use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially
significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of
adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate
such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative
risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in
animal species are assumed to represent potential effects
in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.
Herbicide - CAS No. 62476-59-9
-- Increased liver
and kidney weights occurred in chronic rat, mouse, and dog studies
and were accompanied by microscopic liver and kidney changes in
the chronic rat and dog studies. Anemia
was present in chronic rat and dog studies.
Stomach ulcers were found in chronic rat and mouse studies.
Testicular atrophy occurred in the chronic rat study. Increased
mortality occurred in the high-dose group in rat and mouse
January 15, 2002. Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment. MEMORANDUM
SUBJECT: SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN. HED Chapter for the Reregistration
Eligibility Decision Document. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides
and Toxic Substances. http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/acifluorfen.na.a.red.jan.02.pdf
- EPA List 3 Inert
- CAS No.
-- Experimental data.
Chlorofluoromethane was tested for carcinogenicity in one study
in rats by oral administration by gavage at one dose level.
High incidences of squamous-cell carcinomas and of fibrosarcomas
of the forestomach and stomach were induced in animals
of each sex. No evaluation of the effects of chlorofluoromethane
on reproduction or on prenatal toxicity in experimental animals
could be made on the basis of the available data. Chlorofluoromethane
was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium and to cultured mammalian
cells in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic system.
-- Evaluation. There is limited evidence
for the carcinogenicity of chlorofluoromethane to experimental
Ref: International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC) Monographs. Chlorofluoromethane. VOL.: 41 (1986)
- Insecticide - CAS No. 15096-52-3
-- 032 070618 "Cryolite:
Stomach Irritation Associated With Hydrogen Fluoride Formation,"
(Summary of scientific studies by Pennwalt). Recent studies by
Pennwalt have demonstrated stomach irritation
in rats fed cryolite. Pennwalt contends these responses are due
to fluorine rather than cryolite per se. According to Pennwalt,
clinical investigators have demonstrated that small amounts of
fluoride salts which are capable of releasing free fluoride will
produce high enough levels of HF in the stomach to result in gastric
distress (several references and examples are cited), ranging
from stomach upset and gastric ulcers in
adults to stomach hemorrhages in young children and infants.
It is known that cryolite produces free fluoride and that HF would
be produced in an acidic medium such as the stomach. Therefore,
Pennwalt requests that the stomach irritation noted in the toxicological
studies performed with cryolite be considered as relating to data
for NaF (and other salts capable of dissociation) rather than
be a basis for special concern. Pennwalt requests their cryolite
studies be considered an extension of the vast amount of fluoride
toxicology data already available. M. Silva, 8/23/89.
Ref: 1995 - Summary of Toxicology Data.
California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology
- CAS No. 120068-37-3
rat chronic/carcinogenicity study was negative for carcinogenicity.
The LOAEL for females was 0.5 ppm (0.032 mg/kg/day), based on
clinical signs of toxicity. There was no NOEL established. For
males, the NOAEL was 2 ppm (0.098 mg/kg/day),
based on clinical signs of toxicity, and
stomach and lung
histopathology at 10 ppm (0.497 mg/kg/day).
Ref: August 24, 2005.
Federal Register. Fipronil; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition
to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or
- Herbicide - CAS
single dose of the formulated compound (Fusilade 2000) can cause
severe stomach and intestine disturbance.
Ref: EXTOXNET. Pesticide Information Profile
for Fluazifop-p-butyl. Cornell University.
In subchronic and chronic
toxicity studies, fluazinam targeted the following organs: liver,
lung, uterus, testes, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, stomach,
eyes and brain...
Note REG2003-12. Fluazinam. Pest
Management Regulatory Agency. Health Canada. Ottawa. October 27,
- CAS No. 181274-17-9
-- Study # 870.3150. 90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs)
NOAEL = 33.8 mg/kg/day in males and 35.2 mg/kg/day in females
with the occurrence of slight, adaptive induction of hepatic microsomal
enzymes. LOAEL = 162 mg/kg/day in males and 170 mg/kg/day in females
based on decreased T4 levels, increased thyroxine-binding capacity,
induction of microsomal enzymes, gross pathology
and histopathology in the stomach, and histopathology in
the liver in both sexes.
-- Study # 870.3800. Reproduction and fertility effects in rats
Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340 mg/kg/day
for females with a slight, increased incidence of moderate cecal
enlargement occurring as an adaptive response to treatment. LOAEL
= 800 mg/kg/day for males based decreased
liver weight and 991 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased
uterine weight and increased incidence of severe cecal enlargement.
Reproductive/Offspring NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340
mg/kg/day for females LOAEL
= 800 mg/kg/day for males and 991 mg/kg/day for females based
on reduced pup weights, decreased liver
weight in male pups, marbled liver, air
-- Study # 870.4300. 2-Year Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity in
rats NOAEL = 125 mg/kg/day in males and females LOAEL = 1,000
mg/kg/day in males and females based on
decreased body weight and increased food
consumption in females,
mucosa of the glandular stomach
in both sexes, inflammatory infiltrates (males), vacuolation
of the squamous epithelium in the fore-stomach (females)
and immunological effects in males. no
evidence of carcinogenicity
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet for Flucarbazone-sodium.
September 29, 2000.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 72178-02-0
-- 2. Short - and intermediate
- term toxicity. EPA has selected the NOEL of 10 mg/kg/day from
the oral rabbit developmental toxicity study for calculation of
short- and intermediate-term margins of exposure (MOEs). At the
LOEL of 40 mg/kg/day, maternal toxicity included stomach
mucosal erosion and death.
Ref: Federal Register. November 19, 1997.
Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final
- Insecticide - CAS No. 121451-02-3
-- Chronic Study: “XDE-007: One-Year
Dietary Toxicity Study in Beagle Dogs,” (Stebbins,
K.E., Day, S.J., Thomas, J.; Toxicology & Environmental Research
and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory
Project Study ID #: 142640; 3/5/04). XDE-007 (97.9% pure) was
fed in diet to Beagle dogs (4/sex/dose) for 1 year at 0, 0.003,
0.03 or 0.225% (equivalent to 0, 0.74, 9.3 and 69 mg/kg/day -
Males and 0, 0.94, 8.7 and 70 mg/kg/day - females). NOEL = 0.003%
(0.74 mg/kg/day - Males; 0.94 mg/kg/day - Females) (Mean corpuscular
volume in males (compared with controls at each time interval)
and reticulocytes in both sexes were increased at 0.225% throughout
the study. Both sexes at > 0.225% had statistically significantly
increased mean platelet count. There was a significant increase
in ALP at 0.225% in females at 3 and 12 months. There was a statistically
significant increase in absolute adrenal weights (analyzed across
both sexes) at 0.225% without histological findings. There was
an increased incidence in bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia (erythroid
cell) at > 0.3% XDE-007 (males, 0, 0, 4, 4 --each dose level)
and at 0.225% (females: 0, 0, 0, 1 --each dose level).
There was a dose-related increase in severity of stomach mucosal
lymphoid hyperplasia in the fundus and pylorus in both sexes at
> 0.3%.) No adverse effect. Acceptable. (M. Silva, 6/21/04).
August 2005 - Summary of toxicological data. California EPA, Department
of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8
1. Mouse long-term diet studies (treated 78 weeks + additional
12 weeks observation): NCI, 1978. Significant
increases in hepatocellular carcinomas and alveolar and bronchial
adenomas were seen in female mice
receiving 0, 2740 or 5192 ppm in the diet.
A small increase in relatively rare forestomach carcinomas seen
in low-dose female mice (4/45
versus 0/60 in pooled controls) was also considered treatment-related.
Increased tumor incidences in male mice were not significant.
The NCI concluded that "technical grade trifluralin is a carcinogen
in female B6C3F1 mice…" This study
used technical grade trifluralin, later found to be contaminated
with N-nitroso-n-propylamine (NDPA).
CANDIDATE CHEMICALS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR CARCINOGENICITY EVALUATION:
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment,
California Environmental Protection Agency May 1997.