MSDS & Labels
CAS Name: 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile
This pesticide contains both bromine and
fluorine; a combination
that has the potential to produce severe adverse effects - particularly
to the brain.
January 26, 2005, US EPA approved a Final
Rule for tolerances of Chlorfenapyr
in or on all food items
in food handling establishments where food products are
held, processed, and/or prepared at 0.01 ppm as a result
of application of chlorfenapyr to crack, crevice and spot
Final Rule contains a separate document that is EPA's response
to FAN's comments on
BASF's original petition - see
in EPA Docket, Number: OPP-2004-0362-0002)
Body Weight Decrease
Cancer: Suggestive - LIVER, TESTES,
of the most reproductively toxic pesticides to avian species
[the EPA] has evaluated."
"A persistent compound" in soil
toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honeybees, and toxic
(only comprehensive for the US)
Pending for tolerances for food commodities - See Federal Register
EPA PC Code:
(includes only a limited list
Australia, Japan, Philippines,
South Africa, Tanzania, US, Vietnam
Cabbages, 1.0 ppm
Cantoloups, 0.5 ppm
Leaf vegetables with small leaves, 1.0 ppm
Pears, 0.5 ppm
Peas, 0.5 ppm
Tea, 2.0 ppm
Tomatoes, 0.5 ppm
Wax apples, 0.5 ppm
5, 2001- European
Commission decision to remove from approved substance list.
Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs)
• Brussels sprouts • Cabbage • Chinese cabbage
• Cucumber (including Gherkin) • Cotton seeds
• Egg plant • Japanese pear • Japanese persimon
• Japanese radish (including Radish root and leaf) •
Lettuce (Cos lettuce, Leaf lettuce) • Pear • Strawberry
• Sugar beet • Tea • UNSHU orange
the exceptionally high level - 50 ppm
- for Tea (Green, Black, Oolong, Wulung) -- also note
the variation in spelling: Chlorphenapyr.
Maximum Residue Levels permitted
in food commodities
FINAL RULE, Sept 26, 2003:
1 ppm in or on raw agricultural commodities - vegetables,
fruiting, group 8, which include: chili,
postharvest; pepper, nonbell; tomato, paste; eggplant; pepper,
nonbell; sweet tomato, puree; groundcherry; tomatillo;
wet, pomace; pepino; tomato; vegetable, fruiting; pepper;
tomato, concentrated products; vegetable,
fruiting; grouppepper, bell; tomato, dried pomace
FINAL RULE, January 26, 2005:
new tolerance of 0.01 ppm was established January
2005 for residues of chlorfenapyr in
or on all food commodities as
a result of application of chlorfenapyr to crack, crevice
and spot applications in
food/feed handling areas where food/feed products are prepared,
held, processed, or served .
Pirate, Alert, Sunfire, Citrex, Intrepid, Kotetsu,
Pylonga, Stalker, MK-24, Secure,
AC 303, 630,
Kingsport, Tennessee 37660
|Of special interest:
Safety Data Sheets & Labels
Insecticide products - updated
3, 2005 - New
York State registration of Pylon Miticide-Insecticide.
(See also, January
16, 2002, NYS registration letter to BASF)
submitted to US EPA on its Final Rule for food tolerrances of
1 ppm on furiting vegetables, group
published in the Federal Register of September 18, 2003, Docket
11, 2003 -
submitted to US EPA on BASF's petition for food tolerances.
These comments were submitted by FAN in
response to a petition by BASF
which was published in the Federal Register (July 16, 2003).
BASF has requested the establishment of a tolerance for residues
of chlorfenapyr on all food items in food handling establishments
where food products are held, processed, and/or prepared at
0.01 parts per million due to application of chlorfenapyr to
crack and crevice and spot applications.
17, 2003 -
Reply from BASF
Corporation to FAN's comments. Also
available at US
EPA's Docket website. The Docket
No. to access these, and other, comments on Chlorfenapyr submitted
to US EPA is OPP-2003-0205.
from FAN: We would appreciate your input
on the comments submitted by BASF. Please contact us at email@example.com
-- Thanks. EC.
Risk Benefit Assessment - EPA Office
of Pesticide Programs
5, 2005 - The plant and material protection division of Janssen
Pharmaceutica NV and BASF Corp. have formed an agreement whereby
Janssen may use chlorfenapyr as a pre-construction
wood preservative in engineered wood products and on solid timbers.
- Chemical Market Reporter.
24, 2001 -
Summary of Toxicological
Data. California EPA. Department of
Pesticide Regulation. Medical Toxicology Branch. Also available
2000 - US EPA denies the use of Chlorfenapyr (Pirate) on cotton.
completing its review of the pesticide chlorfenapyr (Pirate)
for use on cotton, EPA made the determination that chlorfenapyr
did not meet the requirements for registration, and in response,
American Cyanamid withdrew their Section 3 registration application.
Web site includes the human health
and environmental risk assessments and the denial of registration
Determines That Chlorfenapyr Does Not Meet the Requirements
for Registration; American Cyanamid Withdraws Application -
EPA Office of Pesticide Programs
16, 2000 - American
Bird Conservancy press release on EPA decision to deny cotton
30, 1999 -
Request to EPA to Deny Chlorfenapyr
Use - Letter to EPA from Deputy Director
of Fish and Wildlife Service, John G. Rogers
16, 1999 - Higher
Tier Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorfenapyr. FIFRA
Scientific Advisory Panal Meeting. SAP Report No. 99-04C.
23, 1998 - EPA's
Lynn Goldman on "The Impact of the 1996 Food Quality Protection
Act on Louisiana Growers." -
Note that both spelling variations (Chlorfenapyr / Chlorphenapyr)
1999 - PIRATE
FEAR: Controversy heats up about chlorfenapyr, a.k.a. Pirate--a
pesticide some claim is the next DDT -
2, 1999 -
EPA Decides Not to Approve Use of
Chlorfenapyr - Chemical Week
30, 1996 - Press
release of launch of new insecticide called Kotetsu.
Mitsubishi Chemical Corp.
SODA ANNUAL REPORT 2002
- cites the following organofluorine pesticides
and their product names: Chlorfenapyr
* Fluacrypyrim * Fluazinam * Fluvalinate * Triflumizole
Products/Transitional Solution List - This
list contains brief descriptions of numerous new pest control
materials that have been introduced over the last several years.
Additionally, it contains information on some "older"
crop protection chemicals that are believed to have room for
new uses. This List includes Chlorfenapyr
Food and Drug Administration
Pesticide Residue Monitoring. Table
3. Pesticides detectable by methods used in 1999 regulatory
2001 - Glossary
of Pesticide Chemicals. A listing
of pesticides subject to analysis of residues in foods and feeds
by the US Food and Drug Administration.
D2: Details of Residues Exceeding non-harmonised MRLs,
including national MRLs
Reporting country: Germany
Year of sampling: 2003
Point of sampling in distribution: F = farmgate, R = retail,
W = wholesale, O = other
Administrative consequences have followed, e.g. prohibiting
for sale, prosecutions, the levying of penalties or fines
explanatory notes are cited at http://www.bvl.bund.de/lebensmittel/dateien/eg03-642d1_v2.pdf
Chemical qualifying for PIC notification.
little background to the
Rotterdam Convention Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
pesticides and other hazardous chemicals kill or seriously
sicken thousands of people every year. They also poison the
natural environment and damage many wild animal species. Governments
started to address this problem in the 1980s by establishing
a voluntary Prior Informed Consent procedure.
PIC required exporters trading in a list of hazardous substances
to obtain the prior informed consent of importers before proceeding
with the trade.
In 1998, governments decided to strengthen the procedure by
adopting the Rotterdam Convention, which makes PIC legally
binding. The Convention establishes a first line of defense
by giving importing countries the tools and information they
need to identify potential hazards and exclude chemicals they
cannot manage safely. If a country agrees to import chemicals,
the Convention promotes their safe use through labeling standards,
technical assistance, and other forms of support. It also
ensures that exporters comply with the requirements.
The Rotterdam Convention entered into force on 24 February
are: Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bulgaria,
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Côte d’Ivoire,
Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,
European Community, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece,
Guinea, Hungary, Italy, Jamaica, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia,
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mali, Marshall
Islands, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway,
Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Republic of Korea, Romania, Rwanda,
Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Suriname,
Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Ukraine,
United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania and Uruguay.
Chlorfenapyr is the first commercial
pesticide to be derived from a class of microbially-produced
compounds known as halogenated pyrroles. Synthesized in
1988 from a naturally-produced chlorinated pyrrole, chlorfenapyr
(AC 303,630 Technical: 4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(ethosymethyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile)
is being used in at least 32 countries, including the United
States. Chlorfenapyr is a 'proinsecticide', i.e., it requires
activation through metabolism. The parent compound is converted
to a metabolite, which functions as an uncoupler of oxidative
phosphorylation at mitochondria.The primary,
and most toxic, metabolite is the N-dealkylated compound AC
303,268 (Fig. 1).Chlorfenapyr
has low volatility and water solubility; is lipophilic; binds
strongly to soil particles; and degrades slowly in soil (avg.
half life of` 1 yr), sediment (avg. half life of 1.1 yr), and
water (avg. half life of 0.8 yr).
of Chlorfenapyr on Adult Birds, Patuxent Wildlife Research
from the Environmental Working Group
is an insecticide... developed by American Cyanamid, a subsidiary
of the international chemical giant American Home Products.
This pesticide kills bug by disrupting enzymes in their
mitochondria, the part of the cell that turns food into
energy. Although there are few known risks to humans from
the chemical at this time, there is mounting evidence chlorfenapyr
can affect other animals in the same way that it affects
insects and could have significant impacts on migratory
bird populations. Like DDT, chlorfenapyr persists in soil
and water for a long time, disrupting the environment years
after it is sprayed on crops. According to Edward Sones,
a German chemical industry scientist, "I would never consider
even continuing research on compounds representing this
level of environmental hazard" (Williams 1999).
Cyanamid recently petitioned the EPA to allow the use of
chlorfenapyr in homes and schools and hopes to be able to
spray the pesticide on dozens of other crops, including
foods eaten by children like apples, in the coming years.
Over 45,000 pounds of chlorfenapyr were used on cotton under
Section 18 exemptions in 1998 according to the U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA 1999). The Section 18 program is a
fraud that has mushroomed far beyond the legitimate need
to help farmers control emergency pest infestations. The
program has little to do with real pest emergencies and
has become a test marketing program for pesticide companies
through which they avoid the full children's health requirements
of FQPA. Children bear the risk of the untested pesticides,
while pesticide companies reap the profits. Nothing better
illustrates the phony essence of the program than the surge
in emergency and crisis exemptions granted for control of
NEW ZEALAND FOOD AUTHORITY (ANZFA):
SUMMARY OF REQUESTED MRLS FOR APPLICATION
A447 (page 35-36)
chemical is used to control Heliothis spp on cotton.
= 2.37% of ADI
(mammalian) (in the fat)
Edible offal of
meat (in the fat)
the MRL is temporary for a period of time and subject to revision
following review of additional data.
* = MRL is set at or about the
limit of quantification.
NEDI = National Estimated Dietary
ADI = Acceptable Daily Intake.
May 8, 2002.
Final Assessment Report
[Inquiry - S.17]. Application A447. Maximum Residue Limits.
Australia New Zealand Food Authority. Also Available at:
- Pesticide residues were investigated in 8 of 38 kinds of
domestic vegetables and 3 of 25 kinds of domestic fruits on
the Tokyo market in 2001. Thirty kinds of pesticides such
as organophosphorines(EPN,etc.), organochlorines(endsulfans,
etc.), carbamate (methomyl), organonitrogens(dichrofluanid,
etc.) and others (including chlorfenapyr)
were detected in 7 of 26 kinds of domestic vegetables (detection
rate : 68%). Their concentrations were between tr. (below
0.01 ppm) and 0.93 ppm...
of Pesticide Residues in Domestic Vegetables and Fruits (2001.4-2002.3)
Authors: Ichiro TAKANO, Toshihiro NAGAYAMA,
Maki KOBAYASHI, Yasuhiro TAMURA, Sanae TOMIZAWA, Yukinari
TATEISHI, Naoko KIMURA, Kyoko KITAYAMA, Kazuo SAITO
Note: Due to length, the following is a partial
list. Click here
to see full list of FR entries.
This regulation establishes a tolerance for residues of chlorfenapyr
in or on all foods
at 0.01 parts per million (ppm) except
This Final Rule contains a separate document that
is EPA's response to FAN's comments - see
in EPA Docket, Number: OPP-2004-0362-0002)
Aug 11, 2003: FAN's comments
on BASF's petition for this tolerance at
Sept 17, 2003: BASF's response
to FAN's comments at
The nature of the toxic effects caused by chlorfenapyr are
discussed in a September 26, 2003, Final Rule - see comments
See BASF's petition (July 16, 2003) for this Tolerance at
Conditions for this Final Rule: A
developmental neurotoxicity study to determine the
of potential central nervous system/myelinopathic alterations
to neurotoxicity in the developing young. This condition was
stated in the September
26, 2003, Federal Register, and referred to in this Final
- Pesticide Tolerance.
FINAL RULE. This regulation establishes a
tolerance for residues of chlorfenapyr at 1.0 ppm in or on
vegetables, fruiting, group 8,
grown in greenhouses. BASF
Agro Research, now BASF Corporation requested this
tolerance. In the FR of September 13, 2000, EPA announcied
the filing of an amended pesticide petition (PP 6F4716) by
BASF Agro Research, now BASF Corporation.
MRID No. 42770219 (1993)-- 90-Day
oral toxicity rats. NOAEL = 24.1 mg/kg/day. LOAEL =
48.4, based on spongiform
the brain and spinal cord
of male rats, decreased
body weight gain and increased relative liver weight in males
and females, increased absolute liver weight in females,
and decreased hemoglobin in females.
-- MRID No. 43492830
90-Day oral toxicity mouse
NOAEL = 27.6/40, M/F. LOAEL = 62.6/78, M/F, based
on reduced body weights/body
weight gains, and spongiform encephalopathy
in both sexes.
-- MRID No. 42770220 (1993).
90-Day oral toxicity dog. NOAEL
= 3.9/4.5 mg/kg/ day, M/F. LOAEL
= 6.7/6.8 mg/kg/ day, M/Fbased on emaciation,
decreased body weight gains, and decreased food efficiency.
-- MRID No. 43492831 (1993). 21/28-Day
dermal toxicity rabbit. NOAEL
= 100 mg/kg/day. LOAEL = 400 mg/kg/day, for both sexes, based
on changes in liver chemistry
-- MRID No. 42884202
(1993). Prenatal developmental
rat. Maternal NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day,
based on decreased body weight
gain and relative food consumption during treatment Developmental
NOAEL >=225 mg/kg/day. Developmental LOAEL = not identified.
-- MRID No. 42770222 (1993). Prenatal
Maternal NOAEL = 5 mg/kg/day.
Maternal LOAEL = 15 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased
body weight gain during treatment Developmental NOAEL
= 15 mg/kg/day Developmental LOAEL = 30 mg/kg/day, based on
increased post implantation loss.
-- MRID No. 43492836 (1994). 2-Generation
reproduction and fertility effects rat. Parental
systemic NOAEL = 4.4-4.5 mg/kg/day, M.
Parental systemic LOAEL = 22.2-22.5 mg/kg/day, M,
based on decreased absolute body
weight/body weight gains of P1 males
during premating. Offspring
systemic NOAEL = 4.4-5.1 mg/kg/day.
Offspring systemic LOAEL = 22.2-25.6 mg/kg/day, based
on decreased pup weights at weaning.
Reproductive NOAEL >=44- 50.7 mg/kg/day.
Reproductive LOAEL: not identified.
-- MRID No. 43492834 (1994).
Chronic toxicity dog.
NOAEL = 4.0/4.5 mg/kg/day, M/F.
LOAEL = 8.7/10.1 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based on decreased
body weight/body weight gains.
-- MRID No. 43492838
= 2.8/3.7 mg/kg/day, M/F. LOAEL
= 16.6/21.9 mg/kg/day, M/F, based on decreased
body weight gains, brain vacuolation, and scabbing of the
skin (males) No evidence
-- MRID No. 43492837
(1994). Combined chronic/ carcinogenicity
NOAEL = 15 mg/kg/day, males. LOAEL =
30.8 mg/kg/day, males, based
on anemia. NOAEL
= 3.6 mg/kg/day, females LOAEL = 18.6 mg/kg/day, females,
based on decreased body weight/
body weight gain. Classification: ``Suggestive
Evidence of Carcinogenicity,
but Not Sufficient to Assess Human Carcinogenic Potential''
based on significant trends in liver
tumors (adenomas and combined adenomas/ carcinomas),
malignant histiocytic sarcomas,
and testicular cell tumors in
male rats and uterine polyps
in female rats seen at the highest dose.
MRID No. 43492833 (1994).
Chronic neurotoxicity rat. NOAEL
= 2.6/3.4 mg/kg/day, M/F. LOAEL
= 13.6/18 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based on the presence of
myelinopathic alterations in the central
nervous system (CNS) in male rats
and decreased average body weights/body
weight gains, food efficiency, absolute food consumption (females)
and water consumption (males)
-- Developmental toxicity study - rabbit.
LOAEL = 30 mg/kg/day based on increased post-implantation
-- Acute neurotoxicity study - rat.
LOAEL = 90 mg/kg/day based on lethargy
in male rats.
-- Chronic neurotoxicity study - rat.
LOAEL = 13.6/18 mg/kg/ day, M/F, based
on the presence of myelinopathic
alterations in the CNS in male rats
and decreased average body weights,
body weigh gains, food efficiency, absolute food consumption
(F), and water consumption (M) Supporting
this endpoint are similar CNS
lesions and skin lesions observed
in the mouse carcinogenicity study (NOAEL
-- The most highly exposed population
subgroup is children 1-2 years old, at 47% of the cPAD.
-- EPA concluded that a FQPA SF in the form of UFDB of 10X
is required until the data from the DNT study are received
A developmental neurotoxicity study to
determine the cause/relationship of potential central nervous
system/myelinopathic alterations to neurotoxicity in the developing
Note: Due to length, the above is a partial list.
to see full list of FR entries.