Brain - Adverse Effects
(Perfluorinated chemicals)

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Brain Adverse Effects
PFOS - PFOA Index Page

• Due to length, we are presenting this effect as a separate section for PFOS and PFOA. The study of the adverse effects of PFOS-PFOA chemicals is in its infancy and we anticipate that more effects will be presented and published over the next several years. Most of the animal studies (as of early 2004) have been performed by the major producers of PFOS-PFOA (3M and DuPont).

• Click here to return to the same section for fluorine & organofluorine pesticides.

This is not an exhaustive list. The review of data was performed in 2003 to early 2004. When time allows more information will be added,

Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, or 10 mg PFOS/kg body weight (BW) for 2 weeks. Food and water intake, BW, and estrous cycles were monitored daily. At the end of treatment, PFOS levels in tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with electrospray mass spectrometry. Changes in brain monoamines were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and serum corticosterone and leptin were monitored using radioimmunoassay. Treatment with PFOS produced a dose-dependent accumulation of this chemical in various body tissues, including the brain. PFOS exposure decreased food intake and BW in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PFOS affected estrous cyclicity and increased serum corticosterone levels while decreasing serum leptin concentrations. PFOS treatment also increased norepinephrine concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results indicate that exposure to PFOS can affect the neuroendocrine system in rats.
Ref: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep;111(12):1485-9. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats; by Austin ME, Kasturi BS, Barber M, Kannan K, MohanKumar PS, MohanKumar SM.

Title: 26-Week Capsule Toxicity Study with Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid Potassium Salt (PFOS; T6295) in Cynomolgus Monkeys, 2002. TEST SUBSTANCE Identity: Potassium perfluorooctylsulfonate, CAS # 2795-39-3. Year study performed: 2000. Species/strain: Cynomolgus monkeys. Sex: Males and females. Number of animals per dose group: 6 animals/sex/dose group for groups 1, 3, and 4; 4 animals/sex for group 2. Route of administration: Oral capsule Doses tested and frequency: 0 mg/kg/day, 0.03 mg/kg/day, 0.15 mg/kg/day, or 0.75 mg/kg/day Post-observation period: 52 weeks ...
NOAEL (dose and effect): 0.15 mg/kg/day.
LOAEL (dose and effect): 0.75 mg/kg/day. Death, liver effects, effect on cholesterol
Toxic response/effects by dose level: Death at 0.75 mg/kg/day; increased absolute liver weight, liver to body weight percentages, liver to brain weight ratios in females at 0.75 mg/kg/day; absolute and relative liver weight; Males and females in the 0.75 mg/kg/day dose-group had lower total cholesterol and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver organ weights.
Statistical results: The difference in weight at the end of treatment between the control and the 0.75 mg/kg/day female treatment groups was statistically significant; the effect on total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the 0.75 mg/kg/dose group was statistically significant; in males in the 0.75 mg/kg/day dose group the liver organ weights and the organ-to body weight percentages were statistically significant and in females the liver weights, the organ-to-body weight percentage and the organ-brain weight ratio were all significant.
Ref: November 21, 2002 report: Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its salts. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.

3.5 Reproductive Toxicity Studies in Animals
York (2002) conducted an oral two-generation reproductive toxicity study of APFO, which is summarized below. Although this preliminary risk assessment focuses on developmental toxicity, the summary below of the two generation reproductive toxicity study includes all endpoints. Five groups of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats per sex per dose group were administered APFO by gavage at doses of 0,1,3,10, and 30 mg/kg/day six weeks prior to and during mating. Treatment of the F0 male rats continued until mating was confirmed,and treatment of the F0 female rats continued throughout gestation, parturition, and lactation....
F1 Males ... The absolute weight of the prostate, brain and left adrenal gland were significantly decreased in the 30 mg/kg/day dosage group.
April 10, 2003: Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity associated with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. 63 pages.

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