Reports from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

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Due to the number of reports, the following
are the categories we present them.
(Note: these reports were cited on Toxline at Toxnet in April 2005)
Fluoride (all reports except Canada)
Fluoride: CANADA
Fluoride in the
Nuclear Industry
Note: many of the
Canadian communities
cited in these reports
border the US.
Note: this is a selected
list of reports.

NTIS Reports can be ordered by: phone at 1-800-553-NTIS (U.S. customers); (703)605-6000 (other countries); fax at (703)605-6900; and email at orders@ntis.gov. NTIS is located at 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA, 22161, USA.

Order Number

Source Number

Date Published / Title / Author & Affiliation / Sponsor Agency Abstract /Keywords


U.S. Sales Only.


1985. Concentrations of 15 Trace Elements in Some Selected Adult Human Tissues and Body Fluids of Clinical Interest from Several Countries: Results from a Pilot Study for the Establishment of Reference Values.

Author: Iyengar GV

Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizin.

Over 60 investigators, many of them with an outstanding international reputation as analysts were requested for reliable data from their countries on elemental concentrations in normal adult human samples of clinical interest. A set of samples consisting of whole blood, blood serum, erythrocytes, urine, milk, liver and hair were chosen and considered for 15 elements of biological significance: As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn. The results represent wholly or partially data received from 40 countries of the global regions of Africa, Asia, Europe, North, South and Central Americas, Australia and New Zeeland. This survey even if qualitative, has been useful in demonstrating certain trends of the trace element scenario around the world. It is of course recognized that both diet and environment exert a strong influence on the distribution pattern of several elements such as As, Cd, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn. A limited comparison of the available information on soil status of differ
Human Populations



1985. Toxicity of Sodium Fluoride to the Postnatally Developing Rat Kidney.

Daston GP
Rehnberg BF
Carver B
Kavlock RJ

Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.

The adult rat kidney is an important target organ for sodium fluoride; however, the toxicity of fluoride to the developing kidney is unknown. The study examined renal function following NaF exposure during the first four weeks after birth. Sprague-Dawley rats received a single ip injection of 0, 30, or 48 mg/kg NaF on postnatal day 1, 8, 15 or 29. Alterations in renal function, histology and morphology were determined 24, 38, and 120 hours after exposure. Measurements of renal function included urine volume, osmolality, the ability to concentrate urine during water deprivation, urinary pH and chloride content. Rats were then sacrificed and their kidneys processed for observation by light microscopy. Some minor alterations in renal function were observed in the three youngest age groups after NaF exposure. These changes included decreased body weight after treatment with 30 or 48 mg/kg NaF but increased kidney-body weight ratio in the 49 mg/kg group on day 1; decreased urinary pH in both dose gro [abstract truncated]



1985. Economic Assessment of Reducing Fluoride in Drinking Water.

Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water.

The report assesses the economic impacts of reducing fluoride in drinking water. The principal elements of the report are: definition of the fluoride contamination problem, review of regulatory alternatives, assessment of the benefits of fluoride removal, assessment of the costs of removing fluoride, analysis of regulatory flexibility and paperwork requirements, and exploration of uncertainty in the estimates of costs and benefits.



1985. Drinking Water Criteria Document for Fluoride.

Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

Supporting Agency: Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Drinking Water.

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Fluoride. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of fluoride; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to fluoride; Health Effects of fluoride in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of fluoride; Quantification of toxicological effects of fluoride. Scientific review. See also PB85-199321. Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Drinking Water.



1985. Final Draft for the Drinking Water Criteria Document of Fluoride.

Life Systems, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

Supporting Agency: Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Drinking Water.

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has prepared a Draft Criteria Document on Fluoride. This Document is a preliminary draft which has not, as yet, been formally released by the ODW, USEPA and should not be construed at this stage to represent Agency Policy. This Draft Fluoride Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of fluoride; toxicokinetics and human exposure to fluoride; health effects of fluoride in humans and animals; mechanisms of toxicity of fluoride; quantification of fluoride toxicity.


EPA/OTS; Doc #878216228




CAS Registry Numbers:
-- too many to list here; 7681-49-4 was included.


U.S. Sales Only


1985. Method for Routine Determination of Fluoride in Urine by Selective Ion- Electrode.

Pires MAF
Bellintani SA

Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil).

A simple, fast and sensitive method is outlined for determining fluoride in urine of workers who handle fluoride compounds. The determination is based on the measurement of fluoride by ion selective electrode. Cationic interferents like Ca sup ++ , Mg sup ++ , Fe sup +++ and Al sup +++ are complexed by EDTA and citric acid. Common anions present in urine, such as Cl sup - , PO sup ---4 and SO sup --4 do not interfere in the method. (Atomindex citation 17:022243) In Portuguese.



1985. Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride Emission Factors for the NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) Emission Inventory.

Misenheimer DC
Battye RE
Clowers MR
Werner AS

GCA Corp., Chapel Hill, NC. GCA Technology Div.

Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

The report gives results of a study to develop emission factors for significant sources of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. Information developed in the report includes significant emission sources, source descriptions, uncontrolled emission factors, controls commonly used, and average control efficiencies. An assessment of the accuracy of each efficiency factor is also included. Final rept. Jul 83-85.



1985. Hazardous Materials Accident Report - Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride Release from NATX 9408, Train No. BNEL3Y at Conrail's Receiving Yard, Elkhart, Indiana, February 4, 1985.

National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, DC. Bureau of Accident Investigation.

At 6:30 a.m., on February 4, 1985, an 'empty' placarded railroad tankcar, containing an estimated 800 gallons of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, a corrosive liquid, was found leaking in the Consolidated Rail Corporation's Elkhart, Indiana Receiving Yard. During the following 4 hours as local emergency response agencies worked to contain the spill, a vapor cloud formed and traveled approximately 2 1/2 miles affecting nearby residential areas northwest of the yard. A total of 1,500 people within a 1.1-square-mile area adjacent to and northwest of the yard were evacuated for 9 hours as an emergency precaution. Local area hospitals treated 75 persons for minor skin and eye irritations. The National Transportation Safety Board determines that the probable cause of the accident was the decision by Burlington Northern to continue in transportation a tankcar reported to be leaking on February 3, 1985, at its Cicero, Illinois railroad yard. The leak in the tankcar resulted from a failure of the tankcar head [article truncated]



1985. (Improvement of selected indication methods with plants for the surveying network of air pollution in Lower Saxony. Pt. 1. Iris hollandica for

Koester W
Merkel D

Landwirtschaftskammer Hanover, Hameln (Germany, F.R.). Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt.

Verification of a biological monitoring method for heavy metal accumulation with Iris hollandica. With Iris hollandica, fluoride immissions can be registered proportionally as with rye grass. Fluoride concentrations in the dry matter of rye grass, however, are always greater than in Iris hollandica. Cultivation of Iris hollandica in soil is advantageous as compared to cultivation in hydroponic. The exposition of Iris plants, aged 6-8 weeks, for a period of 14 days is recommended. There were positive results from experiments to monitor the deposition of lead and cadmium with this method. Effects of fluoride immissions on the fruit trees apple, pear and plum in the neighborhood of an aluminium plant were investigated. (orig.). (Copyright (c) 1989 by FIZ. Citation no. 89:080247.) In German,With 26 tabs., 8 figs./CONTRAINDICATIONS

NTIS/AD-A177 817/4


1985. Fundamental Studies in the Molecular Basis of Laser Induced Retinal Damage.

Author: Lewis A

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. School of Applied and Engineering Physics.

This report describes the advances made in work for the Ocular Hazards Program. Research has seen the first application of femtosecond lasers to the visual system. We have discovered that anions can activate visual photoreceptors in the dark. One anionic activator is the commonly used dental agent fluoride. The data on in vitro preparations indicate that these anions modulate photoreceptor biochemistry and may effect photoreceptors sensitivity. The image of various elements in photoreceptors and adjacent tissues were identified. The spatial images should play important roles in extending our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of laser damage. Complementary techniques have been developed to view, in light microscopy, actin filaments in photoreceptors. The staining procedures we have developed can be applied to study laser damaged retina. The protective nature of oil droplets in the turtle has been studied. Data demonstrating rapid mechanical motions in vertebrate photoreceptors has been [article truncated]



1985. (Air pollution effects on wild plants in rural ecosystems. Pt. 3. Sensitivity tests HF and SO sub 2 /HF; field study near an e/CONTRAINDICATIONS

Arndt U
Maier-Reiter W

Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Landeskultur und Pflanzenokologie.

Results of methodical research concerning air pollution ecology and of fumigation experiments and field studies on the sensitivity of wild plants to HF are reported. The relative sensitivity of 14 grass species to HF and the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic environmental variables were determined, HF-induced alternations of a greenland plant community were shown and the relative sensitivity of 27 herbaceous wild plants to HF were determined in a screening test. The effects of HF and SO sub 2 alone and in combination were investigated. As results of the field study quantitative relationships between accumulated fluoride-content and injury were evaluated and applied for the determination of the sensitivity of the species. (orig.). (Copyright (c) 1988 by FIZ. Citation no. 88:082241.) In German,With 100 refs., 20 tabs., 29 figs./CONTRAINDICATIONS


Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products. Original copy available until stock is exhausted.


1985. Leachability of Retorted Oil Shale by Strong Complexometric Agents.

Esmaili E
Carroll RB

University of Wyoming Research Corp., Laramie. Western Research Inst.

Supporting Agency: Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, c [article truncated]



1985. Nashua Impoundment Sediment Sampling, June 1985,

Author: Carleton JE

Iowa Dept. of Water, Air and Waste Management, Des Moines.

Sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

The Iowa Department of Water, Air and Waste Management sampled the sediment of the Nashua Impoundment on the Cedar River in Chickasaw County during June, 1985. The sediment samples were analyzed using the Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test for eight heavy metals and six pesticides. The samples were also tested for total concentrations of cyanides, phenols, fluorides, chlorides, and eleven heavy metals. The sampling was done to determine if the sediment has been contaminated by chemicals that may have seeped out of the LaBounty hazardous waste site in Charles City, about ten miles upstream.



1985. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-085-1615, Wyoming High School, Wyoming, Ohio,

Author: Zey JN

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Hazard Evaluations and Technical Assistance Branch.

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for formaldehyde (50000), metals, organic solvents, inorganic fluorides crystalline silica (7631869) at Wyoming High School (SIC-8210), Wyoming, Ohio in January and February, 1985. The evaluation was requested by the principal to investigate chemical exposures in the art and biology departments.



1985. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 81-369-1591, HETA 81-466-1591, Electric Machinery - McGraw Edison Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota,

Stephenson RL
Murphy DC
Habes DJ

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH.

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for amines, aliphatic aldehydes, boron-trifluoride-monoethylamine (75230), epichlorohydrin (106898), total volatile fluorides, formaldehyde (50000), lead (7439921), methyl- tetrahydrophthalic-anhydride (26590205), and n-butyl-glycidyl-ether (2426086) at Electric MachinerycGraw Edison Company (SIC-3621), Minneapolis, Minnesota in December, 1981 and February, 1983. The surveys were requested by the union local because of irritative symptoms and respiratory problems reported by employees exposed to epoxy resin compounds and impregnated materials. The authors conclude that mucous membrane irritation and dermatitis are common among workers exposed to epoxy resins. A high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome was also found. Recommendations include reducing formaldehyde concentrations, using personal protective equipment and barrier creams, and maintaining proper work practices and good personal hygiene to minimize contact with epoxy resin material [abstract truncated]



1985. (Dermal Irritancyorrosion of 20 Compounds in Aqueous Solutions),

Loden M
Larsson R
Haeggqvist I
Karlsson N

Foersvarets Forskningsanstalt, Umea (Sweden).

The dermal irritancy/corrosion of aqueous solutions of acetic acid, ammonia, etylendiamine, formic acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen fluoride, morpholine, nitric acid, perchloric acid, phenol, phosphoric acid, potassium dichromate, potassium hydroxide, propionic acid, sodium bifluoride, sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium metasilicate, sulfuric acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid was tested using rabbits. The evaluation of skin reactions were based upon the degree of erythema/eschar and/or oedema observed at four occasions after the exposure. For the majority of the compounds the irritation/corrosion was found to be proportional to the concentration. Text in Swedish.



1985. Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study: Air Quality Assessment of Three Candidate Sites.

Weil JC
Pierce TE
Corio LA

Martin Marietta Environmental Systems, Columbia, MD.
Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD.

This report presents the detailed analyses of air quality impacts related to three candidate sites under consideration in the Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study. Both EPA-approved and state-of-the-art dispersion models were used to evaluate ground level concentrations against NAAQS and PSD Class II limits for both flat and elevated terrain areas. Candidate areas are described and stack and fugitive emissions and plant operating parameters are provided. Local meteorological data are used to predict ground level concentrations for primary stack pollutants, fugitive dust and fluoride levels. Visibility degradation and cooling tower moisture effects are also evaluated. PSD Class II limits for SO2 could be met at all candidate sites based on state-of-the-art modeling. EPA-approved models indicate that both Washington County options could realize greater potential emissions than the Frederick County option. No difference is anticipated in visible cooling tower plume frequency, salt deposition, [abstract truncated]



Journal article, Pub. in Science, v277 p632-634, 8 Feb 85.

1985. Pollution Monitoring of Puget Sound with Honey Bees.

Bromenshenk JJ
Carlson SR
Simpson JC
Thomas JM

Montana Univ., Missoula. Gordon Environmental Studies Lab.

Supporting Agency: Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.

To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were generated. Results, based on actual concentrations of contaminants in bee tissues, show that the greatest concentrations of contaminants occur close to Commencement Bay and that honey bees are effective as large-scale monitors. (Copyright (c)

NTIS/AD-A170 200/0


1985. Studies of Organophosphate Effects on Retinal Physiology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry.

Reid TW
Stein PJ

Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. School of Medicine.

Supporting Agency: Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling AFB, DC.

We have approached the problem of DFP effects on the eye in several ways: 1) Dose response curves for DFP inhibition of cellular synthesis of DNA was studied in three different cell types. 2) Electroretinograms (ERG's) were recorded from isolated retinas of Bufo marinus during superfusion with the compound. 3) Intracellular recordings were made from rod photoreceptors in isolated retinas while superfusing with NaF. 4) The effects of fluoride on the protein-protein interactions and the enzymology of the cyclic nucleotide cascade of rod outer segments were studied. 5) DFP binding to rod outer segment and retinal proteins was observed. 6) We have measured the transport of DFP across the cornea. The data obtained show that both DFP and fluoride alter various enzymatic and physiological functions in cultured cells, the isolated retina, and rod outer segment membranes. The data obtained in the project reveal that both DFP and fluoride may alter ocular biochemistry and physiology through other than cla [abstract truncated]



1985. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 51: Sulfuryl Fluoride.

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.


EPA/OTS; Doc #878221508



CAS Registry Numbers:



1984. Formation of Soman (1,2,2-Trimethylpropyl Methylphosphonofluoridate) via Fluoride-Induced Reactivation of Soman-Inhibited Aliesterase in Rat Plasma,

Author: de Jong LPA

Prins Maurits Lab. TNO, Rijswijk (Netherlands).

After incubation (37C) of rat blood or plasma with the nerve agent soman, (CH3)3C(CH3)C(H)O(CH3)P(O)F, (7.7 micromoles) for 10 min, only a small amount of this organophosphate (7% or 1%, respectively) is left, as determined enzymatically (acetylcholinesterase) and gas chromatographically. Comparison of the results obtained with both analyses shows that this residual soman consists only of its P(-)-isomers. Incubation (25C) at pH 4.8-6.1 of such soman-treated rat blood or plasma with sodium fluoride (2.5 mM) for 0.5 min leads to (i) a substantial increase in the P(-)-soman concentration, and (ii) a (partial) reactivation of the soman-inhibited aliesterase, proportional to the amount of generated P(-)-soman. These results indicate strongly that added fluoride ions regenerate soman by a reversal of the inhibition reaction. From the relationship between percentage of reactivation and increase in soman concentration the aliesterase concentration in rat plasma is calculated as 2.6 micromoles. Summary [abstract truncated]



1984. Clinical Pharmacology Study of Intraoral Fluoride Releasing Devices.

Davidson WM
Kula K
Kula TJ
Parker E

Maryland Univ. at Baltimore.

Sponsored by National Inst. of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD.

Forty adolescent subjects were each fitted with two fluoride releasing devices fastened to molar teeth. One group was fitted with devices that released .05 mg F/day; the other, 1.0 mg F/day. Devices were tolerated well but breakage was a problem. The concentration of fluoride in the saliva was elevated but not in serum. The .05 group had elevated urine fluoride. The 1.0 group did not. Fluoride concentration of plaque appeared elevated. Final rept. 29 Sep 83-28 Dec 84,



1984. Fluoride Toxicity. 1978-June, 1984 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection Data Base).

National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA.

This bibliography contains citations concerning the physiological effects of fluoride ingestion in humans and animals. The beneficial and harmful effects of fluoride are noted and the effects on teeth and bones, toxicity studies and the pathology of fluoride toxicity are considered. Industrial fluoride pollution and enflurane anesthetics are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 236 citations, 64 of which are new entries to the previous edition.) Rept. for 1978-Jun 84. Supersedes PB82-859141. Prepared in cooperation with Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Washington, DC.



1984. Preliminary Survey Report: Control Technology for Manual Transfer of Chemical Powders at Corning Glassworks, Harrodsburg, Kentucky

Author: Godbey FW

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering.

Health hazard control methods, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manual transfer of chemical powders were evaluated at Corning Glassworks (SIC-3851), Harrodsburg, Kentucky in May, 1984. The company employed 300 workers involved in the manufacture of ophthalmic glass lenses and glass sheets. The main dry ingredients were silica, lead, zinc, nickel, copper, arsenic, and fluorides. The author does not recommend an in depth study of the control technologies at this company since no unique state of the art methods are used.



1984. Occurrence of Fluoride in Drinking Water, Food, and Air (Draft).

JRB Associates, Inc., McLean, VA.

This Document is a review of the available information on distribution of the fluoride occurrence levels in drinking water. The occurrence of fluoride in food and air are also reviewed. The Document provides estimates of the relative exposures from these sources.



1984. Design Manual: Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Supplies by Activated Alumina.

Author: Rubel F Jr

Rubel and Hager, Inc., Tucson, AZ.

This manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a water treatment plant for the removal of excess fluoride using the activated alumina method. A description of the basic technology of fluoride removal by activated alumina is included in addition to design examples and capital, operation and maintenance costs associated with major cost variables. Rept. for Jun 81-Jun 84, [abstract truncated]


U.S. Sales Only


1984. Toxicity Levels to Humans During Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Fluoride.

Halton DM
Dranitsaris P
Baynes CJ

Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa (Ontario).

A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances. (Atomindex citation 16:077051)



1984. In-Depth Survey Report: Control Technology for the Microelectronics Industry at Fairchild Semiconductor, South Portland, Maine,

Ungers LJ
Mihlan GJ
Jones JH

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering.
PEDCo-Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
Battelle Columbus Labs., OH.

An indepth survey of control technology was conducted at Fairchild Semicotor (SIC-3674), South Portland, Maine, during July and August, 1983. The survey was part of an industrywide study of the microelectronics industry. Industrial hygiene sampling was conducted for antimony (7440360), arsenic-trioxide (1327533), arsine (7784421), boron (7440428), hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3), sulfuric-acid (7664939), nitric-acid (7697372), organic vapors, and radiofrequency and X-ray emissions. Engineering controls included automation of the process equipment, an automated gas handling system, local exhaust and general ventilation, shielding of the ion implantation process to reduce X-ray emissions, and personal protective equipment. All chemical, radiofrequency, and X-ray exposures were well below the relevant standards. Maintenance personnel involved in removing ion sources or repairing graphite components, however, were exposed to large emissions of arsine. Amounts as high as 413 micrograms were detected. The



1984. In-Depth Survey Report: Control Technology for the Microelectronics Industry at United Technologies Corporation's Mostek Facility, Carrollton, Texas,

Ungers LJ
Smith RK
Jones JH

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering.
PEDCo-Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
Battelle Columbus Labs., OH.

An indepth survey of control technology at United Technology MOSTEK facility (SIC-3674), Carrollton, Texas, was conducted in December, 1983. The survey was part of an industrywide study of the microelectronics industry. Industrial hygiene sampling for arsine (7784421), boron (7440428), hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3), organic vapors, phosphine (7803512), and radiofrequency radiation was conducted. Engineering controls included: an automated gas handling system; general and local exhaust ventilation; personal, area, and environmental monitoring including monitoring of the ventilation systems; a gas monitoring systems designed specifically to detect phosphine, arsine, and hydrogen (1333740) leakage; monitoring of all equipment capable of emitting radiofrequency radiation; and personal protective equipment. The authors note that installing metal screens on viewing windows of the plasma etchers should significantly reduce radiofrequency emissions. Prepared in cooperation with PEDCo-Environmental, Inc., [abstract truncated]



1984. In-Depth Survey Report: Control Technology for Microelectronics Industry at Xerox Corporation, Microelectronics Center, El Segundo, California,

Ungers LJ
Mihlan GJ
Jones JH

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH. Div. of Physical Sciences and Engineering.
PEDCo-Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, OH.
Battelle Columbus Labs., OH.

An indepth survey of control technology at Xerox Corporation, Microelectronics Center (SIC-3674), El Segundo, California was conducted in November, 1982. The survey was part of an industrywide study of exposures in the microelectronics industry. Engineering controls included general and exhaust ventilation, an automated gas handling system, toxic and combustible gas monitoring systems, drain systems for waste organic solvents, and lucite covers and metal mesh screens across viewing ports to control ultraviolet and radiofrequency emissions. Sampling was conducted for arsenic (7440382), arsine (7784421) diborane (19287457), hydrogen-chloride (7647010), hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3), phosphine (7803512), organic solvent vapors, and ultraviolet and radiofrequency emissions. All chemical exposures except for hexamethyldisilazane (999973), for which there is no Federal standard, were below their evaluation criteria. The authors note that since employees spend no more than 1 or 2 minutes near the plasma [abstract truncated]



1984. Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination,

Sorg TJ
Love OT Jr

Municipal Environmental Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH.

Because of the versatility of reverse osmosis for removing a wide range of contaminants, U.S. EPA (Drinking Water Research Division) has been conducting laboratory and field studies to determine its effectiveness on specific inorganic and organic contaminants of concern to the water supply industry. Laboratory and field studies for the removal of specific inorganic contaminants have shown that most of the contaminants listed in the EPA drinking water regulations are highly rejected (greater than 90%) while a few contaminants, such as fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic III, are only moderately rejected. Also, tests with different membranes showed only minor differences in removals. Laboratory studies using cellulose and nylon amide membranes have shown less than 25% rejection of volatile organic compounds. A thin film composite membrane, on the other hand, looked very encouraging in short duration (less than 4 hours) tests for removing VOCs. However, when the thin film composite membrane was exposed [abstract truncated]



1984. Health Hazard Evaluation Determination Report No. MHETA-81-108-9006, Consolidation Coal Company, Central Machine Shop 20, Cadiz, Ohio,

Cornwell RJ
Hodgson M

National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV.

Employee exposure to welding fumes and solvents at the Consolidation Coal Company Central Machine Shop 20 (SIC-1211), Cadiz, Ohio, was investigated. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) requested the study following worker reports of alleged excessive morbidity and mortality. The study was performed on February 22 to 24, 1982. About 75 individuals were employed at the shop. Personal and area air samples were collected. Airborne concentrations of manganese (7439965), iron (7439896), fluorides, ozone (10028156), nitrogen-dioxide (10102440), and carbon-monoxide, (630080) were below applicable NIOSH recommended limits. Twenty percent of the samples for chromium (VI) (18540299) exceeded or equaled the NIOSH standard of 0.001 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), having values of 0.002 and 0.001mg/m3. Three of eight nickel (7440020) samples obtained for welders in the blacksmith shop showed time weighted averages of airborne nickel in excess of the NIOSH standard of 0.015mg/m3. The authors c [abstract truncated]


Portions are illegible in microfiche products.


1984. Report on Toxicological Studies Concerning Exposures to UF sub 6 and UF sub 6 Hydrolysis Products.

Author: Just RA

Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN.

This report presents estimates of the toxicity of uranium and hydrogen fluoride. Recommendations for the use of this information in safety analysis reports are given. 6 references, 2 figures, 4 tables. (ERA citation 09:038618)



1984. Ion Chromatography Monitors Environmental Waters: New technique provides rapid results with high accuracy.

Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Analysis of fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate anions in environmental waters can now be made with comparable accuracy in one-sixth the time required by currently accepted methods. The four wet chemical tests now prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency for measuring these anions could be replaced with a single application of ion chromatography. The technique utilizes a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, eluent suppression, and conductimetric detection. The anions are first separated with a (HCO3(-)3(-2) eluent in an anion-exchange column, then converted to their hydrogenated form in a cation-exchange column. The ion-chromatography technique takes only 15 min per sample and requires less sample preparation.


U.S. Sales Only. Portions of this document are illegible in microfiche products.


1984. Pollutants in the Environment.

Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Dokumentationsstelle.

The proceedings volume contains 20 lectures describing the occurrence, the analysis and the behaviour of various environmental pollutants, mainly of heavy metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fluorides etc. (ERA citation 10:009045) In German.Environmental meeting on pollutants in the environment, Stuttgart, F.R. Germany, 10 Feb 1984.
Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons



1984. Sampling, Characterization, and Remote Sensing of Aerosols Formed in the Atmospheric Hydrolysis of Uranium Hexafluoride.

Bostick WD
McCulla WH
Pickrell PW

Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN.

Supporting Agency: Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

When gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF sub 6 ) is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride (UO sub 2 F sub 2 ) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of HF sub 6 in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the temperature of the UF sub 6 at the time of its release, the relative humidity of the air into which it is released, and the elapsed time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using stationary samplers for the separate collection of UO sub 2 F sub 2 and HF and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 25 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs. (ERA citation 11:020922)
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