Anemia - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

Anemia or Anaemia: a deficiency of red blood cells

aplastic anaemia, aplastic anemia - anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure

erythroblastosis fetalis - severe anemia in newborn babies; the result of Rh incompatibility between maternal and fetal blood; typically occurs when the child of an Rh-negative mother inherits Rh-positive blood from the father; can be diagnosed before birth by amniocentesis

congenital pancytopenia, Fanconi's anaemia, Fanconi's anemia - a rare congenital anemia characterized by pancytopenia and hypoplasia of the bone marrow

favism - anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency

haemolytic anaemia, hemolytic anemia - anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes

hyperchromic anaemia, hyperchromic anemia - anemia characterized by an increase in the concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin

hypochromic anaemia, hypochromic anemia - anemia characterized by a decrease in the concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin

hypoplastic anaemia, hypoplastic anemia - anemia resulting from inadequately functioning bone marrow; can develop into aplastic anemia

iron deficiency anaemia, iron deficiency anemia - a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding

ischaemia, ischemia - local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism

macrocytic anaemia, macrocytic anemia - anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal

microcytic anaemia, microcytic anemia - anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is smaller than normal

malignant anaemia, malignant anemia, pernicious anaemia, pernicious anemia - a chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)

refractory anaemia, refractory anemia - any of various anemic conditions that are not successfully treated by any means other than blood transfusions (and that are not associated with another primary disease)

crescent-cell anaemia, crescent-cell anemia, drepanocytic anaemia, drepanocytic anemia, sickle-cell anaemia, sickle-cell anemia, sickle-cell disease - a congenital form of anemia occurring mostly in blacks; characterized by abnormal blood cells having a crescent shape

blood disease, blood disorder - a disease or disorder of the blood


The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Acifluorfen, sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 62476-59-9

-- Increased liver and kidney weights occurred in chronic rat, mouse, and dog studies and were accompanied by microscopic liver and kidney changes in the chronic rat and dog studies. Anemia was present in chronic rat and dog studies. Stomach ulcers were found in chronic rat and mouse studies. Testicular atrophy occurred in the chronic rat study. Increased mortality occurred in the high-dose group in rat and mouse studies.
Ref: January 15, 2002. Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment. MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN. HED Chapter for the Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.

Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl - Fungicide - CAS No. 177406-68-7

• In the 13-week feeding study with mice, the dose levels were 0, 50, 200, 7,000, or 20,000 ppm. The NOAEL was 200 ppm (equivalent to 33.0 mg/kg/day and 45.2 mg/kg/day in males and females, respectively, based on systemic toxicity of decreased body weights, anemias, and generalized liver toxicity at 7,000 ppm.
Ref: March 9, 2005. Petition for the establishment of Tolerances on Imported Grapes and Tomatoes. Federal Register: March 9, 2005.

Chlorfenapyr - Acaracide, Insecticide - CAS No. 122453-73-0

-- MRID No. 42770219 (1993)-- 90-Day oral toxicity rats. NOAEL = 24.1 mg/kg/day. LOAEL = 48.4, based on spongiform myelopathy in the brain and spinal cord of male rats, decreased body weight gain and increased relative liver weight in males and females, increased absolute liver weight in females, and decreased hemoglobin in females.
-- MRID No. 43492837 (1994). Combined chronic/ carcinogenicity in rat. NOAEL = 15 mg/kg/day, males. LOAEL = 30.8 mg/kg/day, males, based on anemia. NOAEL = 3.6 mg/kg/day, females LOAEL = 18.6 mg/kg/day, females, based on decreased body weight/ body weight gain.

Ref: Federal Register: September 26, 2003. Chlorfenapyr; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

Clodinafop-propargyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 105512-06-9

Clodinafop-propargyl induces anaemia in all tested species, peroxisome proliferation in rodents and increases in inflammation with indications of immunosuppression and fat reduction in dogs. The dose levels at which severe effects were seen in rats and mice in the longest studies do not warrant classification. However, severe effects were seen in dogs at a dose level requiring classification with R48/22.
Ref: Classification of clodinafop-propargyl with R48/22. The Netherlands, May 2005.

Cryolite - Insecticide - CAS No. 15096-52-3

-- Chronic poisoning: Intake of more than 6 mg of fluoride per day results in fluorosis. Symptoms are weight loss, brittleness of bones, anemia, weakness, general ill health, stiffness of joints. ... /Fluoride/ [Dreisbach, R. H. Handbook of Poisoning. 9th ed. Los Altos, California: Lange Medical Publications, 1977. 207]
Ref: TOXNET from Hazardous Substances Data Bank for ALUMINUM SODIUM FLUORIDE (Cryolite).

Diflufenzopyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 109293-97-2

Dietary exposure. EPA has established the reference dose (RfD) for diflufenzopyr at 0.26 milligrams/kilogram/day (mg/kg/day). This RfD is based on bone marrow compensated hemolytic anemia observed in the 1- year dog feeding study with a NOAEL of 26 mg/kg/day and an uncertainty factor of 100.
Ref: Federal Register: December 12, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 239) [Notices] [Page 64257-64262]. Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance fora Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

Etoxazole - Acaricide - CAS No. 153233-91-1

-- Subchronic toxicity. Effects observed at high dose levels consisted primarily of anemia and histological changes in the adrenal gland, liver and kidneys.
Ref: August 13, 2003. [Federal Register: August 13, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 156)] [Notices]. Etoxazole; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

Floransulam - Herbicide - CAS No. 145701-23-1

Short term toxicity. Target / critical effect: Anemia, hepatotoxicity , renal hypertrophy epithelial cells, collecting ducts, adrenal vacuolation(dog ) Lowest relevant oral NOAEL / NOEL: 1 y & 90 d dog (oral feed) ; 5 mg/kg bw/d;...
Ref: September 18, 2002 - Review report for the active substance florasulam. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General.

Flufenpyr-ethyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 188489-07-8

-- 870.4200. Carcinogenicity rodents (mouse). NOAEL = 39.9 - 43.7 mg/kg/day M/F LOAEL = 401.8 - 447.9 mg/kg/day M/F, based on liver toxicity in both sexes and mild anemia in males No evidence of carcinogenicity.
Ref: Federal Register: September 19, 2003. Flufenpyr-Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

-- Mice. In a 4-week study, CD-1 mice were fed pure flufenpyr- ethyl at dose levels of 0, 300, 1,000, 3,000, and 7,000 ppm. Effects were slight anemia, changes in blood biochemistry...
-- Mice. In a 13-week study, flufenpyr-ethyl technical was administered to mice at dose levels of 0, 300, 1,000, 3,000, and 7,000 ppm. Slight anemia and blood biochemistry changes were noted...
Ref: Federal Register: June 25, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 122)] [Notices] [Page 37813-37820]. Flufenpyr-ethyl; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

Flumioxazin - Herbicide - CAS No. 103361-09-7

-- Subchronic toxicity. Subchronic toxicity studies conducted with flumioxazin technical in the rat (oral and dermal), mouse and dog indicate a low level of toxicity. Effects observed at high dose levels consisted primarily of anemia and histological changes in the spleen, liver and bone marrow related to the anemia.
-- Rats. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted in rats, with dietary intake levels of 0, 30, 300, 1,000 and 3,000 ppm flumioxazin technical (98.4% purity). The NOAEL of 300 ppm was based on decreased bwts; anemia; increases in absolute and/or relative liver, kidney, brain, heart, and thyroid weights, and histological changes in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow related to the anemia.
-- A second 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted with a sample of flumioxazin technical of typical purity (94.8%) at dietary concentrations of 0, 30, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 ppm. The NOAEL was 30 ppm based on anemia and related hematological changes; increases in liver, heart, kidney, and thyroid weights; and histological changes in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow related to the anemia.
Ref: Federal Register: February 14, 2001 [Notices] [Page 10292-10301]. Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

Fluorouracil - Former insect Chemosterilant; now used as a pharmaceutical - CAS No. 51-21-8

Major toxic effects result from myelosuppressive action. Clinical effects are leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. Loss of hair, occasionally progressing to total alopecia, nail changes, dermatitis, and increased pigmentation and atrophy of skin may occur.
Ref: TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Base for FLUOROURACIL.

Fluthiacet-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 117337-19-6

Carcinogenicity in rats. NOAEL males = 2.1 mg/kg/day LOAEL in males = 130 mg/kg/day NOAEL in females = 2.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL in females = 154 mg/kg/day. In males there were decreased body weight, liver toxicity, pancreatic toxicity and microcytic anemia. In females there were liver toxicity, uterine toxicity and slight microcytic anemia. In males only at 130 and 219 mg/kg/day there was respectively, an increase in the trend toward pancreatic exocrine adenomas and pancreatic islet cell adenomas.
Ref: Federal Register. December 21, 2001. Fluthiacet-methyl; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

Fluvalinate - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 69409-94-5

Dietary administration of 2.5 mg/kg/day to rats for 13 weeks produced anemia in blood parameters (decreased hematocrit, hemaglobin, and red blood cells). The NOEL was 1.0 mg/kg/day. Dietary administration of 30 mg/kg/day (LOEL) to rats for 3 months produced decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell count in rats. The NOEL was 3 mg/kg/day... EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing fluvinate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available developmental, dermal, and hematological toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Indoxacarb - Insecticide - CAS No. 173584-44-6

A mammalian chronic feeding Lowest Observable Effect Concentration (LOEC) Ms. was exceeded at the highest predicted vegetation residue level. Residue levels under field conditions will be lower as no foliar precipitation wash-off or dilution due to growth was factored into the screening modeling. Furthermore, the most sensitive reported end points are used for the Department's risk assessments. In this case the threshold exceeded was for hemolytic effects, specifically anemia. While these effects would reduce an individual animal's fitness should they feed exclusively on treated vegetation, lethal or reproductive effect thresholds are not reached and population level effects are unlikely.
Ref: March 21, 2002 letter from N.Y. State Department of Conservation, Division of Solid & Hazardous Materials, Bureau of Pesticides Management Pesticide, Product Registration Section to E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. Re: Registration of DuPontTM AvauntŪ Insecticide (EPA Reg. No. 352-597) Containing the New Active Ingredient Indoxacarb.

-- **52425-047 162215 "Chronic Toxicity Study of DPX-JW062-106 (50% DPX-KN128, 50% DPX-KN127) One Year Feeding Study in Dogs" (Mertens, J. 831-WIL Research Laboratories, Inc. Ashland, Ohio. Study HLO 885-96, 11/19/97). DPX-JW062-106 technical (Batch DPX-JW062- 106, 47.5% DPX-KN128) was administered orally (via the feed) to 5 Beagle dogs/sex/dose at levels of 0, 40, 80, 640 and 1280 ppm for 52 weeks. There was a treatment-related decrease in body weight, body weight gain and food consumption in 1280 ppm dogs during the first three months of the study. Reduced mean hemoglobin, RBC count and hematocrit was noted in the 80, 640 and 1280 ppm groups during all periods tested; increased Heinz bodies in these groups indicated hemolysis. Increased mean reticulocyte counts and MCV and decreased corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte morphologic changes and increased mean platelet counts indicated responses to hemolytic anemia. Significantly decreased RBC counts were also reported in 40 ppm males at week 25 and 51. Females at 40 ppm also showed reductions in RBC, but the differences were not statistically significant. Mean liver weights were increased in males (640 and 1280 ppm groups) and females (1280 ppm only). Microscopic changes in groups 40 ppm and above included increased pigment (hemosiderin) in liver Kupffer cells, kidney tubule epithelium, spleen and bone marrow and increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow hyperplasia. NOEL (M/F)=40 ppm (males: 1.1 mg/kg/day; females: 1.3 mg/kg/day based on biologically significant hemolytic anemia at 80 ppm and above). Acceptable. Kellner, 1/12/99.
Ref: March 11, 1999: Summary of Toxicology Data - Indoxycarb. California EPA Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.

Novaluron - Insecticide - CAS No. 116714-46-6

From Table 2.--Summary of Toxicological Dose and Endpoints for novaluron for Use in Human Risk Assessment:
-- Chronic dietary (All populations); Long-term inhalation (>6 months) and Long-term dermal (>6months). Combined chronic toxicity carcinogenicity feeding in rat LOAEL = 30.6 mg/kg/day based on erythrocyte damage and turnover resulting in a regenerative anemia.
Re: June 2, 2004. Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register.

Oxyfluorfen - Herbicide - CAS No. 42874-03-3

Human Health Assessment. Toxicity, Oxyfluorfen is of low acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicity. The primary toxic effects are alterations in blood parameters (anemia) and in the liver. Oxyfluorfen is classified as a possible human carcinogen based on combined hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas in the mouse carcinogenicity study. A cancer potency factor (Q1*) was used to estimate human risk. The FQPA Safety Factor for protection of infants and children was reduced to 1X for all population subgroups as there was no increased susceptibility in animals due to pre- or post-natal exposure to oxyfluorfen.
-- Toxicity was similar for subchronic and chronic rat, mouse, and dog studies in both sexes. Oxyfluorfen inhibits heme production, which results in a variety of anemias. Heme is the part of the hemoglobin molecule that contains iron and binds oxygen. In the 1997 subchronic rat study which used the current 98% a.i. formulation, the red blood cell count was normal, but the red blood cell mass was decreased due to the small size of the red blood cells, presumably because of inhibition of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase enzyme. The anemia was generally mild in other studies, with varying hematologic abnormalities described in the rat, mouse, and dog studies.
-- It should be noted that older toxicity studies with oxyfluorfen used technical material of approximately 71% or 85% purity. The newer toxicity studies used a technical material of approximately 98% purity, which is the basis for the current registrations of oxyfluorfen. The newer technical material has similar impurities to the older technical material, but in reduced concentrations. Toxicity was less severe for studies with the 98% product than for the 71% product; however, one mammal developmental study with the 98% technical was submitted in which animals experienced the most severe anemia and related hematologic effects of any of the mammalian studies. When there were studies with both the new and old technical material, preference for an endpoint for risk assessment purposes was generally given to the newer, 98% technical material (current registrations).
Ref: US EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) OXYFLUORFEN. EPA738-R-02-014 October 2002.

Picolinafen - Herbicide - CAS No. 137641-05-5

-- In the rat 2-generation reproduction study, reproduction function, reproductive parameters and litter parameters were not influenced by treatment in the first and second generation (P1/P2) parental animals at any dose level up to and including 500 ppm (equal to 39 and 42 mg/kg bw/d in males and females, respectively), the highest dose tested. Hematological findings, increased spleen weights, and histopathological findings indicative of regenerative hemolytic anemia were noted for P1/P2 males and females at 250 ppm (equal to 19 and 21 mg/kg bw/d for males and females, respectively) and above. Hematological findings including lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were also noted for male and female second generation (F2) pups at 250 ppm and above on lactation day 21 (only time point evaluated). Although the hematological findings noted in the F2 offspring may be secondary to maternal toxicity, a direct treatment-related effect cannot be dismissed; therefore, these findings were considered to be toxicologically relevant. The NOAEL for parental and offspring toxicity was 50 ppm (equal to 3.7 and 4.0 mg/kg bw/d in males and females, respectively). On the basis of the parental and offspring NOAELs in the rat 2-generation reproductive toxicity study (one litter/generation), there was no indication that neonates were quantitatively more sensitive than adults to the toxic effects of picolinafen.
-- Hematological and histopathological findings indicative of regenerative hemolytic anemia were noted in all species tested. The most sensitive species appears to be the rat. The most appropriate NOAEL for regenerative hemolytic anemia is 50 ppm (equal to 2.4 and 3.0 mg/kg bw/d for males and females, respectively), as determined in the 2-year rat dietary study. The MOE for regenerative hemolytic anemia is 171 compared to the ADI.

Ref: February 17, 2003 - Canada. Picolinafen. Regulatory Note REG2003-02. Alternative Strategies and Regulatory Affairs Division, Pest Management Regulatory Agency.

Primisulfuron-methyl - Fungicide, Herbicide - CAS No. 86209-51-0

In a 90-day dog feeding study, reduced thyroid weights accompanied by colloid depletion and parafollicular hyperplasia and anemia were observed at the LOEL of 25 mg/kg/day. The NOEL was 0.625 mg/kg/day. In a 1-year dog study, dietary administration of 250/125 mg/kg/day (LOEL: the dose was changed after week 10 in the study) produced thyroid hyperplasia, anemia, increased platelet levels, vacuolar changes, and increased absolute and relative liver weights. The NOEL was 25 mg/kg/day. In an 18-month study in mice, dietary administration of 1.7 mg/kg/day produced increased absolute and relative liver weights in females. No NOEL was established...
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Sodium bifluoride - Insecticide, Former US EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 1333-83-1

Effects of Overexposure. Inhalation of dust or mist may cause severe mucous membrane irritation, burns and, with prolonged or repeated exposure, may cause fluorosis. Eye and skin exposure causes irritation and burns. Product may be absorbed through the skin and produce signs of fluorosis such as weight loss, brittleness of bones, anemia, weakness and stiffness of joints. Ingestion is harmful due to acid burns and fluoride poisoning. Internal bleeding may develop. Effects may not be immediately apparent, especially with dilute solutions.
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Sodium bifluoride. Rev. March 29, 1996. Chemtech Products, Inc., St. Louis MO 63131

CHRONIC EXPOSURE - Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extreme irritants to any part of the body that they contact. The main route of exposure to hydrogen fluoride is inhalation, followed by dermal contact for acute exposure and ingestion for chronic exposure. Symptoms of the chronic effects of hydrofluoric acid include weight loss, malaise, anemia, leukopenia, discoloration of teeth, and osteosclerosis.
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SODIUM HYDROGEN DIFLUORIDE CASRN: 1333-83-1

Sodium fluorosilicate (Sodium Hexafluorosilicate) - Insecticide; Wood Preservative; EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 16893-85-9

Toxicological Data Human Data Chronic exposure to sodium hexafluorosilicate dust at levels above the eight-hour TWA can result in severe calcification of the ribs, pelvis, and spinal column ligaments; effects on the enzyme system; pulmonary fibrosis; stiffness; irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; weight loss; anorexia; anemia; cachexia; wasting; and dental effects. Long-term or repeated exposure to the skin can result in skin rash. A probable oral lethal dose of 50-500 mg/kg, classified as very toxic, has been reported for a 150-pound (70-kg) person receiving between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce of sodium hexafluorosilicate.
Ref: Review of Toxicological Literature. October 2001. Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Prepared for Scott Masten, Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Contract No. N01-ES-65402. Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. (Principal Investigator) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S. (Co-Principal Investigator) Integrated Laboratory Systems P.O. Box 13501 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

Sulfentrazone - Herbicide - CAS No. 122836-35-5

Subchronic toxicity. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted in rats, with dietary intake levels of 0, 3.3, 6.7, 19.9, 65.8, 199.3, or 534.9 mg/kg/day for males and 0, 4, 7.7, 23.1, 78.1, 230.5, or 404.3 mg/kg/day for females respectively. NOAELs of 19.9 mg/ kg/day in males and 23.1 mg/kg/day in females were based on clinical anemia.
Ref: Federal Register, March 7, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 45)] [Notices] [Page 11096-11100]. Notice of Filing Pesticide Petitions to Establish Tolerances for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

-- 90-Day oral toxicity rodents (rats) - [870.3100] NOAEL = 19.9 milligrams/kilogram/day (mg/ kg/day) for males and 23.1 mg/kg/ day for females LOAEL = 65.8 mg/kg/ day for males and 78.1 mg/kg/day for females based on clinical signs of anemia (reduced hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin values during treatment)
-- Chronic toxicity dogs - [870.4100] NOAEL = 24.9 mg/kg/day for males and 29.6 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 61.2 mg/kg/ day for males and 61.9 mg/kg/day for females based on compensated normochromic microcytosis

Ref: Federal Register: September 24, 2003. Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.
• Normochromic definition: Being normal in colour; referring especially to red blood cells that possess the normal quantity of haemoglobin.
• Microcytosis definition: a blood disorder characterized by the presence of microcytes (abnormally small red blood cells) in the blood; often associated with anemia.

Trifloxysulfuron-sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 199119-58-9

90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs). NOAEL: 19.8/19.6 mg/kg/day (M/F) LOAEL: 164.2/167.3 mg/kg/day (M/F): M = decreased body weight gain (20%), slight hematological effects, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity, decreased thymus weight, thymic atrophy, increased glycogen in liver, hemorrhage in mesenteric lymph nodes; F = decreased body weight gain (44%), anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis in liver/ spleen and myeloidhyperplasia in bone marrow, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity, decrease thymus weight, thymic atrophy and hyaline tubular change in kidney.
Ref: Federal Register: September 17, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 180)] Rules and Regulations. Trifloxysulfuron; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

Triflumizole - Fungicide - CAS No. 68694-11-1

-- Chronic toxicity nonrodents (dog): LOAEL = Males: 34.10 mg/kg/day; Females: 35.17 mg/ kg/daybased on increased alkaline phosphatase activity and a mild, macrocytic anemia in males, increased absolute and relative liver weights in both sexes, and on macroscopic findings in the liver of both sexes.
Ref: Federal Register: June 12, 2002. Triflumizole; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

Trifluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8

• Long term toxicity (Annex IIA, point 5.5). Target/critical effect. Body weight reduction, anemia, liver & kidney effects (mouse, rat). (page 46).
Ref: March 14, 2005. European Food Safety Authority: Conclusion regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance trifluralin. EFSA Scientific Report (2005) 28, 1-77.

Triflusulfuron-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 126535-15-7

Two 90-day studies were conducted in the rat. In one study, rats were fed dosages of 6.2, 127, 646, or 965 mg/kg/day (males) or 7.54, 150, 774, or 1,070 mg/kg/day (females). Triflusulfuron methyl exhibited subchronic toxicity at dietary concentrations of 2,000 ppm (127 and 150 mg/kg/day for males and females) or greater in the form of decreased body weights, decreased body weight gains, decreased food efficiency, increased mean relative liver weights, and regenerative anemia. The NOAEL was 6.2 mg/kg/day (males) and 7.54 mg/kg/day (females).
Ref: Federal Register: August 8, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 153)] [Notices] [Page 41593-41597]. Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

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