Gallbladder - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

The gallbladder is a structure on the underside of the liver on the right side of the abdomen. The function of the gallbladder is to store bile that is produced in the liver before the bile is secreted into the intestines. Bile secreted into the intestines helps the body digest fats.

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: FAN added "Gallbladder" to adverse effects in October 2007. We will make more additions soon.
When time allows more information will be added.

Tembotrione - Herbicide - CAS No. 335104-84-2

* In a carcinogenicity study (MRID 46695706), AE 0172747 was administered in the diet to C57BL/6 J@ Ico mice (50/sex/dose) at doses of 0, 30, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm (equivalent to 0/0, 4/5, 43/54, 146/179, and 440/552 mg/kg/day in males/females) for up to 78 weeks. Additionally, 10 mice/sex/dose were treated similarly for up to 52 weeks. At 30 ppm (the lowest dose tested), there was evidence of toxicity in the gallbladder and liver in both sexes. The toxicity became more severe at higher doses. In all treatment groups at 12 months, incidences (n=10) of the following lesions were increased in the gallbladder and liver:
(i) minimal to moderate gallstones in males and females (2-5 treated vs 1 control);
(ii) minimal to marked gallstones in females (2-7 treated vs 0 controls); and
(iii) minimal to moderate centrilobular to panlobular hepatocellular hypertrophy (diffuse) in females (5-10 treated vs 0 controls).
In all treatment groups at 18 months, gallbladder stones were observed in mice at necropsy in both sexes (18-36/50 treated vs 1/50 controls). Incidences of the following microscopic lesions were increased in all treatment groups in the gallbladder (# affected/50 treated vs # affected/50 controls, except n=49 in male controls and 1000 ppm females):
(i) minimal to marked gallstones in both sexes (6-26 vs 0-1; p<=0.001);
(ii) minimal to marked eosinophilic cytoplasmic alteration (focal/multifocal) in females (9-28 vs 2; p<=0.05); and
(iii) minimal to moderate subepithelial mixed cell infiltrate (focal/multifocal) in females (15-29 vs 11; not statistically significant) (pages 73-74).
Reference: Tembotrione. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Field Corn, Sweet Corn and Popcorn. USEPA. September 7, 2007.

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