PFOS - PFOA Index Page
This timeline is still in draft form. We
hope to complete it in the not too
distant future !
We welcome contributions, suggestions, or corrections from anyone
who would like to
add to this Timeline.
We especially would appreciate the dates for the first-time use
of PFOA and PFOS
chemicals used in pesticides or as "inerts" - and data
that can confirm that the
substances used in "inerts" are waste products from
the production of these chemicals.
Thanks - EC.
Roy J. Plunkett discovered Teflon by accident in 1938 as a
result of a failed experiment involving refrigerator coolant.
The waxy substance proved to be the most slippery material
began working for DuPont Jackson Laboratory in Deepwater,
N.J., as a research chemist in 1936.
Plunkett's discovery was found to be both heat-resistant and
stick-resistant. After 10 years of research, DuPont introduced
Teflon in 1949.
Works plant begins using C8
begins using ammonium perfluorooctanoate, also called C8,
to make Teflon and related polymers at its Washington Works
plant near Parkersburg, W.Va. The chemical is produced by
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, or 3M.
employees express concerns about the toxicity of C8.
selling Scotchgard Protector
Protector contained a fluorochemical that helped it repel
for Teflon cookware
and Drug Administration, which granted final approval to Teflon
cookware in 1962
of Zonyl for use in food packaging
the FDA approved Zonyl, DuPont's leading brand of fluorinated
telomers, for use in food packaging. It was a less costly
and less labor-intensive alternative to the waxed-based papers
previously used, which could not be recycled ... EPA officials
have said they think Teflon and fluorinated telomers could
be a source of C-8 in the environment.
||Taves finds two forms of fluoride in human
DR (1968). Evidence that there are two forms of fluoride
in human serum. Nature. Mar 16;217(133):1050-1.
It has been assumed that there is only form of fluoride
in serum, the inorganic F ion. It would therefore seem that
either the value for serum fluoride which I found (1µM)
(refs. 1 and 2) or that found by Singer and Armstrong (7.5µM)
(ref. 3) must be in error. While the diffusion method of
Singer and Armstrong has been shown to produce erroneous
values, the same cannot be said for their ashing and distillation
Preliminary data on the distribution of the extra fluoride
in serum are shown in Table 2. The morinthorium regent was
used to measure the fluoride after diffusion at 25º C either
directly or after ashing. xtra fluoride seems to be associated
with the albumin and cannot be ultrafiltrated. Concentrating
the serum proteins concentrated the extra fluoride in proportion.
These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there
are two forms of fluoride in serum, exchangeable and non-exchangeable.
In 1950, Smith, Gardner and Hodge (5) found normal values
of 1.7 µM for serum fluoride in a fluoridated community,
implying that they also were measuring only exchangeable
fluoride. They distilled fluoride from blood with H2SO4
at 135º C and then ashed the distillate (6). If in fact
there is a non-exchangeable fluoride in serum, it did not
break down or diffuse under these conditions, implying
a large stable molecule. These findings are consistent
with the presence of a fluorocarbon molecule.
There seems to have been very little
consideration of this possibility in any biological work.
Peters' found that fluoroacetate is synthesized by certain
toxic plants, but that it is not a general phenomenon. His
work, however, leaves open the possibility
of other forms of organically bound fluorine.
1. Taves DR (1966). Nature, 211, 192.
2. Taves DR (1967). Nature, 215, 1380.
3. Singer L, Armstrong WD (1960). J App Physiol, 15, 508.
5. Smith FA, Gardner DE, Hodge HC (1960). J Dental Res 29,
6. Smith FA, Gardner DE (1951). J Dental Res 30, 182.
Environmental Protection Agency is created
& Guy detect PFOA in pooled blood
GL, Yiamouyiannis J (1977). Sepecial report. AAAS Fluoride
Symposium in Denver. Fluoride, 10(3):141-4. July.
W.S.Guy of Children's Hospital, Cincinnati,
Ohio, stressed the need for differentiating between
inorganic and organic fluoride in human plasma. In conjunction
with Taves [see 1968 (Taves) above] he had isolated
in 1976 by spectroscopic analysis, perfluorooctanoic acid,
a major component in pooled plasma which accounts for at
least 1/3 of the total organic fluoride content. This compound
reaches the blood stream from the use of such products as
floor waxes, wax paper, Scotch Guard, and other items.
Along with Taves, Guy suggested that fluoride determinations
by methods of Armstrong and Singer are inaccurate and that
the blood levels of fluoride correlate much more closely
with fluoride levels in drinking water than has been previously
reported. The levels of organic fluoride, however, were
not related to the content of inorganic fluoride in drinking
water. He suggested that in infants fluoride supplements
amounting to 1/2 g daily are excessve. He also discussed
the fetoplacental barrier for fluorides...
in workers blood
that C8 is detected in the blood of its workers. DuPont is
''disturbed'' that C8 might be causing ''toxic effects'' among
employees at the Washington Works plant. The information is
not shared outside the company.
determines continued exposure to C8 is not tolerable
study by 3M confirms that C8 is toxic to rats and monkeys.
DuPont determines that ''people accumulate C8'' and ''continued
exposure is not tolerable.'' The company begins sampling workers'
blood for C8.
study found that rats fed fluorinated telomers metabolized
them into C8
as 1981, a 3M study published in the journal Analytical Biochemistry
found that lab rats fed fluorinated telomers metabolized them
into C-8. A 3M test completed a year ago, after 3M had withdrawn
from the business, showed that microorganisms in wastewater
sludge broke down fluorinated telomers into C-8.
found in rat study
by 3M links C-8, a key ingredient in Teflon, with eye defects
in rats. DuPont transfers female workers out of its operations
where C-8 is used.
of workers born with eye-related birth defects
1981 DuPont detects C-8 in the blood of five employees who
had given birth in recent years. Two of their babies had
eye-related birth defects.
studies show no link to birth defects
studies by DuPont show no link between C-8 and birth defects
in rats, DuPont moves women of child-bearing age back into
about exposure of DuPont's emissions to local community
director of employee relations recommends that all ''available
practical steps be taken to reduce this (C8) exposure because,''
among other things, ''all employees, not just Teflon area
workers are exposed'' and ''there is obviously great potential
for the current or future exposure of members of the local
community from emissions leaving the plant perimeter.''
employee who volunteered to donate blood was turned away because
of C8 in his blood
an employee volunteered to donate blood at the DuPont's Wasington
Works plant's medical office, "the nurse shook her head
and turned him away. His name was on a list of employees whose
blood was contaminated with ammonium perfluorooctanoate, a
chemical known within the company as C8."
finds C8 in local drinking water
sends employees to obtain drinking water samples from taps
near Washington Works. C8 levels in the water are as high
as 1.5 parts per billion in Lubeck, W.Va., and 0.8 parts per
billion in Little Hocking, Ohio, where drinking water is drawn
from wells across the Ohio River from the plant.
17-acre Dry Run Landfill, about 4 miles southwest of the
community of Lubeck, is at the center of a major controversy
over C8. Since the dump opened in 1984, DuPont has disposed
of large amounts of C8-contaminated wastes in the facility.
Company tests have confirmed that C8 is leaching from the
landfill into Dry Run Creek at levels above the company’s
Stainmaster to protect carpets for sale.
begins selling the Teflon-based Stainmaster to protect carpets.
chief toxicologist states accectable level of C8 in workers
blood is 500 ppm
DuPont's chief toxicologist said the acceptable level of C8
in the blood of workers was 500 parts per billion. A July
7, 1987, memo stated that employees whose C8 blood levels
were half that "will be required to be removed from the
DuPont never established an official limit for C8 in blood.
Company scientists decided one wasn't needed, Rickard said.
"There was no need to set an action level because there
are no known human health effects.''
buys Lubeck well field in West Virginia
buys the Lubeck well field next to Washington Works for $2
million and helps drill new wells 2 miles downriver.
established a "community exposure guideline" for
establishes a ''community exposure guideline'' of 1 part per
billion for C8 in drinking water. The company continued to
cite the guideline in internal documents as recently as November
agreed to pay $200,000 in fines and upgrade its Dry Run Landfill
resolve complaints that pollution from the dump was killing
area cattle and deer.
to the EPA that low levels of fluorochemicals are widely present
in humans based on tests of blood-bank samples.
dumps 55,000 pounds of C8 into Ohio River
dumped 55,000 pounds of C8 into the Ohio River during 1999.
sue DuPont alleging C8 disposal in landfill near their farm
caused cattle to die.
the early 1980s, DuPont purchased hilly parcels of West
Virginia land owned by brothers Wilbur Earl, Jim and Jack
Tennant. In 1984, the company began dumping waste containing
C-8 into an unlined landfill in one of the hollows, records
Tennants sued DuPont in July 1999, alleging several hundred
cows died after drinking from streams and ponds near the
landfill. DuPont settled that case in 2001. Details are
confidential, but more than 100,000 pages of company documents
disclosed in that lawsuit became the basis of a class-action
lawsuit certified last year on behalf of Ohio River Valley
releases 31,250 pounds of C8 into air
releases 31,250 pounds of C8 into the air during 2000, the
latest year for which figures are available.
||3 M announces
phase out of C8
pressure from EPA, 3M announces it will begin phasing out
C-8 and a related chemical due to “principles of responsible
reaches an out-of-court settled with the Tennants
other papers have reported the settlement was made in 2001.
reaches an out-of-court settlement with a West Virginia farmer
who filed a lawsuit claiming that C8 killed his cattle and
sickened his family.
file Class Action
file a class-action lawsuit on behalf of West Virginia residents
exposed to C8.
Decreet between DuPont and West Virginia - Levels of C8 above
14 ppb in drinking water would trigger DuPont to provide alternative
2001 consent decree between DuPont and the EPA's West Virginia
and Ohio regional branches specified DuPont would have to
provide temporary alternative sources of drinking water should
concentrations of C-8 be found at or above 14 ppb in ongoing
testing in the region. The level, since raised to 150 ppb,
has been criticized by the Environmental Working Group.
Virgina and DuPont sign a Consent Order
Virginia and DuPont sign a consent order requiring another
study of the potential health hazards posed by C8.
Hocking Water Assoc. in Ohio find their water supply is contaminated
Officials from the Little Hocking Water Association find out
for the first time that their water supply is contaminated
The West Virginia Department of Environmental
Protection concludes that C8 in drinking water presents ''possible
health risks to the public'' and that C8 ''has been linked
to possible health problems related to long-term exposure.''
completes $50 million expansion of its Teflon business
completes a $50 million expansion of its Teflon business.
15 miles downriver
|| C8 is
detected in the Tuppers Plains, Ohio, water system -- 15 miles
downriver from Washington Works. Low levels of the chemical
also are found in Pomeroy, Ohio, 70 miles downriver, and in
the Belpre, Ohio, water system, 4 miles upriver from the plant.
Experts conclude that smokestack emissions from Washington
Works are causing some of the contamination.
Under an agreement with the U.S. EPA, DuPont promises to reduce
air and water emissions of C8 by at least 50 percent of 1999
levels by the end of 2003. The company also plans to install
a system to remove up to 95 percent of the C8 in the plant's
agrees to provide alternative drinking water supplies if C8
levels are found to exceed 14 parts per billion.
Region III News Release:
DuPont shalI provide a temporary alternate drinking water
supply for users of any private drinking water well and Public
Water System in West Virginia or Ohio where such results show
the level of C-8 exceeds 14 ppb.
agences say 150 ppb of C8 isn't harmful to humans
team of West Virginia, federal and private scientists convened
by the state of West Virginia declares that water containing
up to 150 parts per billion of C8 isn't harmful to humans.
from the Little Hocking Water Association that detail
the history of the "safe level" in drinking water
from 14 ppb to 150 ppb.
EPA begins review of data that links C8 to health problems
U.S. EPA begins a rare ''priority review'' of data that links
C8 to health problems, the first step in a potential effort
to regulate the chemical. The agency cites studies showing
that ''exposure to (C8) can result in a variety of effects
including developmental/reproductive toxicity, liver toxicity
Virginia approves weak air-exposure level for C8
Virginia regulators approve an air-exposure level for C8 that
is three times weaker than the limit proposed by an agency
consultant, who says the lower level ''is more protective
of public health.''
suggests potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity
says new data suggest potential for reproductive/developmental
toxicity, and that blood samples suggest unexplained exposure
to general public.
CEO, coauthors a paper on Sustainable Development
Walking the Talk: The Business Case for Sustainable Development,
coauthored by Holliday, is published.
begins manufacturing C-8 at a plant in Fayetteville, North
started manufacturing C-8 in October at a plant in Fayetteville,
N.C., for its own use and for sale. DuPont also has begun
to dispose of C-8 waste along the Delaware River as part of
its efforts to control the pollution problem on the Ohio River.
DuPont officials said disposing of C-8 waste in Delaware waters
poses no environmental risk.
EPA endorses safe level of 150 ppb in drinking water
an internal memo, a top official at the Ohio Environmental
Protection Agency endorses West Virginia's C8 ''screening
level'' of 150 ppb in drinking water. ''As a result, no
adverse health effects would be expected to occur in populations
using the contaminated water as a source of drinking water,''
the Ohio EPA memo concludes.
from the Little Hocking Water Association that detail
the history of the "safe level" in drinking water
from 14 ppb to 150 ppb.
for 2003 - 2004
EPA estimates that females are at an unacceptable risk from
exposoure to C8
risk assessment prepared by the EPA, dated March 17, estimates
that health risks to young girls and women of childbearing
age are higher than levels considered acceptable by the agency.
The report did not address other C8-related health problems
suggested by animal studies, such as cancer and liver damage...
The report estimated that women of childbearing
age and girls ages 2 to 12 have an average margin of exposure
of 66. Any number below 100 is considered by the EPA to indicate
an unacceptable risk.
rules DuPont has to pay for medical testing for up to 50,000
2003 In class-action against DuPont, a W. Va. judge rules
C-8 is “toxic and hazardous to humans,” orders
DuPont to pay for medical testing of up to 50,000 people.
DuPont files petition to set aside the order.
April 5, 2003
found to have highest C8 levels in blood
scientists are concerned about three studies conducted by
3M last year that found both the Scotchgard compound and
the Teflon compound in human blood across the nation...
levels of C8 detected in all three studies were between
4 parts per billion and 5 parts per billion. The
highest levels of C8 (56.1 parts per billion) were found
in children, leading 3M researchers to speculate that children
are exposed more frequently because they play on carpets
treated with stain repellants.
still not sure how it's getting into people's blood,'' said
Rick Renner, a 3M spokesman.
None of the industry studies filed with the EPA identifies
specific products made with the chemicals. However, a manual
for researchers hired by 3M instructs them to prevent contamination
of field samples by avoiding use of products -- including
some packaging -- that contain perfluorochemicals.
Examples in the manual include new
clothing, water-resistant clothing, microwave popcorn, fast
food, chicken sandwiches, french fries, pizza, bakery items,
beverages, candy, cookies and candy bars.
Virginia Judge orders DuPont to pay for blood tests... and
to pay costs for destroying documents
West Virginia judge has found that a chemical used to make
Teflon is toxic and has punished DuPont for destroying documents
as it defends itself in a class-action lawsuit involving
the chemical. ...
The latest ruling orders the company
to pay for blood tests to measure exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate,
also known as C8.
The ruling also orders DuPont to pay the plaintiffs' attorney
fees and other costs for delays in providing some company
documents and destroying others.
DuPont has until late May to appeal the ruling.
of C8 in the blood of people living near the plant could
be 1,000 times higher than the general population, according
to calculations based on a study DuPont published in 2001.
The company now says the study was flawed.
Judge Hill ruled the company should pay for blood tests
to measure exposure levels.
He also ruled that DuPont had ignored court orders to make
files motion to block release of medical records of their
from DuPont to block the release of certain medical records
of employees beyond testing for the presence of C8 was filed
in Wood County Circuit Court Friday afternoon. ... Friday’s
filing by the DuPont counsel is in response to an order filed
Thursday where counsel for the plaintiffs asked Judge George
W. Hill to force DuPont to turn over medical documents.
coated pans emit toxic particles and chemicals within normal
use on a typical stovetop, according to tests by the Environmental
Klein, EWG chemist, tested a Teflon-coated pan’s temperature
using a precision infrared thermometer to determine how quickly
the pan achieved enough heat to begin releasing fumes.
“Our simple test showed DuPont is wrong when they tell
customers the pans won’t degrade except under extreme
misuse. Actually, the pans started emitting toxic particles
and chemicals quite quickly at temperatures within normal
use on a typical stovetop,” Klein said.
George W. Hill
refuses to step down in class action lawsuit.
Hill orders DuPont to turn over medical records of their
employees whose blood was tested for C8
in Parkersburg, W.Va., refused to step down from a class-action
Wood County Circuit Judge George W. Hill lives in the area
where the chemical was detected and could be a potential benefactor,
DuPont said. ...
Hill said residents of Parkersburg, where he lives, do not
qualify for the class because testing of the city's water
supplies revealed nonquantifiable traces of ammonium perfluorooctanoate,
... Also last week, Hill granted the plaintiffs' request that
DuPont turn over medical records of employees whose blood
was tested for C8.
C8 in Scotchgard with a C4 chemical.
replacement aerosol-can Scotchgard that 3M first distributed
to stores didn't work as well as the original. It was based
on non-perfluoro chemistry and worked on water but not grease.
Nothing repels like perfluorochemicals, 3M concluded. The
challenge was to find safe ones.
3M settled on perfluorobutane sulfonate, or PFBS, a four-carbon
cousin of the chemical in the old Scotchgard, as the building
block for Scotchgard's new generation.
``For providing protection you almost can't do it without
a fluoro-chemical, short of plastic slipcovers,'' said Michael
Harnetty, vice president of 3M's protective materials division.
The new C4-based Scotchgard is completely
safe, 3M says. The company adds that it has worked
closely with the EPA and has performed more
than 40 studies, which are confidential. The EPA won't release
launches $20 million ad campaign featuring Teflon products
launches a $20 million ad campaign featuring Teflon products.
argues in court to remove Class Action judge
are heard on motion by DuPont to remove judge from case. Trial
in Class Action speaks of the developmental problem suffered
by her young daughter: her teeth failed to develop properly.
Cochran of Pageville, a stay-home mother of three, has begun
her own investigation into the substance, driven by fears
about her family's health. News reports about C8 peaked her
interest months ago and now she is trying to find out if the
manufacturing chemical could be a contributing factor in a
developmental problem suffered by her 6-year-old daughter,
"We thought her teeth came in without
enamel," Cochran said. Lauren had
to have her teeth removed after they failed to develop properly.
Recently Cochran has discovered that
several other families in her area have experienced the same
CEO honored at UN for ...
CEO Holliday honored by U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan
for commitment to sustainable business.
Supreme Court overturns ruling that required DuPont to pay
for blood tests for 50,000 people.
state Supreme Court overturned a ruling yesterday that required
DuPont to pay for blood tests for 50,000 people
who claim a chemical used to make Teflon has contaminated
their water supply.
The 4-1 ruling overturned a lower-court order on behalf of
residents who say their health has been affected by DuPont's
use of ammonium perfluorooctanoate, also known as C8, at its
plant in Wood County.
The chemical company was not given proper
notice that the residents were seeking the injunction, so
the order is void, the high court said.
Reported in 2003
exposure to C8 "has not been directly factored into any
risk estimation to date.''
exposure to C8 concentrations of only 2 parts per billion
in water -- the level detected in tap water provided to 12,000
customers of the Little Hocking Water Association in Athens
and Washington counties -- would lead to blood levels of 600
parts per billion, according to the DuPont model.
Scientists who developed the model said the blood levels would
be reached only after repeated exposure for more than six
years. ... DuPont has known that Little Hocking's wells were
contaminated since at least 1984, court records show.
... Long-term exposure to the chemical, Gray wrote, "has
not been directly factored into any risk estimation to date.''
12 , 2004
agency to study blood levels of residents in affected C8 Ohio
four-year study is being funded by an $840,000 grant from
the Environmental Justice Program of the National Institute
of Environmental Health Sciences through the collaboration
of the Decatur Community Association, environmental health
researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of
Medicine and the Occupational Medicine Program of the HealthSouth
should begin to be collected by mid-2004, said Freeman.
The 400 people chosen will be random, but must have lived
in the area for at least four years.
are studies being done now to determine where the highest
levels, medium levels and lowest levels of C8 in the air
are in this area," he said. "We want to randomly
sample within those various regions."
federal agency to conduct 2-year study of young children's
exposures in their homes to selected chemicals including
Longitudinal Study of Young Children's Exposures in their
Homes to Selected Pesticides, Phthalates, Brominated Flame
Retardants, and Perfluorinated Chemicals
(A Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study--CHEERS).
Abstract: The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development's
National Exposure Research Laboratory proposes to conduct
a two-year longitudinal field measurement study of young
children's (aged 0 to 3 years) potential exposures to current-use
pesticides and selected phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl
ethers, and perfluorinated compounds that may be found in
residential environments. The study will be conducted in
Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida over a two-year period
from 2004 to 2006. Sixty young children will be recruited
into this study in two cohorts: (1) infants recruited into
the study soon after birth, and, (2) children recruited
into the study at approximately 12 months of age...
also: Part A: Supporting
Statement - EPA ICR Number: 2126.01 - 61 pages
April 30, 2004
to launch $1M C8 study
Washington Works officials announced Thursday plans to conduct
a $1 million study to compare the health of employees who
work directly with C8 and those who do not. The company is
asking all 960 of its employees at Washington Works to participate.
Officials hope at least 750 will, said Paul Bossert, plant
manager. Retirees and others who work at the plant for outside
contractors will not be involved in the study, Bossert said...
The examinations are slated to begin June 2 and will take
about a month to complete ... DuPont
has hired a private firm, Professional Health Services, Leachtown,
Pa., to perform the survey. The protocol and results
will be evaluated by two outside review boards, including
the West Virginia University Institutional Review Board, said
Robin Leonard, principal research epidemiologist for the DuPont
Haskell Laboratory... During the examinations, the company
will draw blood to test for serum levels of C8, and will provide
urinalysis, pulmonary-function tests, chest X-ray and electrocardiograms.
The study will focus on evaluating liver
function ... The study would be more valuable if it used a
control group who lives and works nowhere near where C8 is
used, Deitzler said." [Deitzler is a lawyer representing
the plaintiffs in the Class Action suit against DuPont]
finds cancer rate higher in C8-exposed areas
released study authored by Dr. James Dahlgren, a nationally
known toxicologist retained by plaintiffs in a pending Wood
County Circuit Court C8 class action lawsuit filed against
DuPont Washington Works, states "the overall cancer prevalence
rate is higher in the population exposed to C8 when compared
to the general population." ...According to Dahlgren's
report, the aim of the study "was to compare cancer distribution
and cancer prevalence rates in a PFOA-exposed population (residents)
to that of the industry cancer registry data from an occupational
exposed population and finally to the general population.
We performed a questionnaire on 599 residents living near
DuPont Washington Works." ...The residents from age 24
to 65 have a significantly higher rate of prevalence cancer
when compared to the general population," according to
"Our findings indicate that the exposed residential population
(residents) have similar cancer prevalence findings to the
PFOA exposed workers. Prostate cancer in the workers was proportionately
elevated among young age males," the report states.
The report also notes findings of elevated prevalence rates
of atypical cancers such as Hodgkin's, Leukemia and Multiple
Myeloma. This data suggest that exposure to PFOA may alter
cancer distribution in exposed populations (worker and residents)
and may be an important risk factor for an excess of cancer
cases," according to Dahlgren's report...
Virginia Supreme Court orders DuPont documents unsealed in
Virginia Supreme Court voted 5-0 Thursday to unseal the internal
documents, which include a November 2000 memo written by in-house
DuPont lawyer John R. Bowman that recommended "getting
out in front and acting responsibly (to) undercut and reduce
the potential for punitives." The ruling upholds a decision
by the trial court judge... Another document unsealed Thursday,
known as the "Win for DuPont" memo, said the company's
goals were to "not create (the) impression that DuPont
did harm to the environment" and to "keep (the)
issue out of press as much as possible." ...
conduct studies of C-8
federal government will conduct its own scientific studies
of a toxic compound now commonly found in human bloodstreams
after months of trying to get the chemical industry to agree
on how testing should be carried out, an Environmental Protection
Agency official said Thursday... The EPA wants to study how
C-8 and related chemicals break down and reach the environment
and living tissues. The agency said it wants several tests
on 13 compounds, and would move to carry out its own studies
or conduct parallel tests if talks fail to make progress by
next month. ..
Hocking Water customers needed for C8 study
four-year study on the effects of C8 on Little Hocking Water
Association Service District customers is set to begin this
About 400 people will be asked in the following weeks to participate
in the study by answering surveys and providing samples of
blood and/or breast milk. Mailings are going out as early
as today soliciting participants for the study.
The main purpose of the study is to measure the levels of
C8 in the bloodstream of a selected sample of residents who
live in the Little Hocking Water Association District and
if those levels are posing any health risks...
Enforcement Action Against DuPont For Toxic Substances Reporting
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) is
taking an administrative action against E. I. DuPont de
Nemours and Company (DuPont) for two violations of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA) and one violation of the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These violations consist
of multiple failures to report information to EPA about
substantial risk of injury to human health or the environment
from a chemical during a period beginning in June of 1981
through March of 2001. Companies are required by TSCA to
report such information immediately. EPA has the authority
to seek a penalty of $25,000 per day for violations occurring
before January 30, 1997, and up to $27,500 per day for violations
occurring thereafter, for each day that DuPont failed to
report the information. EPA alleges that DuPont did not
submit to the Agency information the company had obtained
regarding the synthetic chemical Perfluorooctanoic Acid
(PFOA). PFOA is used in the manufacturing process for fluoropolymers,
including some Teflon® products, at DuPont's Washington
Works facility in Washington, West Virginia...
EPA vs. DuPont. Complaint and Notice of Opportunity for
response to US EPA: "Answer and Request for Hearing."
by Thomas B. Johnston and Daniel E. Johnson of MCKENNA LONG
& ALDRIDGE LLP (Washington DC) and Peter D. Robertson
and John C. Martin (PATTON BOGGS LLP (Washington DC).
||DuPont Agrees to Settle Class Action Suit
||DuPont agreed on Thursday to pay as much
as $343 million to settle a class-action lawsuit alleging
the chemical giant contaminated drinking water supplies in
West Virginia and Ohio with a key ingredient of its Teflon
* If approved, the settlement would fund a $5 million study
into whether C8 causes disease in humans. If a scientific
panel finds such a link, DuPont would pay up to $235 million
-the bulk of the potential settlement- on medical tests of
residents to monitor their health.
• DuPont would spend another $10 million to remove as
much C8 from the area's water supply as possible by building
state-of-the-art water treatment plants in two West Virginia
and four Ohio water districts.
• The proposed settlement also includes $70 million
that DuPont would pay into a fund to be overseen by a court-appointed
administrator. At least $20 million of that would pay for
health and education projects. Another $22.6 million of the
potential settlement is earmarked for lawyers' fees and expenses.
1. November 2003. Chief
Executive; Vol. 193. DuPont's
Teflon Dilemma. How Chad Holliday, the champion of sustainability,
is managing an environmental challenge. From boxed insert:
The Teflon Story. BY Amy Cortest.
16, 2003. Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). Internal
Warnings. Industry memos show DuPont knew for decades that a chemical
used to make Teflon is polluting workers and neighbors. By
3. February 23, 2003.
The News Journal (Delaware). DuPont's
troubled chemical C-8 is widespread in the environment. How did
it get there, and should we be worried? By Fred Biddle and
4. February 23, 2003.
The News Journal (Delaware). Is
there a danger in the air for cooks? DuPont says kitchen temperatures
are not hot enough to release harmful fumes. By Jennifer Goldblatt
and Fred Biddle.
1968. Taves DR. Evidence that there are two forms of fluoride
in human serum. Nature. 1968 Mar 16;217(133):1050-1.
4B. Waldbott GL, Yiamouyiannis
J (1977). Sepecial report. AAAS Fluoride Symposium in Denver.
Fluoride. 10(3):141-4. July.
5. March 2, 2003 .
The Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). Chemical
Concerns Persist. Residents Could Have More C8 in Blood than Workers,
a DuPont Model Indicates. By Michael Hawthorne.
6. March 28, 2003.
The Columbus Dispatch (Ohio).
DuPont Chemical May Harm Females. Health risks might be higher
than acceptable, EPA says in assessment. By Michael Hawthorne.
7. April 5 , 2003.
The Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). DUPONT
CHEMICAL SHOWING UP IN BLOOD OF CHILDREN, ADULTS. EPA wants
to regulate the compound found in many household items. By Michael
8. April 13, 2003.
Wilmington News Journal (Delaware). DuPont
confronted over chemical's safety
EPA and W. Va. lawsuit challenge risks posed by C-8, used to make
Teflon. By Fred Biddle.
9. May 8, 2003. The
Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). WEST
VIRGINIA RULING. JUDGE: DUPONT CHEMICAL IS TOXIC. By Geoff
10. May 17, 2003. The
Marietta Times (Ohio). DuPont
officials file a request to protect its medical records.
By Jeffrey Saulton.
11. May 28, 2003. The
Marietta Times (Ohio). Environmental
group lobbies for warnings on Teflon cookware. By Callie Lyons.
12. June 1, 2003. The
Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). JUDGE
WON'T QUIT DUPONT LAWSUIT. Associated Press.
13. June 22, 2003.
The Mercury News (California). Scotchgard
working out recent stain on its business. Knight Ridder.
14. September 27, 2003.
The Marietta Times (Ohio). Examining
the water we drink: Concerns about C8 linger. By Callie Lyons
15. September 27, 2003.
The Marietta Times (Ohio). Examining
the water we drink: C8 spawns chemical family. By Callie Lyons.
16. December 6, 2003.
The Columbus Dispatch (Ohio). DUPONT
WINS ROUND IN CHEMICAL CASE. Associated Press.
17. February 12 , 2004.
The Marietta Times (Ohio). Group
to help spread word about C8 project. By Kate York.
18. March 12, 2002.
US EPA Region III. EPA Environmental News. EPA
reaches consent agreement with DuPont on plan to supply drinking
30, 2004. DuPont to launch
$1M C8 study. By DAVE PAYNE Sr. The Parkersburg
News and Sentinel (West Virginia)
May 6, 2004. New
study finds cancer rate higher in C8-exposed areas. By Pamela
Brust. The Parkersburg News and Sentinel (West Virginia).
May 8, 2004. W.Va.
Supreme Court orders DuPont documents unsealed in C8 suit.
By The Associated Press. The Marietta Times (Ohio).
June 25, 2004. EPA
will conduct studies of C-8. DuPont Co. uses chemical in Teflon.
By JEFF MONTGOMERY. The News Journal (Wilmington, Delaware).
July 7, 2004.
Little Hocking Water customers needed for C8 study. By Brad
Bauer. The Marietta Times (Ohio).
July 8, 2004. EPA
Takes Enforcement Action Against DuPont For Toxic Substances Reporting
Violations. US Environmental Protection Agency. Press Release.
See also: US
EPA vs. DuPont. Complaint and Notice of Opportunity for Hearing
- (Docket Nos. TSCA-HQ-2004-0016 and RCRA-HQ-2004-0016.)
25. July 20, 2004. DuPont’s
C8 contamination widespread, EPA says. By Ken Ward Jr. Charleston
Gazette (West Virginia).
26. August 12, 2004. DuPont's
response to US EPA: "Answer and Request for Hearing."
Submitted by Thomas B. Johnston and Daniel E. Johnson of MCKENNA
LONG & ALDRIDGE LLP (Washington DC) and Peter D. Robertson
and John C. Martin (PATTON BOGGS LLP (Washington DC). Docket Nos.
TSCA-HQ-2004-0016 and RCRA-HQ-2004-0016.
27. August 15, 2004. Timeline:
Fluorochemicals. Star Tribune (Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesotta).
28. October 25, 2005.
Wood residents oppose DuPont permits.
By Ken Ward Jr. The Charleston Gazette (West Virginia)
• DuPont confirms
that C8 is toxic in animals and causes observable changes in
organ functions. (Ref. 2)
• DuPont, Intemal Memo Re Toxicity of Teflon@ Dispersing
Agents (11/9/61) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab, Acute Oral Toxicity of C-8-APFCIFC-
143 Rats (11/8/61) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Summary
of Toxicity Studies on Fluorocarbon Dispersing Agents in Dogs
and Rats (1962) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Pathogenic Action Following Repeated Oral Administration
(FC-143) in Male CRCD Rats (2/9/62) (Ref.
• DuPont, Pathogenic Action Following Single Oral Administration
(FC-143) in Male CRCD Rats (2/14/62) (Ref.
• DuPont, Effect
of Fluorocarbon Dispersing Agents on the Livers of Rats and
Dogs (8/19/65) (Ref. 3)
• Clayton, W.J., The Mammalian Toxicology of Organic Compounds
Containing Flourine (Pharmacology of Fluorides, (Frank A. Smith,
Ed.) (1966) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Memo
Re: Bioassay Results from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural
Sciences Concerning Toxicity of C-8 and Triton Discharges to
Ohio River (10/18/66) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont, Haskell
Lab., Acute Oral Test of APFO in Male CHRCD Rats (6/13/68) (Ref.
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Acute Inhalation Dust Toxicity
of APFO in Rats (6/17/68) (Ref. 3)
1970 Chad Holliday
joins DuPont as an engineer. (Ref. 1)
Inc., Primary Eye Irritation Study - Rabbits (for 3M) (3/4/76)
• Biosearch, Inc., Primary Skin Imtation Study - Rabbits
(for 3M) (3/4/76) (Ref. 3)
• Biosearch, inc., Acute oral Toxicity - Rats (for 3M)
(3/4/76) (Ref. 3)
Ames Salmonella/Microsome Assay (for 3M) ( 12/20/77) (Ref.
• 3M Env. Lab.,
IRDC 137-088; FM-3422/Monkey Tests (8/16/78) (Ref.
• E.G. & G. Bionomics, Summary of Histopathological
Examinations of Fathead Minnow Exposed to 78:03 (FC-143) for
30 days (for 3M) (9/78) (Ref. 3)
• Int'l Res. & Devel. Corp., 90-Day Subacute Rat Toxicity
Study; Fluorad FC- 143 (for 3M) (11/6/78) (Ref.
• Int'l Res. & Devel. Corp., 90-Day Subacute Rhesus
Monkey Toxicity Study;
Fluorad FC-143 (For 3M) (11/10/78) (Ref.
P. W., DuPont Haskell Lab. Memo Re: 3M's Fluorad Fluorochemical
FC-143 Toxicity Studies (315179) (Ref.
• Steiner, C.E., DuPont Memo Re: C-8 Communications Meeting
- Outline, Talk & Charts (7/31/80) (Ref.
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Inhalation Subacute: APFO (Albino
Male Rats) (7/20/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Skin Irritation Test on Rabbits:
FC-143 (10/5/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Eye Irritation Test in Rabbits:
FC-143 (10/5/79) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Skin Absorption LDSO-Rabbit and
Rat: FC-143 (10/26/79) (Ref. 3)
R.H. and Singer, L., Metabolic Handling of PFOA in Rats, 163
Proceedings of Soc. for Exp. Biol. Medic. 19-23 (1980) (Ref.
• Griffith, F.D. and Long, J.E., Animal Toxicitv Studies
with APFO, 41 Am. Ind.
Hyg. ASSOC. J. 576-583 (1980) (Ref. 3)
• Riker Lab., Absorption of FC-143 in Rats After A Single
Oral Dose (for 3M)
(1/17/80) (Ref. 3)
• 3M Env. Lab., Aquatic Toxicity Testing: FC- 143 (Fathead
Minnows) (5/8/80) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskeil Lab., Skin Absorption LDSO-Female Rats:
FC-143 (9/22/80) (Ref. 3)
• DuPont Haskell Lab., Rat Skin Absorption Subacute Study
With FC-143 (Male
CHR-CD Rats) ( I 0/10/80) (Ref. 3)
• 3M Env. Lab.,
Daphnid Bioassay: CS-2151 (2/5/81)
• 3M Env., Lab., Oral Rangefinder Study of T-2998COC (APFO)
in Pregnant Rats (3/12/81)
• Univ. of Minn. (Env Pathology Lab), An Assay of Cell
Transformation and Cytotoxicity in C3H 10T 1/2 Clonal Cell Line
for the Test Chemical T-2942 COC (for 3M) (3/4/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of
Pentadecafluorooctonoic Acid, Ammonium Salt in Rats (4/15/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Guinea Pigs
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Rats (6/1/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Mice (6/17/81)
• 3M Env. Lab, Acute Effect of CS-2 15 1 on Microbial
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral Acute Toxicity Comparison
Test in Rats (9/29/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Oral LD50 Test in Rats (9/30/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Liver Weight Comparison in Castrated
and Ovariectomized Rats vs. Normal Rats (10/7/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., Mouse Feeding Study - 14 Day (10/26/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., APFO Blood Levels in the Female
• 3M Company, Oral Teratology Study of T-2998COC (C8FC-143)
in Rats (as amended 12/15/81)
• DuPont, Haskell Lab., The Effects of Dowex Ion Exchange
Resin on the Toxicity of C-8 in Rats (12/31/81)
• 3M Env. Lab., Multi-Phase ExposureiRecovery Algal Assay
Test Method (FC-143) (11/16/81)