Neuromuscular - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

Neuromuscular definition:
- Pertaining to skeletal muscle and its nerve-supply.
- Affecting or characteristic of both neural and muscular tissue.

Neuromuscular Disorders and Diseases
The broad category of neuromuscular disorders or diseases covers conditions that involve the weakness or wasting of the body muscles.
These problems may arise in the spinal cord, the peripheral nerves or the muscle fibers. Some may be hereditary, while others are acquired.
Commonly recognized conditions fall into the categories of myopathies, which are diseases of the muscle like muscular dystrophy, disorders of the junction where the nerve impulses are transmitted to the muscle like myasthenia gravis, and neuropathies, which are diseases of the peripheral nervous system like diabetic neuropathy. Those specific disorders are discussed here.

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list. The category of "neuromuscular"
has been added as of July 2004 and is not complete.

When time allows more information will be added.

Gamma-Cyhalothrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 76703-62-3

13-Week Dietary - Rat (Gamma cyhalothrin). NOAEL: male/female =3.4/4.2 mg/kg/day
LOAEL: male/female = 6.6/8.8 mg/kg/day (mortality in males, neuromuscular effects in both sexes, dermatitis, and gross and microscopic skin lesions in females).

Ref: April 8, 2004. Federal Register. Lambda-Cyhalothrin and Gamma-Cyhalothrin. Tolerances for Residues. FINAL RULE.

Flonicamid - Insecticide - CAS No. 158062-67-0

-- Combined Chronic/ carcinogenicity (rats). NOAEL is 200 ppm (equivalent to 7.32/8.92mg/ kg/day in males/females). LOAEL is 1,000 ppm (equivalent to 36.5/44.1mg/ kg/day in males/females) based on decreased body weights and body weight gains, and increased incidences of keratitis in males and striated muscle fiber atrophy in females. At the high dose there was an incidence (12%)of nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas slightly outside the historical control range (0-10%) in male rats. A correlation between the incidence of inflammation and the fluctuating incidence of nasal tumors was made across dose groups. EPA did not consider the nasolacrimal duct tumors to be treatment-related. Female rats had a significant increasing trend in nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas at < 0.05, and at the high dose was slightly above the historical control mean (0.8%) and range (0-4%). EPA considered the nasolacrimal duct squamous cell carcinomas to be possibly treatment related, but that a clear association with treatment could not be made.
Ref: August 31, 2005. Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register.

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