Body Weight Decrease - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides
beginning with
A-E • F-G H-P Q-Z
 
 


• See Table of dramatic weight loss effects in laboratory animals exposed to fluoride and/or fluorinated pesticides.

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Fipronil - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 120068-37-3

Australia: ANIMAL SAFETY ISSUES. Adverse experiences involving veterinary chemical products containing fipronil have been reported regularly since the products were first registered. Patterns that appear to have emerged involve the development of certain clinical signs including skin reactions, neurological signs, lethargy, anorexia and in some cases death. In Australia there have been 56 suspect adverse experience reports for dogs classified as being either probably or possibly associated with fipronil. In 21 of those reports (38%) there was concurrent infestation with the dog paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. Of these reports, 9 involved death of the dog...
Ref: September 2003 - The Reconsideration of Approvals and Registrations Relating to FIPRONIL. REVIEW SCOPE DOCUMENT. Australian Pesticides & Veterinary Medicines Authority Canberra Australia.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fipronil.australia.sept2003.pdf

Reproductive and developmental toxicity. The developmental toxicity NOELs in the rat and rabbit were 20 mg/kg/day (HDT) and 1 mg/kg/day (HDT), respectively. Maternal toxicity was observed in the rat at the HDT as evidenced by decreased body weight gain and food efficiency. In the rabbit, the maternal toxicity NOAEL was less than 0.1 mg/kg/day, based on reduced body weight gain and food efficiency at all dose levels tested. The NOEL for reproductive toxicity was 30 ppm (2.64 mg/kg/day for both sexes combined), based on clinical signs of toxicity in pups, decreased litter size, decreased pup body weights, decreased mating, decreased fertility index, reduced pre- and postnatal survival, and delays in physical development at 300 ppm (26.03 and 28.40 mg/kg/day for males and females, respectively).
In a developmental neurotoxicity study in the rat, the NOAEL for maternal toxicity was 10 ppm (0.91 mg/kg/day), based on decreased body weights and body weight gain at 200 ppm (HDT; 15 mg/kg/day). Considerable maternal toxicity at the HDT prevented adequate neurotoxicity evaluation of pups at this dose level. There was no evidence of neurotoxicity at 10 ppm (0.91 mg/kg/day), which was the NOAEL for developmental neurotoxicity. The NOAEL for general developmental toxicity was 0.5 ppm (0.05 mg/kg/day), based on systemic effects consisting of decreases in pup weights during lactation and increases in time of preputial separation in males at 10 ppm.
Subchronic toxicity.The NOAELs in the dog were 2 and 0.5 mg/kg/day for male and female, respectively, based on clinical signs of toxicity in males at 10 mg/kg/day and clinical signs of toxicity and decreased body weight gain in females at 2 mg/kg/day. The NOAEL for mice was 10 ppm (1.27 and 1.72 mg/kg/day for males and females, respectively), based on a possible decreased body weight gain at 25 ppm (3.2 and 4.53 mg/kg/day for males and females, respectively). A repeated dose dermal study in the rabbit had a systemic NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day, based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption at 10 mg/kg/day, and a dermal irritation NOEL of 10.0 mg/kg/day (HDT).
Chronic toxicity. The NOAEL for systemic toxicity in mice was 0.5 ppm (0.06 mg/kg/day) based on decreased body weight gain, decreased food conversion efficiency in males, increased liver weights, and liver histopathology at 10 ppm (1.3 mg/kg/day).
Acute neurotoxicity.
The NOEL was 2 mg/kg, based on decreases in body weight gain and food consumption in males and females during the week following treatment, decreases in locomotor activity, hind-limb splay and rectal temperature 6-hour post dosing in males and females, and decreases in the proportion of males with an immediate righting reflex on days 7 and 14, at 12 mg/kg/day.
• Subchronic toxicity. The NOAEL in the rat was 3 ppm (0.18 and 0.21 mg/kg/day in males and females, respectively), based on clinical signs of toxicity in both sexes and decreased body weight and body weight gain in males at 10 ppm.
Ref: August 24, 2005. Federal Register. Fipronil; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fipronil.fr.aug.24.2005.html

-- An acceptable subchronic oral toxicity [capsule] study in the dog established that the LOEL is 10.0 mg/kg/day for males (based on clinical signs of toxicity) and 2.0 mg/kg/day for females (based on clinical signs of toxicity and decreased body-weight gain). The NOEL is 2.0 mg/kg/day for males and 0.5 mg/kg/day for females.
-- An acceptable repeated dose dermal study using the rat found that the systemic LOEL was 10 mg/kg/day based on decreased body-weight gain and food consumption; the dermal irritation LOEL is greater than 10.0 mg/kg/day. The systemic NOEL was 5.0 mg/kg/day; the dermal irritation NOEL was greater than or equal to 10.0 mg/kg/day.
-- A acceptable carcinogenicity [feeding] study in the mouse using fipronil found that the LOEL is 10 ppm (1.181 mg/kg/day for males and 1.230 mg/kg/day for females) based on decreased body-weight gain, decreased food conversion efficiency (males), increased liver weights and increased incidence of hepatic histopathological changes. The NOEL is 0.5 ppm (0.055 mg/kg/day for males and 0.063 mg/kg/day for females). The study demonstrated that fipronil is not carcinogenic to CD-1 mice when administered at doses of 30 ppm.
-- Fipronil. a. An acceptable prenatal developmental study in the rat found that the maternal toxicity LOEL was 20 mg/kg/day based on reduced body-weight gain, increased water consumption, reduced food consumption, and reduced food efficiency. The maternal toxicity NOEL was 4 mg/kg/day. The developmental toxicity LOEL was greater than 20 mg/ [[Page 38486]] kg/day. Developmental toxicity NOEL was 20 mg/kg/day or higher.
-- An acceptable prenatal developmental study in the rabbit found that the maternal toxicity LOEL was 0.1 mg/kg/day or lower, based on reduced body-weight gain, reduced food consumption and efficiency. Maternal toxicity NOEL was less than 0.1 mg/kg/day. The developmental toxicity LOEL was greater than 1.0 mg/kg/day. The developmental toxicity NOEL was 1.0 mg/kg/day or higher.
-- An acceptable acute neurotoxicity study in the rat concluded that the NOEL was 2.5 mg/kg. The LOEL is 7.5 mg/kg, based on decreased body-weight gains, food consumption and feed efficiency in females, decreased hindlimb splay in males (at 7-hours post test) and decreased grooming in females (14-days post test).
-- MB46513. An acceptable prenatal developmental study using the rat found that the maternal toxicity LOEL was 2.5 mg/kg/day and the NOEL was 1.0 mg/kg/day based an increase in clinical signs of toxicity (reduced body-weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency). The Developmental Toxicity LOEL was 2.5 mg/kg/day and the NOEL was 1.0 mg/ kg/day based on the slight increase in fetal and litter incidence of reduced ossification of several bones.
-- The LOEL for reproductive toxicity was 300 ppm (26.03 mg/kg/day for males and 28.40 mg/kg/day for females) based on clinical signs of toxicity in the F1 and F2 offspring; decreased litter size in the F1 and F2 litters; decreased body weights in the F1 and F2 litters; decrease in the percentage of F1 parental animals mating; reduction in fertility index in F1 parental animals; reduced post- implantation survival and offspring postnatal survivability in the F2 litters; and delay in physical development in the F1 and F2 offspring. The NOEL for reproductive toxicity was 30 ppm (2.54 mg/kg/day for males and 2.74 mg/kg/day for females).
-- In a developmental neurotoxicity study, fipronil was administered to 30 female rats/group in the diet at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 10, or 200 ppm (0.05, 0.90, or 15 mg/kg/day, respectively) from gestation day 6 to lactation day 10. This study found that the maternal LOEL was 200 ppm (15 mg/kg/day), based on decreased body weight, body- weight gain, and food consumption. The maternal NOEL was 10 ppm (0.90 mg/kg/day). The developmental toxicity LOEL is 10 ppm (0.9 mg/kg/day), based on a marginal but statistically significant decrease in group mean pup weights during lactation and significant increase in time of preputial separation in males. The NOEL for developmental toxicity is 0.5 ppm (0.05 mg/kg/day). The developmental neurotoxicity LOEL is 200 ppm (15 mg/kg/day) based on: Decreased auditory startle response; reduced swimming direction scores, group mean angle measurements, and water ``Y'' maze times trails; and decreased absolute-brain weights. The NOEL for developmental neurotoxicity is 10 ppm (0.90 mg/kg/day).
-- MB46513. An acceptable acute neurotoxicity study in the rat concluded that the neurobehavioral LOEL for rats is 12 mg/kg based on decreases in body-weight gains and food consumption for males and females during the week following treatment, significant decreases in locomotor activity 6-hours post dosing for both males and females, decreases in hind-limb splay and rectal temperature at 6-hours post dose in males and females, decreases in the proportion of high-dose males with an immediate righting reflex on days 7 and 14. Decreased forelimb grip strength in males on day 7 and increased forelimb grip strength in high-dose females at 6-hours post dosing was possibly related to the treatment, because there were also slight increases in forelimb grip strength in high-dose males at 6 hours and slight
-- MB46513. An acceptable 28-day dietary range-finding study in the rat measured thyroid hormone levels as well as standard study parameters. It found that the LOEL is 30 ppm (2.20 and 2.32 mg/kg/day for males and females, respectively), based on clinical signs including piloerection, curling up and thin appearance; and decreased body weights in both sexes. The NOEL is 3 ppm (0.23 and 0.24 mg/kg/day for males and females, respectively).
Ref: Federal Register: July 17, 1998. Fipronil; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fipronil.FR.July.17.1998.htm

Flonicamid - Insecticide - CAS No. 158062-67-0

-- In the rabbit developmental toxicity study, the maternal and developmental NOAELs were 7.5 mg/kg/day and 25 mg/kg/day highest dose tested (HDT), respectively. The maternal LOAEL was 25 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weights and food consumption. No adverse effects on the fetuses were observed at the highest dose.
-- Chronic toxicity. In the chronic dog study with administration via using capsules, the NOAEL was 8 mg/kg/day. The LOAEL was 20 mg/kg/ day based on reduced body weights in females and effects on the circulating red blood cells.
Ref: Federal Register: May 23, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 100)] [Notices] [Page 28218-28222]. Flonicamid; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/Flonicamid.FR.May23.2003.htm

-- Combined Chronic/ carcinogenicity (rats). NOAEL is 200 ppm (equivalent to 7.32/8.92mg/ kg/day in males/females). LOAEL is 1,000 ppm (equivalent to 36.5/44.1mg/ kg/day in males/females) based on decreased body weights and body weight gains, and increased incidences of keratitis in males and striated muscle fiber atrophy in females. At the high dose there was an incidence (12%)of nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas slightly outside the historical control range (0-10%) in male rats. A correlation between the incidence of inflammation and the fluctuating incidence of nasal tumors was made across dose groups. EPA did not consider the nasolacrimal duct tumors to be treatment-related. Female rats had a significant increasing trend in nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas at < 0.05, and at the high dose was slightly above the historical control mean (0.8%) and range (0-4%). EPA considered the nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas to be possibly treatment related, but that a clear association with treatment could not be made.
-- Subchronic neurotoxicity screening battery (rats). NOAEL is 200/1,000 ppm (equivalent to 13/81mg/kg/day [M/F]. LOAEL is 1,000/10,000 ppm (equivalent to 67/722 mg/kg/day [M/F] based on decreased motor activity, rearing, and foot splay in males, decreased body weights, body weight gains, and food consumption in males and females.
Ref: August 31, 2005. Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/
flonicamid.fr.aug.31.2005.html

-- CHRONIC TOXICITY, DOG. Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study: 52964-0013; 208802; “A 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Dogs with IKI-220 Technical”; (W.E. Ridder, M. Watson; Toxicology and Pharmacology, Ricerca LLC, Painesville, OH; Report No. 011509-1; 9/5/01); Four beagle dogs/sex/group received 0, 3, 8, or 20 mg/kg/day of IKI-220 Technical (lot no. 9809, purity: 98.7%) in capsules for 13 weeks. An additional group of 4 females received 50 mg/kg/day of the test material for the same duration. Both the males and females in the 20 mg/kg group and the females in the 50 mg/kg group demonstrated treatment-related signs of vomiting. Ataxia was also noted for some of the animals in these groups. Incidences of diarrhea and excessive salivation were observed for the females in the high dose group. The females in the high dose group were so affected as to refuse to eat the certified dog chow. One female in the 50 mg/kg was euthanized due to severe anorexia on study day 20. Food consumption was significantly lower for the females in the 50 mg/kg group (p<0.05). ...
-- Definitive Study: 52964 - 0064 216038 “A 52-Week Oral Toxicity Study in Dogs With IKI-220 Technical, Amended Report,” (Ridder, W.E., Watson, M.; Toxicology and Pharmacology, Ricerca Biosciences, LLC, Painesville, OH; Document #: 012075-1-1; 11/15/02 (amended report 1/2/03)). Flonicamid technical (IKI-220, N-cyanomethyl-4-trifluoromethyl nicotinamide: 98.7% pure) was administered by capsules to beagle dogs (6/sex/dose) at 0 (capsule only), 3, 8 and 20 mg/kg/day for 1 year (365 consecutive days). NOEL = 8 mg/kg/day (Body weight gains were significantly decreased in females at 20 mg/kg/day during weeks 2-4. Although the body weight gains were not statistically different from controls for the remainder of the study, the body weight gain decrease was 30% at termination for females at 20 mg/kg/day (4.90 kg for controls vs. 3.41 kg at 20 mg/kg/day). Males at 9 and 12 months had statistically significantly increased MCV and MCH and at 12 months increased reticulocytes (%) at 20 mg/kg/day. NOTE that at pretest males at 20 mg/kg/day had a statistically significantly decreased RBC, HGB and HCT. Throughout the test, however these parameters were comparable to controls.
** 52964 - 0061 216035 “IKI-220 Technical: A Teratogenicity Study in Rabbits,” (Takahashi, K.; Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Ibaraki, Japan; Laboratory Study #: IET 00-0025; 2/21/02 & final report amended 11/28/02). Flonicamid technical (98.7% pure) was administered via oral gavage to artificially inseminated SPF Japanese White rabbits (Kbl:JW) (25/dose) at 0 (1% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), 2.5, 7.5 and 25 mg/kg/day during gestation days 6 through 27. Maternal NOEL = 7.5 mg/kg/day (Body weight gains at 25 mg/kg/day were statistically significantly decreased during the interval of GD 6 - 28 (throughout treatment). At 25 mg/kg/day there was statistically significantly decreased food consumption on GD 9 - 12, 12 - 15, 15 - 18 and 18 - 21. Developmental NOEL = 25 mg/kg/day (There were no treatment-related effects at any dose.) Acceptable. No adverse effect. (Silva, 2/11/05)
Reference: April 28, 2005 - Summary of toxicology data. California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/flonicamid.ca.epa.2005.pdf

Floransulam - Herbicide - CAS No. 145701-23-1

-- In the rat 90-d dietary study, other histopathological findings in the kidney included degeneration with regeneration in the descending portion of the proximal tubules (females at 500 mg/kg bw/d and above) which was considered to be typical of acute necrosis with regeneration rather than a 90-d old lesion and multi-focal mineralization in the papilla (females at 800 mg/kg bw/d). These lesions did not appear to be reversible. In the rat 2- year dietary study, other histopathological findings in the kidneys included a possible slight decreased incidence of age-related tubular degeneration/regeneration and a decreased severity of spontaneous geriatric renal degeneration (chronic progressive glomerularnephropathy) in males at 250 mg/kg bw/d and above, slight decreased incidence of spontaneous geriatric renal disease in females at 250 mg/kg bw/d and minimal reactive hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium and unilateral necrosis of the papilla in males at 500 mg/kg bw/d. The high-dose males also exhibited decreased proteinuria, which was considered to represent less severe chronic renal disease although the decreased specific gravity suggest that dilution may have also contributed to lower values. Body weight and body-weight gain were significantly lower in males at 1000 mg/kg bw/d and in females at 500 mg/kg bw/d and above in the 90-d dietary study and in males at 500 mg/kg bw/d (highest dose tested [HDT]) and in females at 250 mg/kg bw/d (HDT) in the 2-year dietary study. This was associated with concomitant lower food consumption in the high-dose animals in the both 90-d and 2-year dietary study.
-- In the dog, an increased incidence and severity of hypertrophy of the epithelial cells was observed in both sexes at 50 mg/kg bw/d and above in both the 90-d and 1-year dietary study. There were no treatment-related urinalysis findings in either the 90-d or 1-year dietary study. The severity (slight) of the hypertrophy did not appear to increase with prolonged exposure. In the 90-d dietary study treatment-related findings associated with the liver included increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both sexes at 50 and 100 mg/kg bw/d, increased liver weights in both sexes at 100 mg/kg bw/d and a slight increased incidence or severity of hepatic vacuolation in both sexes at 50 and 100 mg/kg bw/d. Increased liver weights and hepatic vacuolation were not observed in the 1-year dietary study. In the 1-year dietary study, treatment-related findings associated with the liver, included increased alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and ALP activity and decreased serum albumin and protein levels in both sexes at 100 mg/kg bw/d. After the high dose was reduced to 50 mg/kg bw/d (week 15), ALP activity remained elevated and serum albumin and protein levels remained lower in both sexes. In the 1-year dietary study, no histopathological findings were evident in the liver. In the 1-year dietary study, slight vacuolization of the zona reticularis and zona fasciculata in the adrenal glands was observed in the high-dose males and females; however, in the absence of any associated inflamation, necrosis or other changes, the toxicological significance of this finding was uncertain. The vacuolization was consistent with fatty changes. Body weight, body-weight gain and food consumption were significantly lower in both sexes at 100 mg/kg bw/d and remained lower in the high-dose females after the high dose was reduced in the 1-year dietary study. Body weight, body-weight gain and food consumption were unaffected by treatment in the 90-d dietary study.
Ref: Florasulam EF-1343 Suspension Concentrate Herbicide. REF2001-12. September 21, 2001. Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Health Canada.
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pmra-arla/english/pdf/reg/reg2001-12-e.pdf

Fluazifop-butyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 69806-50-4

-- Fluazifop butyl (CAS # 69806-50-4) was evaluated for developmental toxicity in the progeny of Sprague-Dawley CD rats administered oral doses of 0 (corn oil vehicle control), 10, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day by gavage on gestation days 6-20... Delayed fetal ossification and reduced fetal weight were dose-related and evident at all treatment levels, although fetal weights in association with dosages of 10 and 50 mg/kg/day were within the threshold of historical controls... [ICI AMERS INC; Butyl 2-(4-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy)phenoxy) propionate butyl: Effects of Oral Administration Upon Pregnancy in Rats; 05/23/80; EPA Doc No. 88-920006839; Fiche No. OTS0543844]
Ref: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank for FLUAZIFOP-BUTYL.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluazifop-butyl.TOXNET.HSDB.htm

In a teratogenicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via oral gavage, delayed ossification and an increased incidence of hydroureter were observed in fetuses (the fetotoxic LOEL was 5 mg/kg/day; the NOEL 1 mg/kg/day) and a teratogenic LOEL of 200 mg/kg/day (the NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day) was determined based on the incidence of diaphragmatic hernia. Maternal toxicity was observed in this study at doses higher than those causing fetotoxicity and included reduced body weight gain and decreased gravid uterus (the maternal LOEL was 200 mg/kg/day; the NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day). In a 2-generation reproductive toxicity dietary study in Wistar rats, the reproductive LOEL of 250 ppm (12.5 mg/kg/day; the NOEL was 80 ppm or 4 mg/kg/day) was based on reduced litter sizes, reduced viability, reduced testis and epididymis weights and tubular atrophy in offspring. Fetotoxicity (delayed ossification and eye opacities) was also demonstrated in New Zealand White rabbits (the LOEL was 30 mg/kg/day; the NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day). EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing fluazifop butyl on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available hepatic and developmental toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Fluazifop-P-butyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 79241-46-6

411-110 135236 Moxon, M. E., "Fluazifop-p-butyl: Developmental toxicity study in the rabbit," Zeneca Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, 3/23/93. Report # CTL/P/3862. Twenty mated NZW rabbits were dosed by gavage in 1 ml/kg corn oil at 0, 2, or 10 mg/kg/day Fluazifop-p-butyl technical (90.1% purity) between days 8 and 20 of gestation (natural mating day was designated “day 1”). There were also 40 mated does given 50 mg/kg/day of test article, to ensure adequate numbers of surviving litters. Maternal toxicity was generally low: mean body weight was unaffected and there were no characteristic clinical signs. There was one maternal death (killed in extremis) among the high dose females. Abortion frequencies were 1/18, 2/17, 2/13, and 4/37 in controls through increasing dose groups, thus not independently indicative of treatment effects at any dose. Nevertheless, a combination of marked body weight losses (average loss of 654 g) and associated signs of "few feces" or "no feces" among the 4 of the 5 aborted/killed moribund does is considered treatment-related, setting the maternal NOEL = 10 mg/kg/day..
Ref: May 20, 2002. SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGY DATA FLUAZIFOP-P-BUTYL. California EPA. Department of Pesticide Regulation. Medical Toxicology Branch.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluazifop-P-butyl.CAepa.02.pdf

Reproductive Effects: In a 3-generation reproductive study in rats, effects included reductions in weight gain, fetal weight, ossification, testicular weight, spleen weight, increased prostate weight and gestational length. No Effect Level (NEL) was 1 mg/kg/day. Fetotoxic effects seen in the rabbit, including reduced fetal weight and reduced ossification at higher doses. No Effect Level (NEL) was 30 mg/kg/day in rabbits. The NEL for teratogenic effects is at least 10/mg/day in the rat, with diaphragmatic hernia at higher doses. Not teratogenic at highest dose tested in rabbits (90 mg/kg/day). While fluazifop-p-butyl is fetotoxic when fed to pregnant rats, human exposure data has concluded that female formulation workers are not at increased risk of fetotoxic effects when skin protection measures are applied.
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Fusilade DX (active indredient Fluazifop-P-Butyl). Syngenta. January 21, 2002.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluazifop-P-Butyl.MSDS.pdf

Fluazinam - Fungicide - CAS No. 79622-59-6

In subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, fluazinam targeted the following organs: liver, lung, uterus, testes, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, stomach, eyes and brain. Generalized toxicity was observed in rats, mice and dogs as decreases in body weight, body-weight gain, food consumption and/or food efficiency.
Ref:
Canada: Regulatory Note REG2003-12. Fluazinam. Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Health Canada. Ottawa. October 27, 2003.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fluazinam.canada.report2003.pdf

Prenatal developmental toxicity -rats. LOAEL = 250 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal body weights and placental weights, increased facial/cleft palates, diaphragmatic hernia, and delayed ossification in several bone types, greenish amniotic fluid and possible increased late resorptions and postimplantation loss...
Prenatal developmental toxicity -rabbits. LOAEL = 12 mg/kg/day based on an increase in total litter resorptions and possible fetal skeletal abnormalities.

Ref: Federal Register. September 7, 2001. Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluazinam.FR.Sept.7.2001.htm

-- Prenatal developmental toxicity rats Maternal. NOAEL = 50 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 250 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption and increased water consumption and urogenital staining Developmental NOAEL = 50 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 250 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal body weights and placental weights, increased facial/cleft palates, diaphragmatic hernia, and delayed ossification in several bone types, greenish amniotic fluid and possible increased late resorptions and postimplantation loss
-- Reproduction and fertility effects rats. Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 1.9 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 9.7 mg/kg/day based on liver pathology in F1 males Reproductive NOAEL = 10.6 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 53.6 mg/kg/day based on decreased number of implantation sites and decreased litter sizes to day 4 post-partum for F1 females (F2 litters). Offspring NOAEL = 8.4 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 42.1 mg/kg/day based on reduced F1 and F2 pup body weight gains during lactation.
-- Specicial study. 4-Week dietary (range-finding) rats. NOAEL = M: 5.1 mg/kg/day; F: 5.3 mg/kg/day LOAEL = M: 26.4 mg/kg/day; F: 25.9 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption, increased serum phospholipids, increased total cholesterol, increased relative liver weights, and liver histopathology.
-- Specicial study. 4-Week dietary (Range-finding) mice NOAEL = M: 7.6 mg/kg/day; F: 8.2 mg/kg/day LOAEL = M: 36 mg/kg/day; F: 43 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain, increased serum glucose, increased kidney weights.
Ecological Effects
-- a. Aquatic (Acute/Chronic Hazard Summary) Fluazinam is considered to be very highly toxic to highly toxic to fish (freshwater and estuarine/marine) on an acute basis (LC50 = 0.036 - 0.11 ppm). Chronic freshwater NOAEC/LOAEC values were calculated at 0.0053 - 0.00069 ppm and 0.010 - 0.014 ppm, respectively, with larval survival, reduced number of spawns, and growth as the endpoints affected. Acute toxicity values for aquatic invertebrates suggest that fluazinam is highly toxic to freshwater invertebrates (Daphnia EC50 = 0.18 - 0.22 ppm) and very highly toxic to estuarine/marine invertebrates (oyster EC50 = 0.0047 and mysid shrimp EC50 = 0.039 ppm ). Chronic toxicity to invertebrates are only represented through the Daphnia magna life cycle where the NOAEC was calculated at 0.068 ppm and the LOAEC at 0.140 ppm.. The endpoints affected for this study were reproductive (reduced number of young per female) and growth effects. No acceptable data have been submitted to assess the chronic effects of fluazinam to estuarine/marine fish or invertebrates. An estuarine/marine fish life-stage toxicity test (Guideline 72-4a) and an estuarine/marine invertebrate life-cycle toxicity test (Guideline 72-4b) are required to fulfill these requirements.
-- d. Risk to Avian Species (Acute/Chronic) Although acute exposure should result in minimal toxic effects to birds, the risk assessment suggests that the proposed uses can cause chronic (reduced growth in young) effects in birds. RQ values were calculated for exposure to peanuts (maximum EECs RQ = 1.0 - 1.8 and 56 day average EECs RQ = 1.1 ppm) and potatoes (maximum EECs RQ = 1.0 - 1.5 and 56 day average(RQ = 1).
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Fluazinam. August 10, 2001.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/fluazinam.pdf

Flucarbazone-sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 181274-17-9

SUBCHRONIC/CHRONIC TOXICITY
-- Study # 870.3150. 28-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs) NOAEL = 164 mg/kg/day in males and 171 mg/kg/day in females. LOAEL = 1,614 mg/kg/day in males and 1,319 mg/kg/day in females based on decreased body weight gain, decreased food consumption, decreased T4 levels and increased thyroxine-binding capacity, induction of microsomal enzymes, increased liver weight and liver histopathology in both sexes.

-- Study # 870.3700b. Prenatal developmental toxicity in rabbits Maternal NOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 300 mg /kg/day based on decreased food consumption and increased clinical signs Developmental NOAEL = 300 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 500 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal weight and increased incidence of delayed fetal ossification

-- Study # 870.3800. Reproduction and fertility effects in rats Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340 mg/kg/day for females with a slight, increased incidence of moderate cecal enlargement occurring as an adaptive response to treatment. LOAEL = 800 mg/kg/day for males based decreased liver weight and 991 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased uterine weight and increased incidence of severe cecal enlargement. Reproductive/Offspring NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 800 mg/kg/day for males and 991 mg/kg/day for females based on reduced pup weights, decreased liver weight in male pups, marbled liver, air filled stomach
-- Study # 870.4100b. Chronic toxicity in dogs NOAEL = 35.9 mg/kg/day in males and 37.1 mg/kg/day in females. LOAEL = 183 mg/kg/day in males and 187 mg/kg/day in females based upon body weight gain depression and increased N-demethylase levels in both sexes, decreased T4 levels and marginally increased liver weight in females.

-- Study # 870.4300. 2-Year Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity in rats NOAEL = 125 mg/kg/day in males and females LOAEL = 1,000 mg/kg/day in males and females based on decreased body weight and increased food consumption in females
, thickened mucosa of the glandular stomach in both sexes, inflammatory infiltrates (males), vacuolation of the squamous epithelium in the fore-stomach (females) and immunological effects in males. no evidence of carcinogenicity
--
Aquatic: Flucarbazone-sodium is practically non-toxic to freshwater fish on an acute basis (96- hour LC50 > 96.7 ppm). With chronic exposure, flucarbazone-sodium reduces fish growth at 2.75 ppm, with a No Observable Adverse Effects Concentration (NOAEC) established at 1.25 ppm (1250 ppb). It is practically non-toxic to freshwater invertebrates on an acute basis (EC50 > 109 ppm) and does not reduce reproduction of aquatic invertebrates at the NOAEC of 115 ppm (115,000 ppb). The NOAECs for fish and aquatic invertebrates are well above the peak estimated environmental concentration (EEC) in water of 1.42 ppb.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet for Flucarbazone-sodium. September 29, 2000.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/flucarbazone.pdf

Flucythrinate - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 70124-77-5

CHRONIC TOXICITY No adverse effects were observed when rats and dogs were fed flucythrinate for 90 days at doses of up to 3 mg/kg for rats and 3.75 mg/kg for dogs (5). Dogs fed 7.5 mg/kg/day for 2 years exhibited vomiting and decreased body weight gain. The NOEL for this study was 0.75 mg/kg/day (12). Rats fed 6 mg/kg/day for 2 years also exhibited decreased body weight gain. The systemic NOEL for this study was 3 mg/kg/day (12).
Ref: E X T O X N E T Pesticide Information Profile Flucythrinate.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flucythrinate.Profile.PMEP.htm

-- In an apparently treatment-related manner, 1 dam treated at 4 mg/kg died, while 19 died at 8 mg/kg, but the cause of death was not determined. Absolute body weights were reduced at 4 and 8 mg/kg as were body-weight gains. Incomplete recovery of body weight had occurred by day 20 (termination).
-- Groups of twenty female New Zealand white rabbits were artifically inseminated after induction of ovulation with chorionic gonadotropin on 2 consecutive days. Technical flucythrinate (80% pure) was administered in corn oil at 0, 10, 30, or 60 mg/kg daily from days 6-18 (inclusive) of gestation and were maintained without treatment until sacrificed at day 29... Depression of maternal body weight and faecal scouring were observed in the high-dose (60 mg/kg) group up to day 18. Maternal weight gain was significantly reduced in the mid- and high-dose groups and its recovery in the high-dose group was incomplete at day 29 (termination).
-- Short-term studies Rat Groups of CD (Sprague-Dawley derived) rats received technical flucythrinate (86% pure) in the diet daily for 28 days at 0, 6, 30 ppm (8 male and 8 female rats per group) or at 150 or 300 ppm (12 male and 12 female rats per group). Some survivors from the 150 and 300 ppm groups were used to study reversibility of toxicity. Animals receiving 300 ppm exhibited severe hind limb ataxia, diuresis, hypersensitivity and salivation typical of pyrethroid intoxication. Animals receiving 150 ppm were much less affected, while females generally exhibited greater sensitivity to flucythrinate than males. Five females of the 300 ppm group died without apparent cause. Absolute weight and weight gain were markedly depressed for males and females in the groups receiving 150 and 300 ppm. All symptoms in the two highest-dose groups were reversed in 48 hours, while the weight loss, relative to controls, was regained within 4 weeks after cessation of exposure. Weight loss in the two highest-dosage groups was attributable to decreased food intake. Plasma urea nitrogen was elevated for females receiving 300 ppm. Absolute and relative liver weights were elevated in females receiving 300 ppm. Based on the findings of weight loss, a no-effect level of 30 ppm was determined (Fischer, 1979).
- Rat Groups of 50 male and 50 female CD (Sprague-Dawley derived) rats received technical flucythrinate (80% pure) in the diet at 0, 30, 60 or 120 ppm daily for 24 months. Skin lesions consistent with scratching of the head, neck and thorax were observed in all mid- and high-dose groups throughout the study. Mortality was decreased in high-dose males. Terminal body weights were decreased in treated animals, but especially in high-dose males and females. This was possibly related to a depression of food intake. A very mild anaemia was observed in the 3rd months for both high-dose males and females...
Ref: Flucythrinate. 1985 World Health Organization Review.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flucythrinate.1985.WHO.htm

Fludioxonil - Fungicide - CAS No. 131341-86-1

-- 1 Year chronic toxicity study - dog. NOAEL = 3.3 mg/kg/day. LOAEL = 35.5 mg/kg/day based on decreased weight gain in female dogs.
-- 13 Week Oral Feeding Study - rat. Systemic. NOAEL= 64 mg/kg/day. LOAEL = 428 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain in both sexes, chronic nephropathy in males, and centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in females.
Ref: Federal Register: September 12, 2001. Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fludioxonil.FR.Sept.12.2001.htm

A chronic oral toxicity study in dogs dosed for 52 weeks at 0, 100, 1,000, and 8,000 ppm in the diet (0, 3.1, 33.1, and 297.8 mg/kg/ day in males; 3.3, 35.5, and 330.7 mg/kg/day in females. The LEL is 297.8 mg/kg/day for male dogs based on decreased body weight, hematology alterations (increase in platelets and fibrin), clinical chemistry alterations (increase in cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase) and increased liver weight. The LEL is 35.5 mg/kg/day for female dogs based on a marked decrease in body weight gain for weeks 1 - 13 and weeks 1 - 52 of the study. The NOEL is 33.1 mg/kg/day for male dogs and 3.3 mg/kg/day in female dogs.
Ref: Federal Register: October 29, 1997 [Page 56075-56082]. 4-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fludioxonil.FR.Oct.29.1997.htm

Flufenacet - Herbicide - CAS No. 142459-58-3

-- Developmental Toxicity (rat): Maternal NOEL = 25 mg/kg/day Maternal LOEL = 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain initially. Developmental NOEL = 25 mg/kg/day Developmental LOEL = 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal body weight, delayed development [mainly delays in ossification in the skull, vertebrae, sternebrae, and appendages], and an increase in the incidence of extra ribs.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Flufenacet Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration Date Issued: April 1998.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/flufenacet.pdf

Flumequine - Microbiocide - CAS No. 42835-25-6

-- the twice daily oral administration of flumequine pellets 200 mg for 3 and 13 weeks at the dose level of 150 mg/kg bw/day induced few clinical signs (vomiting, low food consumption), marked reduction in bodyweight gain for females and minimal to slight arthropathies with cartilage damage. Only slight arthropathy was induced at the dose level of 60 mg/kg bw/day...
Ref: Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Flumequine. Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/104/96-FINAL. June 1996. Study performed by EMEA, London UK for the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flumequine.Report.1996.pdf

Flumethrin - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 69770-45-2

Groups of 15/sex/dose Wistar rats were fed diets containing 0, 10, 50 or 250/150 mg/kg feed for 13 weeks. The test substance was a 50% premix with colloidal SiO2 carrier. Due to severe weight loss the dose level of 250 mg/kg feed was reduced to 150 mg/kg feed during week 3. Body weight gain was significantly reduced in the rats given 150 mg/kg feed compared with the controls. Skin lesions, described as ulcerative dermatitis, were observed in the 50 and 150 mg/kg feed groups and were dose-related in severity. The NOEL was 10 mg/kg feed, equivalent to 0.7/0.8 mg/kg bw per day...
-- IN GLP repeated-dose toxicity study, groups of 20/sex/dose Wistar rats were fed diets containing 0, 10, 40 or 160 mg/kg feed flumethrin for up to 15 weeks. During mixing of the diets, 1% peanut oil was added to minimise dust formation. At 160 mg/kg feed, body weight gain was significantly reduced...
-- Groups of 4/sex/dose Beagle dogs were fed diets containing 0, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg feed flumethrin for 13 weeks. The test substance was a 45.3% premix with colloidal SiO2 carrier. Skin lesions and emesis were observed in the groups receiving 50 mg/kg feed and above and were dose-related in incidence and severity. Over the 13 weeks, the mean body weight of males given 200 mg/kg feed was decreased and females in this group gained less weight than the controls...
-- In a 2-generation reproduction study in rats with 2 litters per generation, flumethrin was administered in the diet at concentrations of 0, 1, 5 or 50 mg/kg feed. The test substance was a 45.6% premix with colloidal SiO2 carrier. Food consumption and body weight gain were reduced in parental animals of the P and F1 generations... In the 50 mg/kg feed group, pup viability on days 1 to 4 post-partum and pup body weights were depressed and signs of pyrethroid-poisoning were observed in the pubs of the F1a and F 1b litters. The NOEL was 5 mg/kg feed, equivalent to 0.36 and 0.40 mg/kg bw per day, in males and females respectively...
-- Groups of 28 mated female rats received doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0 r 2.0 mg/kg bw per day orally by gavage from days 6 to 15 of gestation. The test substance was administered in a vehicle of 2% aqueous Emulphor. Signs of toxicity (hypoactivity, ptosis, ataxia and salivation) were observed in the dams given 1.0 and 2.0 mg/bw day. Body weight and food consumption were significantllly reduced in the 2.0 mg/kg bw group. The incidence of foetal delayed ossification was significantly increased in the 2.0 mg/kg bw group... The NOELs were 0.5 mg/kg bw per day for maternal toxicity and 1.0 mg/kg bw per day for foetotoxicity.
Ref: Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Flumethrin. Summary Report (1). June 1998. EMEA/MRL/469/98-FINAL. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/flumethrin.eu.june.1998.pdf

Flumioxazin - Herbicide - CAS No. 103361-09-7

Subchronic, Chronic, and Other Toxicity
-- 870.3800 Reproduction and fertility effects - rat. Parental/Systemic NOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = 12.7, females = 15.1 LOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = 18.9, females = 22.7 based on increase in clinical signs (red substance in vagina) and increased female mortality as well as decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption Reproductive NOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = 18.9 (HDT), females = 22.7 (HDT) LOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = >18.9 (HDT), females = >22.7 (HDT) Offspring NOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = 6.3, females = 7.6 LOAEL = mg/kg/day: males = 12.7, females = 15.1 based on a decrease in the number of liveborn and a decrease in pup body weight

-- 870.3700b Prenatal developmental - rabbit (oral) Maternal NOAEL = 1000 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 3000 mg/kg/day (HDT) based on decrease in body weight and food consumption during dosing Developmental NOAEL = 3000 mg/kg/day (HDT) LOAEL = >3000 mg/kg/day
-- there is concern for the severity of the effects observed in fetuses and young animals when compared to those observed in the maternal and parental animals (dose- and treatment-related increase in the incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities, particularly ventricular septal defect, in the developmental studies; and decreases in the number of live born pups and pup body weights in the absence of parental toxicity in the reproduction study).
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. April 12, 2001.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/flumioxazin.pdf

*Pregnant females were admin 400 mg/kg by gavage on gestation day 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15. Day 12 admin showed: largest incidence of embryonic death, lowest fetal body weights & greatest incidence of ventricular spetal defects.
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. April 12, 2001.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/flumioxazin.pdf

Fluometuron - Herbicide - CAS No. 2164-17-2

-- Organ Toxicity. Toxic injury to the liver, kidneys, gut and brain is induced when lethal doses of fluometuron are administered experimentally (10). An increase in spleen weight and in the incidence of abnormalities in red-blood cells, and decreased weight gain in females were observed in a 90-day study of rats (18).
-- Teratogenic Effects. Pregnant rabbits were given doses of 50, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg/day by gavage during days 6 through 19 of gestation. An increase in the number of resorbed fetuses was found at all treatment doses. Reduction in maternal body weight and food consumption occurred at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg/day (20).
-- CHRONIC TOXICITY. Rats were fed 7.5, 75, or 750 mg/kg/day for 90 days. At the 750 mg/kg dose, decreased body weight and congestion in the spleen, adrenals, liver, and kidneys were evident. The NOAEL for this study was 7.5 mg/kg/day (100 ppm). When doses of 1.5, 15 or 150 mg/kg/day were fed to puppies for 90 days, congestion of the liver, kidneys and spleen occurred at the 150 mg/kg dose. No effects were seen at 15 mg/kg/day (400 ppm) (20).
Ref: Flumeturon. EXTOXNET. Pesticide Information Profile. March 1994.

http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/dienochlor-glyphosate/fluometuron-ext.html

Chronic Study ** 025 068693, "Fluometuron Technical: 1-Year Oral Adminstration to Dogs (Min 832047)", (CIBA-Geigy Corporation Pharmaceuticals Div., Laboratory Study No.832047, May 25, 1988). Fluometuron, purity 95.8%, administered in the feed at concentrations of 0, 20, 400 or 7000 ppm to Beagle dogs, 5/sex/group for 52 weeks. Three extra/sex dogs in the control and the high dose groups were continued an additional 4 weeks without further treatment and served as the recovery group. No adverse effect. NOEL = 400 ppm (Increased incidence of emesis; stool irregularities - diarrhea, mucous, soft and bloody stools; reduced body weight (14-19% less than control at week 52), body weight gain and feed consumption; reduced erythrocytic parameters and indices - HGB, RBC, HCT, MCV and MCHC; and increases in percent Heinz bodies, Howell-Jolly bodies and reticulocytes; reduced biochemical parameters - SGPT, glucose and increased cholesterol, bilirubin, potassium and inorganic phosphorous levels). Reduced HGB, increased platelet count and WBC for the recovery group. ACCEPTABLE. (JSK & M. Silva, 8/30/89).
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Data. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Medical Toxicology Branch. Revised October 29, 1989.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluometuron.CA.EPA.Tox.data.pdf

Fluoroacetamide - Rodenticide - CAS No. 640-19-7

ANIMALS ACUTELY POISONED BY ... /FLUOROACETAMIDE/ SHOW LISTLESSNESS, IRRITABILITY, CLONIC CONVULSIONS, ABASIA, PILOERECTION, & IRREGULAR RESPIRATION. ONE CHARACTERISTIC USUALLY OBSERVED IN ANIMALS DYING FROM ACUTE POISONING WITH FLUOROACETAMIDE AS WELL AS WITH SODIUM FLUOROACETATE IS POSTMORTEM RIGIDITY. DEATH GENERALLY OCCURS IN COMA AFTER CONVULSIONS HAVE STOPPED. SUBACUTELY POISONED ANIMALS SHOW ANOREXIA, EMACIATION, ALOPECIA, & ABSCESS FORMATION. [Hayes, W.J., Jr., E.R. Laws, Jr., (eds.). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., 1991. 1278]
Ref: FLUOROACETAMIDE CASRN: 640-19-7. Hazardous Substances Data Bank.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fluoroacetamide.hsdb.htm

Fluoroglycofen-ethyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 77501-90-7

In the main study, fluoroglycofen-ethyl (97.8% pure) was administered by gavage to groups of 18 New Zealant White rabbits at concentrations of 1 (water and vehicle controls), 10, 30 and 90 mg/kg bw/day on days 8-18 of gestation. The animals were killed on day 29.... Overt signs of toxicity seen from days 10-29 in the 90 mg/kg bw/day groups were an increased incidence of scant, red and/or soft faeces, thin appearance, red vaginal discharge, ataxia and lethargy. Maternal body weights in the 90 mg/kg bw/day group were decreased from day 12 to the end of gesttion... The NOEL for embryo/fetotoxicity was 30 mg/kg bw/day, based on increased resorptions and abortions and decreased fetal size and viability at 90 mg/kg bw/day. The NOEL for maternal toxicity was 30 mg/kg bw/day, based on overt signs of toxicity, decreased maternal body weights, and maternal deaths at 90 mg/kg bw/day.
Ref: Evaluation on: Fluoroglycofen-ethyl. May 1992. Issue No. 50. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, UK.

Fluoxastrobin - Fungicide - CAS No. 361377-29-9

-- Subchronic toxicity. A subchronic toxicity feeding study with rats over 90 days demonstrated a NOAEL of 7.3 and 18.3 mg/kg bwt/day for males and females, respectively, based on reduced body weights and alterations in several urinary tract-related clinical chemistry parameters, at the higher dose levels. In a subchronic feeding study in mice over 14 weeks, a NOAEL was not established based on decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and increased absolute and relative liver weights at the low dose level (21.7 and 35.3 mg/kg bwt/day for males and females respectively). A 14-week feeding study in dogs demonstrated a NOAEL of 3.0 mg/kg bwt/day based on decreased body weights and food consumption, and liver effects (enzyme induction, increased liver weights, cytoplasmic change), and thyroid effects (decreased T3)
-- Chronic toxicity... A 1-year feeding study with dogs demonstrated a NOAEL of 1.7 and 1.5 mg/kg bwt/day for males and females, respectively based on decreased body weights and slight liver effects (increased alkaline phosphatase (Aph) and liver weights).
Ref: Federal Register: April 23, 2003. Fluoxastrobin; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluoxastrobin.FR.Apr23.2003.htm

• Reproduction and fertility - rats. Offspring systemic: decreased body weights, delayed preputial separation, and incomplete ossification in the F1 and/or F2 males and females. Parental systemic: decreased premating body weight gain of the P-generation males and females and decreased premating absolute body weight of the F1 males and females.
• Chronic toxicity-dogs. LOAEL was 8.1 mg/kg/day for males and 7.7 mg/kg/day for females based on body weight reductions and hepatocytomegaly and cytoplasmic changes associated with increased serum liver alkaline phosphatase indicative of cholestasis.
• 90-Day oral toxicity-rats. reduced body weight gain and food intake, vacuolation in the zona fasciculate of the adrenal cortex, calculi in the urethra and kidney, and histological lesions in kidney, urinary bladder, and urethra;
• 90-Day oral toxicity-dogs.
dose-related reductions in net body weight gain and food efficiency in addition to toxicity findings in the liver in both sexes (cholestasis) and in kidneys (increased relative weights in females and degeneration of the proximal tubular epithelium in males).
• Combined chronic toxicity / carcinogenicity--rats. decreased body weight, decreased body weight gain, and decreased food efficiency in both sexes; decreased spleen weight in males; and microscopic lesions in the uterus of females. The apparent increase in tumors in the uterus and thyroid were addressed and resolved by an Agency committee, which concluded that no carcinogenic concern exists for fluoxastrobin.
90-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicology-Dog. dose-related reductions in net body weight gain and food efficiency; toxicity findings in the liver (cholestasis) in both sexes; and toxicity findings in the kidneys (increased relative weights in females and degeneration of the proximal tubular epithelium in males).
Ref: Federal Register. September 16, 2005. Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fluoxastrobin.fr.sept16.05.html

Fluopicolide - Fungicide - CAS No. 239110-15-7

Reproductive and developmental toxicity (page 3)
• In a developmental toxicity study in rats gavage dosed from gestation days 7 to 20 at levels of 0, 5, 60 or700 mg/kg/day, evidence of maternal and fetal toxicity was observed at 700 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. The maternal and fetal NOAEL was 60 mg/kg/day based on statistically lower body weights in dams an fetuses, and skeletal findings in fetuses that included delayed ossification of some bones and slight increases in the incidences of various rib and thoracic vertebrae anomalies.
• In a 2-generation reproductive toxicity study, fluopicolide was administered to rats at dietary levels of 0, 100, 500, or 2000 ppm. The NOAEL was 500 ppm (equivalent to 26 and 33 mg/kg/day for males and females respectively) for developing offspring and for parental/systemic toxicity. The LOAEL was 2000 ppm based on decreased body weight and organ weight changes in both F0 anb F1 and F2 pups. The reproductive NOAEL was 2000 ppm.
Chronic toxicity (page 4)
i. Lower body weight gain at the limit dose of 1000 mg/kg/day was the only treatment-related effect noted in a 52-week dog study performed at 70, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/day by gavage.
iii. The oncogenic potential of fluopicolide was investigated in C57BL/6 mice at dietary levels of 0, 50, 400, or 3200 ppm. Significantly lower body weight gain was seen at 3200 ppm in conjunction with a slight decrease in food consumption.
...
Reference: January 1, 2005, submission to US EPA from Valent U.S.A. Company. Federal Register Docket EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0481-0002.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/fluocopicolide.valent.june.2005.pdf

Flupyrsulfuron-methyl, sodium salt - Herbicide - CAS No. 144740-54-5

-- Reproductive toxicity. Target/critical effect - Developmental toxicity. Reduced foetal weight, retarded ossification.
Ref: FINAL European Commission Review report for the active substance flupyrsulfuron-methyl. Finalised in the Standing Committee on Plant Health at its meeting on 27 April 2001 in view of the inclusion of flupyrsulfuron-methyl in Annex I of Directive 91/414/EEC.

http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/ph_ps/pro/eva/newactive/list2_flupyrsulfi_en.pdf

Fluquinconazole - Fungicide - CAS No. 136426-54-5

-- Oral long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity. 2-year dietary study in rats. groups of 50 male and 50 female outbred albino Sprague-Dawley CRL :COBS CD(SD)BR rats were administered fluquinconazole (93.2% purity) in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 20 or 100 ppm. Additionally 20 animals/sex/dose designated for the interim-kill received the test compound at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, 10 or 100 ppm for 12 months... Mortalities over the 24-month period were 24/50, 28/50, 28/50 and 31/50 in males and in females 33/50, 36/50 and 39/50 at dose levels of 0, 1, 20 and 100 ppm... Post-mortem examinations showed the most probable cause of deaths in males to be pituitary tumors followed by chronic progressive nephropathy and urinary tract infections. In females mammmary tumors followed by pituitary tumors were considered the most probable cause of morbidity... Feed consumption was very slightly increased at the 100 ppm dose level (7% in males and 15% in females over weeks 1-104) compared to controls. Body weight gain was during weeks 0-55 reduced in treated females (9-12%) compared with controls but was significantly reduced during weeks 55-103 in males (13% at 10 ppm and 68% at 100 ppm) and in females (40% at 100 ppm dose level)...
-- Short Term Toxicity. Oral route. Rat. (b)... Groups of 5 male and 5 female outbrd albino Sprague-Dawley Crl:COBS CD(SD)BR rats were each administered fluquinconazole (100% purity) either in the diet at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 20, 100 and 400 ppm or by gavage dissolved in 1 % aqueous methlcellulose at a dose level of 10 mg/kg bw/day for 28 days. Due to mortalities at the 400 ppm dose level, a supplementary gorups of 5 male and 5 female animals were administered fluquinconazole at a dose level of 200 ppm... At the 200 ppm dose level 2 males and 5 females were killed in a moribund condition after 9 and 7 days respectively of treatment. The signs of toxicity observed showed dose-related severity. The signs at dose levels of 100 ppm and above included hunched posture, hypoactivity, ataxia, reduced mucle tone, piloerection, twitches, urogenital staining, ptosis and emaciation... Reductions in body weight gain occurred in males only at 100 ppm (17%) and 10 mg/kg bw/day (16%) ppm compared to controls. The reduction in body weight gain in the surviving males at the 200 ppm dose level was 39% compared with that of the control over the treatment period...
-- Short Term Toxicity. Oral route. Rat. (c). In a 3-month feeding study, groups of 10 male and 10 female outbred albino Spraque-Dawley CRL:COBS CD(SD)BR rats were administered fluquinconazole (>96.2% purity) at concentrations of 0 (controls), 1, 5, 15, or 100 ppm. Additional groups of animals at the 0 (control) and 100 ppm dose levels were kept on an untreated diet for 4 weeks in order to invetigate the regressivity of effects. Blood samples were taken after 6 and 13 weeks of treatment for haematological and clinical chemistry investigations... Slight signs of intoxication were observed after 2 weeks in both sexes at the 100 ppm dose level. The signs included unsteady gait, tremors, hunched posture, and reduced muscle tone. Lower incidence of reduced activity and twitches in males, and muscular fibrillation and ataxia in females were also observed. Body weight gain was significantly reduced (9%) in males only at the 100 ppm dose level compared with controls during the treatment period and transient significantly lower body weights were recorded...
Ref: Evaluation on: Fluquinconazole. May 1999. No. 184. Evaluation of Fully Approved or Provisionally Approved Products. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7 PX, UK. Available online:

http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/evallist.htm

Fluridone - Herbicide - CAS No. 59756-60-4

Teratology - Rat: Maternal NOEL=100 mg/kg/day; Maternal LEL=300 mg/kg/day (decreased body weight); Developmental NOEL=300 mg/kg/day; Developmental LEL=1000 mg/kg/day (decreased fetal weight, delayed ossification); Teratogenic NOEL=1000 mg/kg/day (HDT); LEL=none; core grade minimum (Elanco Products, 1986)
Ref: US EPA IRIS for Fluridone. 1990.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluridone.EPA.IRIS.1990.htm

-- Three studies were conducted concurrently, using Fischer rats fed the same dietary levels of Fluridone [0, 200, 650, 2000 ppm (0, 8, 25, 81 mg/kg/day)]. The first study was a 1-year feeding study (R-1126) in which 120 animals were divided into four groups of 15 animals/sex/dietary level. The other two studies were reported to be replicate 2-year oncogenic assays (Nos. R-1136 and R-1146), in which 240 animals per assay were divided into four groups of 30 animals/sex/dietary level. These three studies constitute a 2-year study with 75 animals/sex/dietary level of which 15 animals/sex/dietary level were sacrificed at 12 months. Effects observed at 650 ppm included glomerulonephritis [kidney], atrophic testes, eye keratitis, decreased body weight and organ weights. [Elanco Products Company, Division of Eli Lilly and Company. 1980a. MRID No. 00103251, 00103305. Available from EPA. Write to FOI, EPA, Washington, DC 20460.]
Ref: US EPA IRIS for Fluridone. 1990.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluridone.EPA.IRIS.1990.htm

Fluroxypyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 69377-81-7

-- In a range finding feeding study in dogs, dogs at 500 mg/kg/day exhibited ataxia and hind limb weakness as well as decreases in body weight and food consumption. Histopathology showed moderate acute tubular nephrosis and a slight to moderate acute gastroenteritis. Some early signs of acute tubular nephrosis were also seen in both sexes of dogs at 150 mg/kg/day. The NOEL for the study was 50 mg/kg/day, the LOAEL was 150 mg/kg/day based on histopathological lesions in the kidneys, decreased testes weights, and increased adrenal weights in both sexes.
-- In a developmental toxicity study in rats, fluroxypyr administration resulted in 8 deaths at the high-dose level, and decreased body-weight gain and food consumption during the dosing period at this dose level also. Clinical signs observed in those dying on test included staining of the skin/fur in the ano-genital area, lethargy, hypothermia, labored breathing, irregular gait, pale appearance. There were no treatment-related effects on gross pathologic alterations or absolute and relative liver and kidney weights at any dose level. The maternal NOEL is 300 mg/kg/day, the LOAEL is 600 mg/kg/day, based on deaths and decreased body-weight gain and food consumption. The developmental toxicity NOEL is 300 mg/kg/day, and the LOAEL is 600 mg/kg/day, based on an increase in two ossification variations (incompletely ossified cervical vertebral transverse processes and pubes).
Ref: U
S EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Fluroxypyr. Reason for Issuance: Conditional Registration Date Issued: September 30, 1998.
http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/fluroxypyr.pdf

Flurprimidol - Plant Growth Regulator - CAS No. 56425-91-3

-- A rat teratology study using doses of 0, 2.5, 10, 45 or 200 mg/kg/day of flurprimidol had a maternal toxicity NOEL of 10 mg/kg/day and a LEL of 45 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain and food consumption. The developmental NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day and the LEL was 45 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal weight, increased incidence of hydronephrosis, hydroureter and numerous developmental skeletal anomalies.
-- Reproduction Study A 2 generation reproduction study in the rat treated with (time weighted average) 0, 1.8, 7.3, and 74 mg/kg/day of flurprimidol had a Parental Systemic Toxicity NOEL of 1.8 mg/kg/day and a LEL of 7.3 mg/kg/day based on increased incidence of non-neoplastic hepatocellular alterations including fatty change and vacuolation (males) and increased susceptibility to stress factors. The Reproductive NOEL was 7.3 mg/kg/ and the LEL was 74 mg/kg/day based on decreased mating, fertility, fetal survival (stillbirths), neonatal survival and neonatal body weight in both sexes and in both generations. There was an increased incidence of persistent vaginal estrous and no corpora lutea. Additional parental signs of toxicity at 74 mg/kg/day included increased susceptibility to stress (pregnant females) resulting in death, increased relative liver weight (males and females), depressed body weight, weight gain and food consumption (males and females).
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet for Flurprimidol. February 22, 1989.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flurprimidol.EPA.Facts.1989.htm

Flurtamone -Herbicide - CAS No. 96525-23-4

-- Developmental toxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats (25/dose) were gavaged on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy with doses of 0, 5, 50, 250 or 1000 mg/kg bw/day flurtamone (91.9% pure) in an aqueous suspension of 0.25% CMC containing 1% Tween 80... All rats were terminated on gestation day 20 and received a gross necropsy... Small but statistically significant decreases in mean maternal body weight were observed in the 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups on gestation days 9-20. When the body weights of the two abnormal dams were excluded from the analysis, mean maternal body weights were significantly lower in the 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day groups on gestation days 9-20, and they were also significantly lower in the 5 and 50 mg/kg bw/day groups on gestation days 18-20. Small but statistically significant decreases in mean body weight gain were observed in all treatment groups (including and excluding the abnormal dams) during dosing and between gestation days 6 and 20. During the post-dosing period, mean body weight gain was significantly increased in the 1000 mg/kg/day group only [pages 109-110]... The external, soft tissue and skeletal examinations of the foetuses did not reveal any dose-dependent increases in foetal malformations. Foetuses in the 1000 mg/kg/day group showed evidence of delayed development (i.e. significant decreases in the average number of ossified vertebrae, xiphoid centres, and metatarsals when compared to control). In the top dose group there was also an increase in the average number of thoracic ribs. These skeletal variations are generally considered to be reversible delays in development that resolve with continuted growth and could be expected observations in foetuses with decreased body weights... Because of the reduced body weight gain observed at 5 mg/kg bw/day, a clear NOEl for maternal toxicity could not be determined in this study. Therefore, based on reduced body weight gain at 5 mg/kg bw/day, a LOEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day was determined for maternal toxicity in this study. Based on the developmental effects at the top dose, a NOEL of 250 mg/kg bw/day was determined for foetal toxicity...
-- Developmental toxicity. Rabbit. Artificially-inseminated rabbits (20/dose) were gavaged with doses of 0, 20, 200 or 600 mg/kg bw/day flurtamone (91.9%purity) in an aqueous suspension of 0.25% CMC containing 1% Tween 80 on gestation days 6 to 19... All rabbits were terminated on gestation day 29 and received a gross necropsy... Significant reductions in mean maternal body weight gain were observed during the dosing period at 200 and 600 mg/kg bw/day... The foetal examinations revealed that four foetuses from one top dose litter had interrelated external, soft tissue and skeletal malformations (the dam had 9 implantations with 5 early resorptions). These observations (e.g. open eyelids, cleft palate, syndactylly and irregular shaped skull bones) were considered to be unrelated to treatment because: i) these alterations occurred in 4 litter mates, ii) the litter incidences for these alterations were generally not significantly different from the control group incidences, iii) all other malformations and variations that occurred in high-dose group foetuses, other than those observed in the above 4 litter mates, were single events within the historical control ranges [pages 112-113].
Ref: December 2000 . Evaluation on: Flurtamone. No. 196. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX, UK. Available online at

http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/evallist_alphabet.htm

Flusilazole - Fungicide - CAS No. 85509-19-9

-- 2-Generation Reproduction - rat: Parental NOEL=3.5 mg/kg/day; Parental LEL=19 mg/kg/day (decreased body weight and body weight gain in F1 males during the 90 day feeding study); Reproductive NOEL and LEL could not be determined; Developmental NOEL=0.85 mg/kg/day (hydronephrosis noted at weaning of F2b pups - only trial examined); core grade supplementary (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 1986b)
-- Teratology - rat: Maternal NOEL=10 mg/kg/day; Maternal LEL=100 mg/kg/day (increased mortality after day 23 of gestation, prolonged gestation, decreased food consumption and weight gain, increased relative and absolute liver weight); Developmental NOEL (pre and post natal)=2 mg/kg/day; Developmental LEL=10 mg/kg/day (increased incidence of small renal papilla, distended ureter, dilated renal pelvis, decreased pup survival); core grade minimum (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 1985b)
-- Teratology - rabbit: Maternal NOEL=12 mg/kg/day; Maternal LEL=35 mg/kg/day (decreased food consumption and final body weight were observed at one dose only); Developmental NOEL=12 mg/kg/day; Developmental LEL=35 mg/kg/day (increased resorptions and abortions, and decreased fetal weight); core grade minimum (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., 1985c)
Ref: US EPA IRIS. NuStar CASRN: 85509-19-9. Available October 6, 2003 at Toxnet.

Fluthiacet-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 117337-19-6

-- 90-day oral Toxicity, rats and mice. Rats: NOAEL = 6.19 milligrams/ kilograms day (mg/ kg/day) in males 6.80 mg/ kg/day in females LOAEL = 216 mg/ kg/day in males 249 mg/ kg/day in females Mice: NOAEL = 1.3 mg/kg/ day in males 1.6 mg/ kg/day in females LOAEL = 66 mg/kg/ day in males 83 mg/kg/ day in females. Based on decreased body weight gains as well as effects on hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis parameters, liver weights and microscopic pathology in rats; and on effects on the erythropoietic system and liver in mice.
-- 6-week oral toxicity in dogs. NOAEL = 236 mg/kg/ day in males 77.7 mg/ kg/day in females LOAEL = 709 mg/kg/ day in males 232 mg/ kg/day in females based on decreased body weight gain.
-- 2-generation Reproduction and fertility effects. Parental/systemic NOAEL = 1.59 mg/kg/ day in males LOAEL = 31.8 mg/kg/ day in males NOAEL = 1.73 mg/kg/ day in females LOAEL = 35.2 mg/kg/ day in females based on reduction in male body weights/ gains and hepatic pathology Reproductive in males: NOAEL = 31.8 mg/kg/ day LOAEL =313 mg/kg/ day Reproductive in females: NOAEL = 37.1 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 388 mg/kg/ day based on decreases in mean litter body weights.
-- Carcinogenicity rats. NOAEL in males = 2.1 mg/kg/day LOAEL in males = 130 mg/kg/day NOAEL in females = 2.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL in females = 154 mg/kg/dayIn males there were decreased body weight, liver toxicity, pancreatic toxicity and microcytic anemia. In females there were liver toxicity, uterine toxicity and slight microcytic anemia. In males only at 130 and 219 mg/kg/day there was respectively, an increase in the trend toward pancreatic exocrine adenomas and pancreatic islet cell adenomas.

Ref: Federal Register: December 21, 2001. Fluthiacet-methyl; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluthiacet.M.FR.Dec.21.2001.htm

Flutolanil - Fungicide - CAS No. 66332-96-5

A rabbit developmental study with a maternal NOEL of 5 mg/kg/day and a maternal LOEL of 25 mg/kg/day based on histopathological finds in the liver and a developmental NOEL of 25 mg/kg/day and a developmental LOEL of 125 mg/kg/day based on increased skeletal variations... Reproductive and developmental toxicity... A rat developmental study with a maternal NOEL of 25 mg/kg/day and with a maternal LOEL of 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased body weight gain initially and a developmental NOEL of 25 mg/kg/day and a developmental LOEL of 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased fetal body weight, delayed development [mainly delays in ossification in the skull, vertebrae, sternebrae, and appendages], and an increase in the incidence of extra ribs. A rabbit developmental study with a maternal NOEL of 5 mg/kg/day and a maternal LOEL of 25 mg/kg/day based on histopathological finds in the liver and a developmental NOEL of 25 mg/kg/day and a developmental LOEL of 125 mg/kg/day based on increased skeletal variations.
Ref: Federal Register. June 23, 1998. [PF-813; FRL-5795-1]

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Flutolanil.FR.June.23.1998.htm

Flutriafol - Fungicide - CAS No. 76674-21-0

-- 7.2 Subacute toxicity. a) In a 90-day feeding study, rats were fed diet containing 0, 20, 200 or 2,000 ppm flutriafol. At the highest does, reduced body weight and food intake, haemotological and biochemical changes, increased liver weight, centrilobular hypertrophy, proliferation of SER, elevated hepatic aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM) activity were noted. In females fed 200 ppm, only adaptive responses (liver enlargement and elevated APDM) were seen, whereas minimal fatty change was evident in some males. A NEL of 20 ppm (approx. 1 mg/kg bw/day) was established by the SSC (April 1983).
--b) In a 90-day study, dogs were administered oral doses (capsules) of 0, 1, 5 or 15 mg flutriafol/kg bw/day. Reduced body weight gain, increased liver weight, elevated hepatic APDM and plasma ALP activity, were observed in the 15 mg/kg bw/ dosage group. At the 5 mg/kg dosage level, APDM activity was elevated in both sexes. Slight increases in liver weight were seen in females at the low and intermediate dosage levels. A NEL of 5 mg/kg bw/day was established by the SSC [Scientific Subcommittee on Pesticides] (April 1983).
-- 7.5 Two year feeding study in the rat (1982-84). Wistar derived Alpk: AP rats (52/sex/dose) were fed diet containing flutriafol (purity 93%) at a concentration of 9, 20, 200 or 2,000 for at least 104 weeks. Additional animals (12/sex/dose) were given identical treatment and sacrified at 52-54 weeks... Apart from non-specific clinical observations, the only treatment-related clinical findings were an increased number of thin rats and reduction in the number with distended abdomens in the dop dosage group. A significant reduction in bodyweight gain was observed in the top dosage group throughout the study. On termination, the mean bodyweight of males in the high dosage group was reduced by about 10% compared to controls, in females the reduction was about 20%.
Evaluation on: Flutriafol. October 1996. Issue No. 158, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX.
http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/evallist_alphabet.htm

Fluvalinate - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 69409-94-5

Delayed ossification and decreased weight and length of fetuses were observed in offspring of rats orally administered 50 mg/kg/day (LOEL) on days 6 to 15 of gestation. The NOEL was 10 mg/kg/day. These effects were observed at doses that produced maternal toxicity. Curved tibia and fibula were observed in the offspring of rabbits orally administered 125 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was 25 mg/kg/day. In a 2-generation reproduction study, a decrease in pup weight and growth were observed in offspring of rats orally administered 5 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. Significantly decreased weight and survival were observed in offspring of rats orally administered 25 mg/kg/day... An increase in plantar ulcers was observed in rats fed 2.5 mg/kg/day (LOEL) for 2 years. The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. Decreases in body weight gain were also observed in this study. Based on the NOEL of the study, an oral RfD of 0.01 mg/kg/day was derived. In a 2- generation rat reproduction study, dietary administration of 5 mg/kg/ day produced decreased body weight gain and skin lesions in parents and offspring. Dietary administration of 2.5 mg/kg/day to rats for 13 weeks produced anemia in blood parameters (decreased hematocrit, hemaglobin, and red blood cells). The NOEL was 1.0 mg/kg/day. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing fluvinate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available developmental, dermal, and hematological toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Fomesafen - Herbicide - CAS No. 72178-02-0

-- 3. Chronic toxicity. EPA has not established the RfD for fomesafen. For the purposes of this tolerance, based upon available chronic toxicity data, the RfD of 0.0025 mg/kg/day was used. This RfD is based on the NOEL of 0.25 mg/kg/day from the rat carcinogenicity study. A 100-fold uncertainty factor was used to calculate this RfD. At the LOEL of 5.0 mg/kg/day there was liver toxicity and decreased body weight.
-- iii. Reproductive toxicity study. In the 2-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats, the parental (systemic) NOEL was 12.5 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased body weight and liver necrosis at the LOEL of 50 mg/kg/day. The reproductive and developmental (pup) NOELs were 2.5 mg/kg/day, based on decreased pup body weight and reduced litter size at the LOEL of 12.5 mg/kg/day.
-- v. Conclusion. Based on the rat reproductive toxicity study discussed above, the pup LOEL (decreased body weight and reduced litter size) occurred at levels below the maternal NOEL and demonstrates post- natal pup toxicity unrelated to maternal effects. These results are suggestive of a special sensitivity for infants and children following post-natal exposure. Therefore, EPA recommends applying an extra 10- fold uncertainty (safety) factor in the chronic risk analysis. The low percentage of the RfD occupied by the most highly exposed child subgroup (4.8% of the RfD; 48% using the extra 10-fold factor) demonstrates that post-natal risks to infants and children are low.
Ref: Federal Register. November 19, 1997. Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fomesafen.FR.Nov.19.1997.htm

 
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