CAS No. 68359-37-5

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Adverse Effects

ACTIVITY: Insecticide (Pyrethroid)

CAS NAME: cyano(4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate

Note: CAS No. 68359-37-5 for cyfluthrin and beta-cyfluthrin is the same


Adverse Effects:

Body Weight Decrease
Endocrine: Adrenal
Endocrine: Ovary
Endocrine: Thymus
Eye - Microphthalmia
Salivary Glands
Sciatic nerve

Environmental Effects:

Acute Toxicity to Fish and Saltwater Life

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes
US EPA PC Code: 128831
California Chemical Code 2223
US Tolerances: CFR 180.436
FDA LMS Code: 781
US EPA Permit Date
and Registrant:
1987, Miles 
Registered use in
(includes only a limited list of countries)

Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, UK, US
Africa: Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Tanzania

Japan's Pesticide Standard Limits Partial List: Apple • Apricot • Asparagus • Barley • Beans • Broad beans • Broccoli • Brussels sprouts • Buckwheat • Burdock • Cabbage • Cauliflower • Cherry • Corn • Cotton seeds • Cucumber (including Gherkin) • Eggplant • Garlic • Grape • Grapefruit • Japanese pear • Kale • Kidney beans (with pods, immature) • KOMATSUNA • Konjac • KYONA • Lemon • Lettuce (Cos lettuce, Leaf lettuce) • Lime • Loquat • MAKUWAURI • Melons • Mume plum • NATSUDAIDAI (whole) • Nectarine • Onion • Orange • Peas (with pods, immature) • Pimento (Sweet pepper) • Pumpkin (including Squash) • Peach • Peanuts (dry) • Pear • Peas • Potato • Quince • Rye • Soybeans • Sugar beet • Sweet potato • Taro • Tea • Tomato • Turnip • UNSHU orange • Watermelon • Wheat • Yam
-- Note very high tolerances - 20 ppm - for Tea (Green, Black, Oolong, Wulung)
US Maximum Residue Levels permitted in food commodities

US - permitted in or on over 300 food commodities, including:
Alfalfa, Animal feed, Aspirated grain, Barley, Carrot, Cattle, Citrus fruit, Corn, Cotton, Processed foods, Egg, Fruit, Goat, Grape, Raisin, Hog, Hop, Horse, Milk, Nut, Oat (grain), Pepper, Potato, Poultry, Radishe, Sheep, Sorghum, Sugarcane (Cane), Sugarcane (Molasses), Sunflower seeds, Tomato, Vegetables, Wheat

There are also two tolerances of 0.05 ppm for residues from general surface, spot, and/or crack and crevice applications in
food commodities
exposed to the insecticide during treatment of food-handling establishments where food and food products are held, processed, prepared, or served.
and in
feed commodities exposed to the insecticide during treatment of feed-handling establishments where feed and feed products are held, processed, prepared, or served.

Other Information
Molecular Formula: C22H18Cl2 F NO3
Manufacturers: Bayer
Other Names: Aztec, Bay-FCR 1272,
Cyfoxylate, FCR 1272,
Responsar, Sofac,
Manufacture site:

UK: Mitchell Cotts
Chemicals Ltd.,
Mirfield West Yorkshire

US: Kansas City, Missouri; Shawnee, Kansas

Of special interest:
PAN Data
Material Safety Data Sheets & Labels

2004-2006 - US EPA CHEERS study in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. This 2-year study of children's exposure to selected pesticides and chemicals has ignited enormous controversy. Cyfluthrin (I, II, III, IV, total) was one of 16 pesticides selected to be monitored in children (ages 0-3 years). See FAN's updates on this study. Also, 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid, (CAS No. 77279-89-1), a metabolite of Cyfluthrin, will be analyzed in biological media. It's molecular structure is

Note: the CDC's "Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals," expected to be released sometime in 2005, includes 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid in its list of chemicals.

March 14, 2005: Upswing in Lesser Used, but More Potent Pesticides in California's Central Valley.
University of California-Berkeley researchers have conducted a study to determine the harmful effects of pyrethroid pesticides on aquatic organisms through sediment residues. What they have found is a trend toward using newer compounds that can be more toxic to aquatic life. The team of researchers studied six pyrethroids in three sediments taken from California’s Central Valley, where two-thirds of the state’s cropland is found. Study results showed acute toxicity and growth impairment in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, a sensitive test species. Animal biomass was roughly 38% below that of the control group when exposed to pyrethroid levels that were one-third to one-half of the lethal concentration. Except for permethrin, most pyrethroids would be acutely toxic to H. azteca at concentrations only slightly above detection limits. The six compounds tested in order of decreasing toxicity were bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, cyfluthrin and permethrin.
To read the entire study, click here:
March 2004 - Updated Summary of Toxicology Data. California EPA.
TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank 
1992-1995 - US Map of Pesticide Use
December 2, 2002 - Final review report for the active substance cyfluthrin. European Commission. Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Report 6843/VI/97-final
January 25, 1999 - Sediment Toxicity and Fate of Synthetic Pyrethroids. The synthetic pyrethroids were conditionally registered beginning in 1984 for use on cotton and later for use on other major crops including corn, soybeans, and sugarcane. Currently, EPA is assessing risks to non-target organisms for ten synthetic pyrethroids: bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cyhalothrin, tefluthrin, tralomethrin, and permethrin. Each of these synthetic pyrethroids are conditionally registered for use on cotton, with the exception of tefluthrin, which is conditionally registered for use on corn. Each of these chemicals is highly lipophilic and in aquatic environments tend to strongly adsorb to sediments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs US EPA.
-- Note - organofluorine pesticides highlighted in red
September 2001 - The pyrethroid Cyfluthrin (Type II) is discussed in this report. DRAFT TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 
2000 - Toxic Release Inventory. Brief Summary.
June 2002 - In Australia when Cyfluthrin is used for "Crack and crevice treatment and barrier strip" no maximum residue levels are required. Ref: June 2002. Table 5. Uses of substances where maximum residue limits are not necessary. Australian National Registration Authority for Agricultural Veterinary Chemicals. The MRL Standard. Maximum residue limits in food and animal feedstuff.
2000 - "P" is for Poison. Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools, by TM Olle. A report by Californians for Pesticide Reform. Also available at:
Fluorinated pesticides cited: Benefin (Benfluralin), Bifenthrin, Bromethalin, Cyfluthrin, Fipronil, Fluazifop-butyl, Hydramethylnon, Lambda-cyhalothrin,Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane), Trifluralin, Unknown (Fluorgard)
1997 Toxicological Evaluation. WHO, International Programme on Chemical Safety.
1997 FAO/WHO recommended maximum residue limits in Cattle.
Insecticide products - partial list.
Online August 2005 - UK Environmental Agency. Table 2: List 2 Dangerous substances. Table 2a: Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for List 2 dangerous substances, EC Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC). List 2 substances include Cyfluthrin, Flucofuron, Trifluralin. 
Also at this primary site.
UK: Table 2. Dangerous Substances Directive. List 2 includes Cyfluthrin, Flucofuron, Trifluralin. 
March 12, 2001 - Cyfluthrin. EEC Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Pages 212-218
1997 - Application to concrete floors inside milling and storage facilities to cntrol flour beetle. USDA/Tektran.
Mothproofing chemicals highly toxic to fish and invertebrates. UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation
October 1998 - Structural Pest Management pesticides. FAN's compilation of information cited on fluorine and organofluorine pesticides published in General Pest Management, Category 7A. A Guide for Commercial Applicators. Prepared by: Carolyn Randall, MSU Pesticide Education Program. Published by MSU Pesticide Education (Michigan State University). MSU manual number: E-2048.
April 2000 - Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Residue Monitoring. Table 3. Pesticides detectable by methods used in 1999 regulatory monitoring.
April 17, 2002 - Bayer's acquistion of Aventis. Discussion of beta-cyfluthrin and Cyfluthrin. European Commission press release.
1994 - Cyfluthin Fact Sheet by Caroline Cox. Journal of Pesticide Reform. Summer 1994. Vol 14, No 2.

Table 6-1. Trends of National Pyrethroid Use

September 2001. Draft Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids. US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Organofluorine pyrethroids discussed in the Profile: Bifenthrin (Type 1), Cyfluthrin (Type 2), Cyhalothrin (Type 2), Flucythrinate (Type 2), Flumethrin (Type 2), Fluvalinate (Type 2), Tefluthrin (Type 1).

Note: The following 4 fluorinated pesticides were included in a list of 11 pesticides.

Pyrethroid Amounts applied
(pounds) 1992
Amounts applied
(pounds) 1997
Percent change
Bifenthrin 116,716 110,246 -5
Cyfluthrin 124,360 177,782 +43
lambda Cyhalothrin 205,329 321,284 +57
Tefluthrin 238,429 576,865 +142

US Federal Register

•• Note: The entries in the FR are too long to list here. Click here to see all the entries.

Date Published Docket Identification Number Details
May 9, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0337

Bayer CropScience. Pesticide Petition. PP 7F7200. Proposal for tolerances in or on food

-- grain, cereal group 15 (except rice) at 4.0 ppm

This group includes 100 commodities.
barley • barley, bran • barley, cereal • barley, flour • barley, grain • barley, pearled barley • buckwheat • buckwheat, flour • buckwheat, fodder • buckwheat, forage • buckwheat, grain • cereal, cooked • cereal, flour • cereal, flour and related products • corn • corn, cereal • corn, field • corn, field, aspirated grain fractions • corn, field, dry milling • corn, field, flour • corn, field, grain • corn, field, grits • corn, field, meal • corn, field, milled byproducts • corn, field, refined oil • corn, field, soapstock • corn, field, starch • corn, field, wet milling • corn, pod, grain • corn, pop • corn, pop, grain • corn, sweet • corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed • grain, aspirated grain fractions • grain, cereal • grain, crops • grain, crops, except corn, fresh and rice, grain • grain, crops, except wheat • grain, forage and stover • macaroni products • millet • millet, flour • millet, grain • millet, pearl • millet, pearl, grain • millet, proso • millet, proso, flour • millet, proso, grain • noodle products • oat • oat and barley animal feed mixture, 97% oats, 3% barley • oat, bran • oat, cereal • oat, flour • oat, grain • oat, groats/rolled oats • rice • rice, bran • rice, cereal • rice, cracked • rice, cracked, malted beverage • rice, flour • rice, grain • rice, hulls • rice, polished rice • rice, wild • rice, wild, grain • rye • rye, bran • rye, cereal • rye, flour • rye, grain • sorghum, grain • sorghum, grain, aspirated grain fractions • sorghum, grain, brain • sorghum, grain, flour • sorghum, grain, grain • sorghum, milled fractions, except flour • teosinte • teosinte, grain • triticale • triticale, grain • wheat • wheat, aspirated grain fractions • wheat, bran • wheat, cereal • wheat, flour • wheat, germ • wheat, gluten, postharvest in australia • wheat, grain • wheat, middlings • wheat, milled byproducts • wheat, shorts • wheat, vavilovi • wheat, vavilovi, grain • wheat, wild einkorn • wheat, wild einkorn, grain • wheat, wild emmer • wheat, wild emmer, grain

-- grain, cereal, (forage, fodder, and straw), group 16 (except rice) at 7.0 ppm.

This group includes 50 commodities.
barley, hay • barley, straw • corn, field • corn, field, aspirated grain fractions • corn, field, forage • corn, field, hay • corn, field, stover • corn, pod • corn, pod, stover • corn, pop • corn, pop, stover • corn, sweet, cannery waste • corn, sweet, forage • corn, sweet, stover • grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group, for forage, except sweet corn, forage • grain. cereal, group • grass, hay • millet, forage • millet, hay • millet, pearl, forage • millet, pearl, hay • millet, pearl, straw • millet, proso, forage • millet, proso, hay • millet, proso, straw • millet, straw • oat • oat, forage • oat, hay • oat, straw • rice, forage • rice, hulls • rice, straw • rice, wild • ricegrass, indian • rye, forage • rye, straw • sorghum, forage • sorghum, forage, forage • sorghum, forage, hay • sorghum, forage, silage • sorghum, grain • sorghum, grain, forage • sorghum, grain, stover • wheat, forage • wheat, hay • wheat, straw • wheat, vavilovi, straw • wheat, wild einkorn, straw • wheat, wild emmer, straw

May 9, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0104

Bayer CropScience. Pesticide Petition. PP 6F7160. Proposal for tolerances in or on food commodities

-- beet, sugar, roots at 0.09 ppm
-- beet, sugar, dried pulp at 11.0 ppm

October 27, 2006 EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0857

IR-4. Pesticide petition: 6E7058.
New tolerance proposal, in or on raw agricultural commodities
-- grass, forage at 15 ppm
-- grass, hay at 40 ppm

April 14, 2006 EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0205 Pesticide Tolerance Technical Correction.
EPA issued a final rule in the Federal Register of September 13, 2005, concerning the establishment of pesticide tolerances for residues of the insecticide cyfluthrin in/on several agricultural commodities. This document is being issued to correct omissions concerning the entry for wheat milled by products, except flour.
-- Wheat, bran at 6.5 ppm
-- Wheat, shorts at 11.0 ppm

•• Note: The entries in the FR are too long to list here. Click here to see all the entries.

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