CAS No. 69377-81-7
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ACTIVITY: Herbicide (pyridine)

CAS NAME: [(4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid

NOTES: This compound is normally used as a salt or an ester, the identity of which should be stated, for example fluroxypyr-butoxypropyl [154486-27-8], fluroxypyr-meptyl [81406-37-3].



Gig Sanit 2000; Sep-Oct;(5):59-60

Toxicity and hazards of the herbicide starane 2000.

[Article in Russian]

Zakirova NB

The paper deals with the burning problem in the evaluation of the toxicity and hazards of the new herbicide Starane 200. The main disadvantage of its use is ambient air pollution in the working area. The pollution preserves within 2 hours after its treatment. Starane 200 preserves in the soil and water within 60 and 10 days, respectively. The agent is classified as a moderately hazardous agent by the parameters of acute intragastric toxicity. The cumulative properties of the agent are slight. The ineffective dose of Starane 200 was 1.2 mg/kg given intragastrically to albino rats in a 12-month experiment.

PMID: 11030116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Full free article available at http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/28/7/755

Drug Metab Dispos; 2000 Jul;28(7):755-9

Metabolism of fluroxypyr, fluroxypyr methyl ester, and the herbicide fluroxypyr methylheptyl ester. II: in rat skin homogenates.

Hewitt PG, Perkins J, Hotchkiss SA

Section of Molecular Toxicology, Imperial College School of Medicine, South Kensington, London, United Kingdom. phillip.hewitt@merck.de

Fluroxypyr methyl ester (FPM) and the herbicide fluroxypyr methylheptyl ester (FPMH) are completely hydrolyzed during penetration through human and rat skin in vitro to the acid metabolite, fluroxypyr (FP) (). This article presents additional studies to determine the enzyme kinetics (K(m) and V(max)) of this ester hydrolysis, using crude rat whole-skin homogenate. Both FPM and FPMH were extensively metabolized in rat skin homogenates to the acid metabolite, FP. In no instance were any other metabolites detected. FPM was essentially hydrolyzed completely within 1 h. In FPMH incubations, there was still parent ester present after 24 h at all concentrations tested. The kinetics of hydrolysis of the two esters were different: V(max) was approximately 3-fold greater for FPM than FPMH (1400 and 490 micromol FP/min/g of tissue, respectively); however, K(m) values were very similar, 251 and 256 microM, respectively. Preliminary inhibitory studies suggest that FPM and FPMH are hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase, because this reaction was inhibited by bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Mercuric chloride (an inhibitor of A-esterase and arylesterase) and eserine (a cholinesterase inhibitor) had no inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis of FPM or FPMH. Taken together with the data presented by, it can be concluded that no parent ester will pass through the skin in vivo, only the metabolite, FP. Therefore, first pass metabolism will be complete before these compounds reach the systemic circulation.

PMID: 10859148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Full free article available at http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/28/7/748

Drug Metab Dispos 2000; Jul;28(7):748-54

Metabolism of fluroxypyr, fluroxypyr methyl ester, and the herbicide fluroxypyr methylheptyl ester.
: during percutaneous absorption through fresh rat and human skin in vitro.

Hewitt PG, Perkins J, Hotchkiss SA

Section of Molecular Toxicology, Imperial College School of Medicine, South Kensington, London, UK. phillip.hewitt@merck.de

Percutaneous absorption of pesticides is a major determinant for risk assessment. Furthermore, cutaneous metabolism plays a role in penetration of certain chemicals. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to determine the transdermal metabolism of three related compounds [the herbicide, fluroxypyr methylheptyl ester (FPMH), fluroxypyr methyl ester (FPM), and fluroxypyr (FP)] during penetration through human and rat skin in vitro. The data presented in this article show that both FPM and FPMH were completely metabolized during their passage through human and rat skin in vitro. The only metabolite produced was that of the hydrolysis product, FP, with no parent ester penetrating through the skin. The extent of FP formation within the skin was directly correlated to the degree of stratum corneum reservoir formation. The larger the stratum corneum reservoir, the lower the levels of FP recovered from within the skin. This suggests that as the ester partitioned out of the SC it was immediately hydrolyzed to FP, which could then pass freely through the remainder of the epidermis and dermis. Similar metabolic profiles were observed for the transdermal metabolism of FPM and FPMH in previously frozen rat skin, indicating the robust nature of the esterase enzymes involved. In conclusion, systemic exposure after skin contact with FPM or FPMH is likely to be to the acid metabolite, FP, only and not to the parent ester. In addition, the rate and extent of percutaneous absorption will be a major determinant of cutaneous metabolism.

PMID: 10859147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

From Toxline at Toxnet


DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers measured using the alkaline comet assay: Modifications of DNA damage levels after a one-day field spraying period with selected pesticides.


Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, Centre Francois Baclesse, Route de Lion-sur-Mer, 14076 CAEN Cedex, France.

BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The alkaline comet assay was used to assess DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes of farmers before and after a 1-day spraying period with selected pesticides under usual conditions. Two blood samples were collected, one in the morning of the day of spraying (S0) and the second in the morning of the day after (S1). Here, we assessed variations in DNA damage levels between these two sampling times. Four groups of farmers were formed, according to exposure to:
(a) various fungicide-insecticide mixtures (including chlorothalonil; group 1, n = 8),
(b) the herbicide isoproturon (group 2, n = 11),
(c) fungicide triazoles (group 3, n = 14), and
(d) a fungicide (chlorothalonil)-insecticide mixture (group 4, n = 8).
An increase in DNA damage levels was observed at S1 for groups 1 and 4, who were exposed to similar pesticides. This increase was correlated with area sprayed between S0 and S1 and with the number of spraying tanks used over this 1-day period. No effect was observed o [abstract truncated]

CAS Registry Numbers: [• Fluorinated pesticides]

• 133855-98-8 - Epoxiconazole
• 102851-06-9 - Tau-fluvalinate
• 91465-08-6 - Lambda-cyhalothrin

• 83164-33-4 - Diflufenican
• 82657-04-3 - Bifenthrin

• 76674-21-0 - Flutriafol
• 69377-81-7 - Fluroxypyr
139528-85-1 - Metosulam
121552-61-2 - Cyprodinil
120923-37-7 - Amidosulfuron
107534-96-3 - Tebuconazole
94361-06-5 - Cyproconazole
81405-85-8 - Imazamethabenz
74223-64-6 - Metsulfuron
74051-80-2 - Sethoxydim
67306-03-0 - Fenpropimorph
67306-00-7 - Fenpropidin
53112-28-0 - Pyrimethanil
52918-63-5 - Deltamethrin [note: brominated]
42576-02-3 - Bifenox
36734-19-7 - Iprodione
34123-59-6 - Isoproturon
25057-89-0 - Bentazone
16672-87-0 - Ethephon
10605-21-7 - Carbendazim
1912-24-9 - Atrazine
1897-45-6 - Chlorothalonil
1702-17-6 - Clopyralid
1689-84-5 - Bromoxynil [note: brominated]
1689-83-4 - Ioxynil [note: iodinated]
1113-02-6 - Omethoate
640-15-3 - Thiometon
301-12-2 - Oxydemeton-methy
115-29-7 - Endosulfan
94-74-6 - MCPA
93-65-2 - Mecoprop


Bull Environ Contam Toxicol; 1992 Dec;49(6):914-21

Effects of different dilution water types on the acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific salmon and rainbow trout of fluroxypyr formulated product XRM-5084.

Wan MT, Watts RG, Moul DJ

Environment Canada, Pacific & Yukon Region, West Esplanade, North Vancouver, British Columbia.

No Abstract

PMID: 1450574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pestic. Sci., 29(4):405-417.. 1990

Leaching Potential and Decomposition of Fluroxypyr in Swedish Soils Under Field Conditions

Bergstrom, L.F

The mobility and decomposition of the herbicide fluroxypyr was studied under field conditions in a sandy soil and a clay soil. Leachate was collected in lysimeters with undisturbed soil (sand) and in tile-drained plots (clay). Soil samples to a depth of one metre were also collected in both soils to characterize the temporal depth distribution of fluroxypyr in the profiles. The herbicide was applied as the 1-methytheptyl ester of fluroxypyr at two rates. 187.5 and 375.0 g.a.e. ha1, representing the normal and double the dose of the compound used for spring cereals. Only two leachate samples (one from each soil) had concentrations of fluroxypyr above the detection limit (1microgram litre),e.e. 2 and 5microg litre. Both samples were collected within two months after application, when less than 2 mm of drainage had been collected. The methylheptyl ester of fluroxypyr was not found in any of the samples. Fluroxypyr levels above the detection limit in soil (5mg/kg dry soil), were never found below the topsoil (0.2m) in the clay profile, while, in the sandy profile, levels just above the detection limit were occasionally in deeper soil layers. concentrations were reduced to undetectable or very low levels within three months after spraying.

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