on Day 22 of the trial. Birds were assessed for growth, rate of feed consumption, behavior, physical injury, mortality, and gross abnormalities. Liver weight and concentrations of PFOS in blood serum and liver were also assessed. Based on the average daily intake (ADI) of PFOS calculated over the 5-day exposure period, the LD(50) for juvenile mallards was determined to be 150 mg PFOS/kg body weight (bw)/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 750 mg PFOS/kg bw calculated over a 5-day period. For juvenile quail, the LD(50) based on the ADI was 61 mg PFOS/kg bw/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 305 mg PFOS/kg bw. Reductions in weight gain and body weight were observed in quail from the 141 mg PFOS/kg treatment, but these measures returned to control levels by Day 22. The no-mortality dietary treatments were 70.3 and 141 mg PFOS/kg feed for quail and mallards, respectively. Both mallards and quail accumulated PFOS in blood serum and liver in a dose-dependent manner. The half-lives of PFOS in mallard blood serum and liver were estimated to be 6.86 and 17.5 days, respectively. In quail, the half-life of PFOS in liver was estimated to be 12.8 days, while the half-life of PFOS in quail blood serum could not be estimated. Concentrations of PFOS in juvenile mallard and quail liver associated with mortality are at least 50-fold greater than the single maximum PFOS concentration that has been measured in livers of avian wildlife.

PMID: 16392015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jan 13;339(2):554-61. Epub 2005 Nov 16.
Effects of perfluorinated amphiphiles on backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum.

Matsubara E, Harada K, Inoue K, Koizumi A.

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 6068501, Japan.

PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. We investigated the effects of fluorochemicals on calcium currents in Paramecium caudatum using its behavioral changes. Negatively charged amphiphiles prolonged backward swimming (BWS) of Paramecium. PFOS significantly prolonged BWS, while PFOA was less potent (EC(50): 29.8+/-4.1 and 424.1+/-124.0microM, respectively). The BWS prolongation was blocked by cadmium, indicating that the cellular calcium conductance had been modified. The positively charged amphiphile FOSAPrTMA shortened BWS (EC(50): 19.1+/-17.3). Nonionic amphiphiles did not affect BWS. The longer-chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFNA and PFDA were more potent than PFOA (EC(50): 98.7+/-20.1 and 60.4+/-10.1microM, respectively). However, 1,8-perfluorooctanedioic acid and 1,10-perfluorodecanedioic acid did not prolong BWS. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and BWS prolongation for negatively charged amphiphiles showed a clear correlation (r(2)=0.8008, p<0.001). In summary, several perfluorochemicals and PFOS and PFOA had similar effects in Paramecium, while chain length, CMC, and electric charge were major determinants of BWS duration.

PMID: 16300727 [PubMed - in process]


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