CAS No. 59756-60-4

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ACTIVITY: Herbicide (unclassified)

CAS Name: 1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4(1H)-pyridinone


Adverse Effects:

Body Weight Decrease
Endocrine: Testicular

Environmental Effects:

Toxic to fish

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes 
US EPA PC Code: 112900 
215900 (Old US EPA PC Code)
California Chemical Code 2279 
US Tolerances: CFR 180.420 
FDA LMS Code: 736 
US EPA Permit Date
and Registrant:
1986, Elanco 
European Commission:

Not allowed to be used as an active ingredient after July 25, 2003.

Registered use in
(includes only a limited list of countries)

US Maximum Residue Levels permitted in food commodities Permitted in or on over 50 food commodities, including:
Avocado, Cattle, Citrus, Cotton, Crayfish, Cucurbits, Egg, Fish, Fruit, Goat, Grain Crops, Grass (Forage), Hog, Horse, Sheep, Legume (Forage), Milk, Nuts, Poultry, Vegetable: (Leafy; Root Crop; Seed & Pod)
Other Information
Molecular Formula: C19H14 F3 NO  
Entry Year: 1976  
Inventing Company: Elanco  
Manufacturers: Dow Agro  
Other Names: Avast
Sonar X
Of special interest:
PAN Data 
New - Index to local battles. Newspaper reports on community reactions to fluoridone proposals.
New - National Technical Information Service (NTIS) Reports
Material Safety Data Sheets & Labels
2002 - The effect of fluridone and flurochloridone on the incidence of albinism in pea (Pisum sativum) and on the abscission of leaves of privet (Ligustrum vulgare); by S Klicova, J Sebanek, M Hudeova, H Vitkova, H Vlasinova, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czeck Republic. Full report.
November 26, 2002 - European Commission: Fluridone is one of 320 pesticides to be withdrawn in July 2003. "Some 320 substances used in plant protection products (PPPs) – including insecticides, fungicides and herbicides – are to be withdrawn from the market by 25 July 2003 as part of the European Commission’s new approach to the evaluation of active substances in plant protection products. This aims to improve safeguards to ensure that all such products in use are safe for the environment and human health. Users, wholesalers and retailers of plant protection products will need to be aware of whether the products they use or sell are likely to be withdrawn, so as to prevent them being left with stocks of unusable material. Those concerned should contact their national authority to check the authorisation status for any particular product. The Regulation (n° 2076/2002 of 20 November 2002), with the list of the 320 substances, has now been published in the Offical Journal. Ref: MIDDAY EXPRESS. News from the Press and Communication Service's midday briefing.
1990 - Summary of Toxicolgy Data. California EPA.
1990 - US EPA IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System)
EPA Index of Cleared Science Reviews: 1978 to 1994.
March 31, 1986 - Chemical Fact Sheet - Cornell Pesticide Management Education Program
June 29, 2001 - NY State Environmental Quality Review (SEQR) statement of findings of Lake George Park Commission for the Lake George Sonar demonstration project. Note from EC. Caution: rarely does NY SEQR find a problem with chemicals or proposals for polluting industries.  
Herbicide Products - partial list 

Table 2 - Active Registrations for Fluridone as of 6/01/04
From: Aug 17, 2004 Human Health Risk Assessment for Fluridone TRED.
Product Formulation Reg Number Company Name % of Active
Fluridone Technical   1812-426 Griffin L.L.C. 99.2
Fluridone SC Liquid Concentrate 1812-435 Griffin L.L.C. 41.7
Fluridone SRP Granular 1812-447 Griffin L.L.C. 5
Sonar Technical 67690-4 SePRO Corporation 99.2
Sonar SRP/5P Granular 67690-3 SePRO Corporation 5
Sonar A.S. Liquid Concentrate 67690-3 SePRO Corporation 41.7
Sonar X Granular 67690-3 SePRO Corporation 5
Sonar* Q Quick Release Granular 67690-3 SePRO Corporation 5

US Federal Register
Date Published
Docket Identification Number
October 5, 2007 No docket number

Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Vegetation Treatments Using Herbicides on Bureau of Land Management Lands in 17 Western States. The fluorinated herbicides included for use are diflufenzopyr and fluridone. (Of the six herbicides rejected for use is the fluorinated mefluidide.) As part of the Proposed Action and this decision, the BLM also adopts the protocol for identifying, evaluating and approving herbicides. Copies of the Record of Decision are available in hard copy or CD upon request from Brian Amme, Nevada State Office, P.O. Box 12000, 1340 Financial Blvd., Reno, NV 89520, or via the Internet at the BLM National Web site http://www.blm.gov/. The Record of Decision is available for review in either hard copy or on compact disks (CDs) at all BLM State, District, and Field Office public rooms.

This national, FPEIS provides a comprehensive analysis of BLM's use of chemical herbicides in its various vegetation treatment programs related to hazardous fuels reduction; noxious weed, invasive terrestrial and aquatic plant species management; resource rehabilitation following catastrophic fires, and other disturbances. The FPEIS addresses human health and ecological risk for use of chemical herbicides on public lands and provides a cumulative impact analysis of the use of chemical herbicides in conjunction with other treatment methods. The decision area includes public lands administered by 11 BLM state offices: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana (North Dakota/South Dakota), New Mexico (Oklahoma/Texas/Nebraska), Nevada, Oregon (Washington), Utah and Wyoming.

Draft PEIS, Part 1 AND Draft PEIS, Part 2. The PEIS provides a comprehensive programmatic NEPA document that addresses the primary controversial issue identified through scoping: the BLM’s continuing use and proposed increased use of herbicides in vegetation treatment programs that would implement the National Fire Plan and other related initiatives.

Draft PER describes the environmental effects of using non-herbicide treatment methods, including prescribed fire and mechanical, manual and biological controls, on vegetation, watersheds, and fish and wildlife habitat on surface lands administered by the BLM in the western United States, including Alaska.

Human Health Risk Assessment
Ecological Risk Assessment Protocol and Assessments
Draft Biological Assessment

Sept 29, 2004 OPP-2004-0235 Tolerance Reassessment Decision (TRED) documents for Low Risk Pesticide; Notice of Availability.
-- N-methyl Formamide (NMF) is the most toxic and prevalent of the fluridone metabolites and degradates. It is formed in water by the photolysis of fluridone. The toxicology database for NMF is limited to one developmental study that was reported in the literature. This study indicated that NMF causes skeletal malformations in both rats and rabbits with NOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day. NMF is not a metabolite in foods
-- Nature of the Residue in Foods: Fluridone is not applied directly to crops. However, residues of fluridone may get into the U.S. food supply when water from treated ponds or lakes is used to water crops. Fluridone residues could end up in livestock commodities if livestock drink water that has been treated with fluridone or if livestock consume crops that have been irrigated with fluridone-treated water.
-- Fluridone and 4-hydroxyfluridone are the major degradates in fish and are assumed to have approximately equivalent toxicity, so both are included in the risk assessment and tolerance expression. Benzoic acid and its 3-trifluroromethyl benzoic acid are aqueous photolysis products found in laboratory studies conducted with lake water. Although it would not have a toxicity profile similar to the parent, there is not a concern for adverse health effects at the levels found as a result of fluridone applications. Finally, another aqueous photoproduct found in laboratory studies, N-methylformamide (NMF), is more toxic than the parent compound and requires a separate assessment.
(Aug 17, 2004 Human Health Risk Assessment for Fluridone TRED.)
TRED documents available for public comment
Aug 17, 2004

Human Health Risk Assessment for Fluridone TRED.

35 pages

Timothy C. Dole, CIH, Industrial Hygienist
Christine Olinger, Chemist
Paul Chin, Ph.D., Toxicologist
Reregistration Branch,
Health Effects Div. (7509C)

PC Code 112900.

DP Barcode D306456.
Aug 12 , 2004

Fluridone Acute and Chronic Dietary Exposure Assessments for the
Reregistration Eligibility Decision

8 pages

Christine L. Olinger, Chemist
Reregistration Branch,
Health Effects Div. (7509C)

PC Code: 112900

DP Barcode: D299947
April 1, 2004

Fluridone and its major degradate, N-methyl formamide - Drinking Water Assessment for the Health Effects Division (HED) Reregistration Eligibility
Decision Document

7 pages

Ibrahim Abdel-Saheb, Ph.D., Agronomist
Peer Reviewed By:
James Breithaupt, Agronomist
Approved By:
Tom Bailey
, Ph.D., Branch Chief,
Environmental Risk Branch, Environmental Fate and Effects Div. (7507C)

PC Code: 112900

DP Barcode: D300012
Aug 30, 2004

FLURIDONE: Toxicology Chapter for RED and Updating Executive Summaries for 11 Studies

39 pages

Paul Chin, Ph.D.
Reregistration Branch,
Health Effects Div. 7509C

PC CODE: 112900

BARCODE: D291522

Sept 20, 2004

Report of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Tolerance Reassessment
Progress and Risk Management Decision (TRED) for Fluridone

6 pages

Submitted by
Debbie Edwards, Ph.D.
Special Review and Reregistration Div.

Contact for futher information:
Wilhelmena Livingston

Aug 4, 1997
Fluoride Action Network | Pesticide Project | 315-379-9200 | pesticides@fluoridealert.org