Stomach - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Acifluorfen, sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 62476-59-9

-- Increased liver and kidney weights occurred in chronic rat, mouse, and dog studies and were accompanied by microscopic liver and kidney changes in the chronic rat and dog studies. Anemia was present in chronic rat and dog studies. Stomach ulcers were found in chronic rat and mouse studies. Testicular atrophy occurred in the chronic rat study. Increased mortality occurred in the high-dose group in rat and mouse studies.
Ref: January 15, 2002. Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment. MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN. HED Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

Chlorofluoromethane - EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 593-70-4

-- Experimental data. Chlorofluoromethane was tested for carcinogenicity in one study in rats by oral administration by gavage at one dose level. High incidences of squamous-cell carcinomas and of fibrosarcomas of the forestomach and stomach were induced in animals of each sex. No evaluation of the effects of chlorofluoromethane on reproduction or on prenatal toxicity in experimental animals could be made on the basis of the available data. Chlorofluoromethane was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium and to cultured mammalian cells in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic system.
-- Evaluation. There is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of chlorofluoromethane to experimental animals.
Ref: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs. Chlorofluoromethane. VOL.: 41 (1986) (p. 229).

Cryolite - Insecticide - CAS No. 15096-52-3

-- 032 070618 "Cryolite: Stomach Irritation Associated With Hydrogen Fluoride Formation," (Summary of scientific studies by Pennwalt). Recent studies by Pennwalt have demonstrated stomach irritation in rats fed cryolite. Pennwalt contends these responses are due to fluorine rather than cryolite per se. According to Pennwalt, clinical investigators have demonstrated that small amounts of fluoride salts which are capable of releasing free fluoride will produce high enough levels of HF in the stomach to result in gastric distress (several references and examples are cited), ranging from stomach upset and gastric ulcers in adults to stomach hemorrhages in young children and infants. It is known that cryolite produces free fluoride and that HF would be produced in an acidic medium such as the stomach. Therefore, Pennwalt requests that the stomach irritation noted in the toxicological studies performed with cryolite be considered as relating to data for NaF (and other salts capable of dissociation) rather than be a basis for special concern. Pennwalt requests their cryolite studies be considered an extension of the vast amount of fluoride toxicology data already available. M. Silva, 8/23/89.
Ref: 1995 - Summary of Toxicology Data. California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.

Fipronil - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 120068-37-3

The rat chronic/carcinogenicity study was negative for carcinogenicity. The LOAEL for females was 0.5 ppm (0.032 mg/kg/day), based on clinical signs of toxicity. There was no NOEL established. For males, the NOAEL was 2 ppm (0.098 mg/kg/day), based on clinical signs of toxicity, and stomach and lung histopathology at 10 ppm (0.497 mg/kg/day).
Ref: August 24, 2005. Federal Register. Fipronil; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

Fluazifop-P-butyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 79241-46-6

*Acute Toxicity... A single dose of the formulated compound (Fusilade 2000) can cause severe stomach and intestine disturbance.
Ref: EXTOXNET. Pesticide Information Profile for Fluazifop-p-butyl. Cornell University.

Fluazinam - Fungicide - CAS No. 79622-59-6

In subchronic and chronic toxicity studies, fluazinam targeted the following organs: liver, lung, uterus, testes, pancreas, thymus, thyroid, stomach, eyes and brain...
Ref: Canada: Regulatory Note REG2003-12. Fluazinam. Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Health Canada. Ottawa. October 27, 2003.

Flucarbazone-sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 181274-17-9

-- Study # 870.3150. 90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs) NOAEL = 33.8 mg/kg/day in males and 35.2 mg/kg/day in females with the occurrence of slight, adaptive induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. LOAEL = 162 mg/kg/day in males and 170 mg/kg/day in females based on decreased T4 levels, increased thyroxine-binding capacity, induction of microsomal enzymes, gross pathology and histopathology in the stomach, and histopathology in the liver in both sexes.
-- Study # 870.3800. Reproduction and fertility effects in rats Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340 mg/kg/day for females with a slight, increased incidence of moderate cecal enlargement occurring as an adaptive response to treatment. LOAEL = 800 mg/kg/day for males based decreased liver weight and 991 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased uterine weight and increased incidence of severe cecal enlargement. Reproductive/Offspring NOAEL = 287 mg/kg/day for males and 340 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 800 mg/kg/day for males and 991 mg/kg/day for females based on reduced pup weights, decreased liver weight in male pups, marbled liver,
air filled stomach
-- Study # 870.4300. 2-Year Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity in rats NOAEL = 125 mg/kg/day in males and females LOAEL = 1,000 mg/kg/day in males and females based on decreased body weight and increased food consumption in females
, thickened mucosa of the glandular stomach in both sexes, inflammatory infiltrates (males), vacuolation of the squamous epithelium in the fore-stomach (females) and immunological effects in males. no evidence of carcinogenicity
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet for Flucarbazone-sodium. September 29, 2000.

Fomesafen - Herbicide - CAS No. 72178-02-0

-- 2. Short - and intermediate - term toxicity. EPA has selected the NOEL of 10 mg/kg/day from the oral rabbit developmental toxicity study for calculation of short- and intermediate-term margins of exposure (MOEs). At the LOEL of 40 mg/kg/day, maternal toxicity included stomach mucosal erosion and death.
Ref: Federal Register. November 19, 1997. Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions. Final Rule.

Noviflumuron - Insecticide - CAS No. 121451-02-3

-- Chronic Study: “XDE-007: One-Year Dietary Toxicity Study in Beagle Dogs,” (Stebbins, K.E., Day, S.J., Thomas, J.; Toxicology & Environmental Research and Consulting, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory Project Study ID #: 142640; 3/5/04). XDE-007 (97.9% pure) was fed in diet to Beagle dogs (4/sex/dose) for 1 year at 0, 0.003, 0.03 or 0.225% (equivalent to 0, 0.74, 9.3 and 69 mg/kg/day - Males and 0, 0.94, 8.7 and 70 mg/kg/day - females). NOEL = 0.003% (0.74 mg/kg/day - Males; 0.94 mg/kg/day - Females) (Mean corpuscular volume in males (compared with controls at each time interval) and reticulocytes in both sexes were increased at 0.225% throughout the study. Both sexes at > 0.225% had statistically significantly increased mean platelet count. There was a significant increase in ALP at 0.225% in females at 3 and 12 months. There was a statistically significant increase in absolute adrenal weights (analyzed across both sexes) at 0.225% without histological findings. There was an increased incidence in bone marrow erythroid hyperplasia (erythroid cell) at > 0.3% XDE-007 (males, 0, 0, 4, 4 --each dose level) and at 0.225% (females: 0, 0, 0, 1 --each dose level). There was a dose-related increase in severity of stomach mucosal lymphoid hyperplasia in the fundus and pylorus in both sexes at > 0.3%.) No adverse effect. Acceptable. (M. Silva, 6/21/04).
Ref: August 2005 - Summary of toxicological data. California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.

Trifluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8

Animal bioassays
1. Mouse long-term diet studies (treated 78 weeks + additional 12 weeks observation): NCI, 1978. Significant increases in hepatocellular carcinomas and alveolar and bronchial adenomas were seen in female mice receiving 0, 2740 or 5192 ppm in the diet. A small increase in relatively rare forestomach carcinomas seen in low-dose female mice (4/45 versus 0/60 in pooled controls) was also considered treatment-related. Increased tumor incidences in male mice were not significant. The NCI concluded that "technical grade trifluralin is a carcinogen in female B6C3F1 mice…" This study used technical grade trifluralin, later found to be contaminated with N-nitroso-n-propylamine (NDPA).
PRIORITIZED CANDIDATE CHEMICALS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR CARCINOGENICITY EVALUATION: BATCH #1. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency May 1997.

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