CAS No. 158062-67-0

Return to Flonicamid Adverse Effects

ACTIVITY: Insecticide (pyridinecarboxamide)

CAS Name: N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamide


Adverse Effects:

Body Weight Decrease
Cancer: Lung and
Nasal acrimal duct
Endocrine: Adrenal
Endocrine: Ovary
Endocrine: Sex Ratios
Endocrine: Thymus
Endocrine: Vagina

Environmental Effects:
no data available
Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes
US FIRST-TIME food tolerances as of August 2005.
US Tolerances: 180.613
US EPA PC Code: 128016 
US Maximum Residue Levels permitted in food commodities

122 commodities. Too many to list (see below in Federal Register):
egg, cotton, fruit, meat, milk, vegetables
UK Temporary MRL's

Applicable from: May 2005

Apples, Pear: 0.3 ppm
Potato: 0.1 p pm
Wheat (winter): 2.0 ppm

Other Information
Molecular Formula: C9H6 F3 N3O 
Entry Year: 2001  
Manufacturers: ISK, FMC 
Other Names: F1785 GH 50 WG
Of special interest:
PAN Data
Flonicamid: Material Safety Data Sheets and Labels
2005 - Summary of toxicology data. California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.
May 10, 2005 - U.S. Congresswoman Corrine Brown (D-Fl) introduced a bill "To suspend temporarily the duty on Flonicamid" up to December 31, 2009. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means.
March 18, 2005 - Press release from FMC announcing "that Aria insecticide is available for use on ornamentals grown indoors in greenhouses and interiorscapes ... The registration of Aria is the first in the world for its active ingredient, flonicamid, and represents the first product registration as a result of an agreement between FMC and Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Ltd. (ISK) ... Aria is available in all states in the Continental United States, except for California, where registration is expected within nine months..."

June 9, 2004 - NY State DEC Letter to ISK Biosciences and FMC Corp. Registration of Technical flonicamid and F1785 GH 50 WG Insecticide (EPA Reg. No. 279-3264) containing the active ingredient flonacimid.

... Please note that a proposal by ISK/ FMC, or any other registrant, to register a product that contains flonicamid for outdoor use, use on food crops, or any other labeled uses that are likely to increase the potential for significant impact to humans, nontarget organisms, or the environment, would constitute a major change in labeled (MCL) use pattern...

2003 - US EPA 2003 work plan for registration of 19 conventional pesticides; 6 of the 19 are fluorinated. They are Butafenacil, Flonicamid, Flufenpyr-ethyl, Noviflumuron, Quinoxyfen, Trifloxysulfuron 
April 9, 2002 - Reduced Risk Status for New Insecticide Flonicamid. -
EPA's Office of Pestide Programs (OPP) Reduced Risk Committee granted OP alternative status ISK Biosciences and FMC's insecticide, flonicamid (F 1785 GH), for use on ornamentals grown in indoor greenhouses. Flonicamid is an alternative to the OP's chlorpyrifos, acephate, dimethoate, and oxydementon methyl; the carbamate, enoxycarb; and the pyrethroids, bifenthin, and fluvalinate, for use on indoor greenhouse ornamentals to control sucking insects (e.g. aphids, trips, and whiteflies).
October 2001 - FMC acquires American rights to Ishihara's flonicamid insecticide. FMC has entered into an exclusive agreement to develop, market and distribute Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha's (ISK) new insecticide, flonicamid (IKI-220), in the Americas, the UK, Spain and Portugal. However, in Latin America, ISK will retain the rights for Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay because it already has an established distribution network. The partnership gives ISK access to these key insecticide markets through FMC and adds a complementary insecticide to the FMC Agricultural Products group portfolio....Agrochemical Service PhytoPhile from Wood Mackenzie, a division of Deutsche Bank AG  

Metabolites of Flonicamid
-- TFNA,
(4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid),
, (4- trifluoromethylnicotinamide)
-- TFNG, (N-(4- trifluoromethylnicotinoyl)-glycine)
Ref: US EPA, Fed. Reg. May 23, 2003

US Federal Register

•• Note: Due to length, the following is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.

Date published Docket Control No. Brief review
June 27, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0338

IR-4. Pesticide Petition. PP 6E7081. Proposal to establish a tolerance for combined residues of the insecticide flonicamid and its metabolites TFNA [4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid], TFNA-AM [4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide], TFNG [N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl)glycine] in or on food commodities:

Brassica, leafy greens (subgroup 5B)

This subgroup includes 8 commodities.
broccoli raab • cabbage, chinese bok choy • collards • kale • mizuna • mustard greens • mustard spinach • rape greens

16.0 ppm
hop 7.0 ppm
okra 0.4 ppm
radish, tops 16.0 ppm
turnip greens 16.0 ppm

vegetables, tuberous and corm, (subgroup 1C)

This subgroup includes 22 commodities.
arracacha • arrowroot • artichoke, chinese • artichoke, jerusalem • canna, edible • cassava • chayote root • chufa • dasheen • ginger • leren • potato • potato culls • potato granules flakes • potato peel, wet • potato processed potato waste • potato, specialty • sweet potato • tanier • turmeric • yam bean • yam, true

0.2 ppm

Vegetables, root, except sugarbeet, (subgroup 1B)

This subgroup includes 19 commodities.
beet, garden • burdock, edible • carrot • carrot culls • celeriac • chervil, turnip rooted • chicory root • ginseng • horseradish • parsley, turnip rooted • parsnip • radish • radish, oriental • rutabaga • salsify • salsify, black • salsify, spanish • skirret • turnip

0.45 ppm

Analytical methodology has been developed to determine the residues of flonicamid and its three major metabolites (TFNA, TFNG, and TFNA-AM) in various crops. The residue analytical method for the majority of crops includes an initial extraction with acetonitrile/deionized water (ACN/DI), followed by a liquid/liquid partition with ethyl acetate. The residue method for wheat straw is similar, except that a C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) is added prior to the liquid/liquid partition. The final sample solution is quantitated using LC equipped with a reverse phase column and a triple quadruple mass spectrometer (MS/MS).

March 29, 2006 EPA-HQ-OPP-2004-0132

ISK Biosciences. Pesticide Tolerance. FINAL RULE.
This regulation establishes a tolerance for combined residues of flonicamid
and its metabolites
TFNA [4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid],
TFNA-AM [4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide]
TFNG [N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl)glycine]

in or on

Parts per million

Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A

This subgroup includes 10 commodities.

broccoli • broccoli, cavalo • broccoli, chinese • brussels sprout • cabbage • cabbage, chinese mustard • cabbage, chinese napa • cauliflower • cavalo broccolo • kohlrabi

Mustard greens

This Rule refers to the Final Rule of August 31, 2005 (see below) for
• toxicological endpoints for flonicamid used for human risk assessment
• dietary exposure from drinking water
• the nature of the toxic effects caused by flonicamid and its metabolites as well as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), and
• the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) from the toxicity studies.

In that document, first-time tolerances were approved for food and EPA stated
• Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (Lung and Nasolacrimal duct)

August 31, 2005 OPP-2005-0217

ISK Biosciences. Pesticide tolerances. FINAL RULE.
First-time tolerances for food
Cancer. Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (Lung and Nasolacrimal duct)
The FQPA Safety Factor is reduced to 1X
EPA received one comment from the National Cotton Council, which stated that it supports ISK Bioscience's request for the establishment of tolerances in the listed food and feed items.

Section 180.613 is added to read as follows:
Sec. 180.613 Flonicamid; tolerances for residues.
(a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of flonicamid [N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamide]
and its metabolites
TFNA [4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid], TFNA-AM [4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide]
TFNG [N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl)glycine]
in or on the following raw agricultural commodities:
Commodity Parts per million
Cotton, gin byproducts 6.0
Cotton, hulls 2.0
Cotton, meal 1.0
Cotton, undelinted seed 0.50

Fruit, pome, group 11

This group includes 10 commodities.
apple • apple, dried pomace • apple, juice • apple, wet pomace • crabapple • fruit, pome • loquat • mayhaw • pear • pear, oriental • quince


Fruit, stone, group 12

This group includes 14 commodities.
apricot • cherry, sweet • cherry, tart • fruit, stone • fruit, stone, except plum, prune, dried • nectarine • peach • plum • plum, chickasaw • plum, damson • plum, japanese • plum, prune • plum, prune, dried • plum, prune, fresh

Potato 0.20
Potato, granular/flakes 0.40
Spinach 9.0
Tomato, paste 2.0
Tomato, puree 0.50

Vegetable, cucurbit, group

This group (group 9) includes 19 commodities.
balsam apple • balsam pear • cantaloupe • chayote, fruit • cucumber • cucumber, chinese • cucurbits • gherkin, west indian • gourd, edible • melon • melon, citron • muskmelon • pumpkin • squash • squash, summer • squash, winter • vegetable, cucurbit, group • watermelon • waxgourd, chinese


Vegetable, fruiting, group

This group (group 8) includes 17 commodities.
chili, postharvest • eggplant • groundcherry • pepino • pepper • pepper, bell • pepper, nonbell • pepper, nonbell, sweet • tomatillo • tomato • tomato, concentrated products • tomato, dried pomace • tomato, paste • tomato, puree • tomato, wet pomace • vegetable, fruiting • vegetable, fruiting, group


Vegetable, leafy except Brassica group 4, except spinach

This group includes 37 commodities.
amaranth, leafy • arugula • cardoon • celery • celery, chinese • celtuce • chervil • chervil, fresh leaves • chrysanthemum, edible leaved • chrysanthemum, garland • corn salad • cress, garden • cress, upland • dandelion, leaves • dock • endive • fennel, florence • fennel, florence, fresh leaves and stalk • kale, sea • lettuce, head • lettuce, leaf • orach • orach, leaves • parsley • parsley, leaves • purslane, garden • purslane, winter • radicchio • rhubarb • spinach • spinach, chinese • spinach, new zealand • spinach, vine • swiss chard • tampala • vegetable, leafy • vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group


(2) Tolerances are established for combined residues of flonicamid
and its metabolites
TFNA [4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid],
TFNA-AM [4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide]
in or on the following raw agricultural commodities:
Commodity Parts per million
Cattle, fat 0.02
Cattle, meat 0.05
Cattle, meat byproducts 0.08
Egg 0.03
Goat, fat 0.02
Goat, meat 0.05
Goat, meat byproducts 0.08
Horse, fat 0.02
Horse, meat 0.05
Horse, meat byproducts 0.08
Milk 0.02
Poultry, fat 0.02
Poultry, meat byproducts 0.02
Sheep, fat 0.02
Sheep, meat 0.05
Sheep, meat by products 0.08
•• Note: Due to length, the above is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.


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