CAS No. 63333-35-7


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Adverse Effects

ACTIVITY: Rodenticide (diphenylamine)

CAS Name: N-methyl-2,4-dinitro-N-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine


Note: This pesticide contains both bromine and fluorine; a combination that has the potential to produce severe adverse effects - particularly to the brain.

Adverse Effects:


Environmental Effects:

Birds: High to Very high toxicity

Fish: Very highly toxic

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes  


California Chemical Code: 2288
Registered use in: Canada, US
Date Active Ingredient registered in US: 1984
Other Information
Molecular Formula: C14H7Br3 F3 N3O4
Inventing Co.: Elanco 
Manufacturers: Bell Laboratories
Entry Year: 1982 

Other Names:

Assault mouse/rat place pak
Fastrac all-weather blox (bromethalin 0.01% by weight)
Fastrac mouse seed place pac
Green thumb mouse killer
Hot shot sudden death brand rat killer 1
New rampage rodenticide place pacs
Purina assault meal
Talpirid mole bait (bromethalin 0.025% by weight)
Top gun pellet rodenticide

Of special interest:
PAN BAD ACTOR (Acute Toxicity) 
Material Safety Data Sheets & Labels
Dec 14, 2004. Bell Laboratories introduces new mole bait: Talpirid.
1997 - Bromethalin. "The gross lesions seen on post-mortem examination are limited to those caused by cerebral edema which include narrowing of suici and flattening of gyri. Mild pulmonary congestion may be seen in some cases. The predominant histological change is seen in the brain. There is diffuse spongiform degeneration of the white matter and vacuolization of myelin such as occurs in the optic nerve. There can be microgliosis of the cerebellum and cerebrum." Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab. Spring 1997 Newsletter. by Paul Klausen, Class of 1997. Edited by Stephen Hooser, DVM, PhD
WHO: Extremely Hazardous (Class 1a)
WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2000-2002. Table 1. EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS (Class Ia) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides, p 16.
December 19, 2002: Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: a Comparative Approach. US EPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Also External Peer Review of this document.
October 1998 - Structural Pest Management pesticides. FAN's compilation of information cited on fluorine and organofluorine pesticides published in General Pest Management, Category 7A. A Guide for Commercial Applicators. Prepared by: Carolyn Randall, MSU Pesticide Education Program. Published by MSU Pesticide Education (Michigan State University). MSU manual number: E-2048.
July 2004: The Use of Bromethalin in Rittenhouse Square (Philadelphia PA). By Harry B. Cook, Director,
List of US Bromethalin rodenticide products
Abstracts and bibliography from EPA's 1998 Rodentcide Cluster report.
1988 - Status of bromethalin outside the United States... Laboratory and field trial data are presented from Switzerland, France, England, and Denmark that indicate the effectiveness of new bromethalin formulations against anticoagulant resistant and susceptible rodents... At the 1979 British Crop Protection Conference, Dreikorn (1979) presented the first biological results from laboratory tests with white rats and mice...

2000 - "P" is for Poison. Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools, by TM Olle.
A report by Californians for Pesticide Reform. Also available at:
Fluorinated pesticides cited in this report are:
Active Ingredient Product Name   Active Ingredient Product Name
(also known as
  Hydramethylnon MaxForce Ant Killer Granular Bait,
MaxForce Roach Gel,
Bifenthrin Talstar Lawn & Tree   Lambda-cyhalothrin Demand CS
Bromethalin Vengence   Sulfuryl fluoride Vikane
Cyfluthrin Intruder HPX,
Tempo 20 WP
  Trifluralin Team,
Fipronil MaxForce Ant Station,
MaxForce Roach Station,
MaxForce FC
  Unknown Fluorgard
Fluazifop-butyl Fusilade,
Fusilade II,

US Federal Register

•• Note: Due to length, the following is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.

Date Published Docket Identification Number Details
March 14, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0955 Extension of Public Comment Period. EPA issued a notice in the Federal Register of January 17, 2007, concerning the availability of the Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision for nine rodenticides. The comment period is being extended for 60 days, from March 19, 2007, to May 18, 2007.
January 17, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2006-0955

Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision; Notice of Availability.
This notice announces the availability of EPA's proposed risk mitigation decision for nine rodenticides, the economic impact assessment for the proposed risk mitigation decision, the revised comparative ecological risk assessment, updated human health and ecological incident reports, and other related documents, and opens a 60-day public comment period on the proposed risk mitigation decision. The nine rodenticides covered by this risk mitigation decision are brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difethialone, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, warfarin, zinc phosphide, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. Documents available:

Title Docket No.
Impact assessment for proposed rodentcide mitigation (DP332577)
USEPA - September 30, 2006
31 pages

Analysis of Rodenticide Bait Use
Biological Analysis Branch, USEPA -
January 23, 2006
Page 1-33
Page 34

33 pages

Potential risks of nine rodenticides to birds and nontarget mammals: a comparative approach
USEPA Environmental Risk Branch -
July 2004

230 pages
Response to comments on EDED's July, 2004 Risk Assessment
USEPA Environmental Risk Branch
January 10, 2006 
104 pages
Response to comments from stakeholders on analsis of rodenticide ban use
Biological Analysis Branch, USEPA -
August 3, 2005 
3 pages

Rodenticide Incidents Update
November 15, 2006

6 pages

Updated review of rodenticide incident reports primarily concerning children
January 9, 2006

19 pages
Updated review of rodenticide incident reports primarily concerning children
June 3, 1999 
13 pages

Updated review of poison control center data for rsidential exposures to rodenticides, 1993-1996
March 22, 1999

30 pages
Comments from the American Bird Conservancy
December 14, 2005 
2 pages
Comments from the American Bird Conservancy
January 20, 2006 
3 pages
Comments from the Rodenticide Registrants Task Force (RRTF)
Re: Product Stewardship Proposal -
July 20, 2006 
5 pages
Comments from the Rodenticide Registrants Task Force (RRTF)
Re: Supplemental Information on issues discussed druing Sept 8, 2006, EPA meeting. -
October 31, 2006 
6 pages
Comments from the Rodenticide Registrants Task Force (RRTF)
December 20, 2006 
8 pages

Comments from Bell Laboratories, Inc.
(Madison, Wisconsin)
• manufacturer of bromethalin and 5 other rodenticide
September 15, 2006

2 pages
Nov 16, 2004 OPP-2004-0033

Extension of Comment Period to January 21, 2005, re: Rodenticides; Availability of Revised Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment. Documents available are:
Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: a Comparative Approach - July 2004 (230 pages)
Update to the Overview of the Rodenticide Comparative Ecological Assessment - September 9, 2004 (4 pages)
Analysis of Rodenticide Bait Use - September 10, 2004 (43 pages)
EFED Response to USDA/APHIS’ “Partner Review Comments: Preliminary Analysis of Rodenticide Bait Use and Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: A Comparative Approach (June 9, 2004)” - September 7, 2004 (24 pages)
Response to Public Comments on EFED's Risk Assessment: "Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: a Comparative Approach", dated December 19, 2002- July 17, 2004 (24 pages)
"Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: A Comparative Approach"; revised document dated July 2004 - July 22, 2004 (2 pages)

Excerpts from Potential Risks of Nine Rodenticides to Birds and Nontarget Mammals: a Comparative Approach - July 2004 (230 pages)
-- Mammalian predators and scavengers are at risk from feeding on animals poisoned with anticoagulant baits. Although the non-anticoagulant rodenticides appear to be much less hazardous to secondary consumers, confirmatory data are still needed to make this assumption for bromethalin and cholecalciferol baits.

-- Bromethalin, a diphenylamine, is a neurotoxicant that causes respiratory arrest from inadequate nerve impulse transmission after fluid build-up and demyelination inside the central nervous system (Spaulding and Spannring 1988, Hyngstrom et al. 1994).

-- Risks to Nontarget mammals ... Too few data are available to adequately assess potential risks of either bromethalin or cholecalciferol (page 85).

-- Little information is available on methodology for detecting bromethalin or cholecalciferol in body tissues (page 90).

-- Lack of data for some rodenticides accounts for the most uncertainty in the comparative analysis model results. Data gaps include no secondary-hazards data for difethialone and few for bromethalin and cholecalciferol (page 105).

-- Two factors are identified as contributing the greatest uncertainty to the analysis: (1) missing data, especially secondary mortality data for difethialone, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol, and blood and liver retention values for a number of rodenticides; ... (page 149)

Bromethalin (pages 220-221)
Species Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives/
Reasonable and Prudent Measures
Species for which bromethalin "is likely to jeopardize" their continued existence:
Alabama beach mouse
Choctawhatchee beach mouse
Perdido Key beach mouse
Anastasia Island beach mouse
Southeastern beach mouse
Morro Bay kangaroo rat
Prohibit use within 100 yards of these species’ occupied habitat
Salt marsh harvest mouse
Fresno kangaroo rat
Prohibit use within 100 yards of these species’ occupied habitat
Carolina northern flying squirrel Prohibit outdoor use within this species’ occupied habitat
Florida salt marsh vole Prohibit use within 100 yards of the landward edge of this species’ habitat in Levy County, Florida
Giant kangaroo rat
Stephen’s kangaroo rat
Tipton kangaroo rat
Point Arena mountain beaver
Incidental take can be minimized by prohibiting outdoor use within 100 yards of these species’ occupied habitat

•• Note: Due to length, the above is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.
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