Abstracts on Phosphate Fertilizers that cite effects or levels of fluoride
Part 1: 1954 to 1989
See also Part 2: 1990 - present

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See also The Phosphate Fertilizer Industry: An Environmental Overview

November 1978 - Research Report 365, Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lancing. Abstracted in Fluoride 1979; 12(2):100-102.

Fluorosis from phosphate mineral supplements in Michigan dairy cattle

Hillman D, Bolenbaugh D, Convey EM.

Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station, East Lancing.


During 1975 and 1976 more than 75 Michigan dairymen reported in their cows subnormal milk production, loss of weight after calving, failure to exhibit estrus or to re-breed as expected as well as a high incidence uterine infections and lameness. Death from undetermined causes ranged between 10 and 15 percent among adult cows and among calves up to 1 year or more in age many failed to grow normally or died from undetermined causes. Analysis of milk and tissue fat for PBB (polybrominated biphenyls) which had been responsible for a similar epidemic in Michigan revealed no detectable traces. Severe dental fluorosis and exostoses of etatarsal bones led to the discovery that mineral suppements containing up to 6300 ppm of fluoride and protein supplements containing up to 1088 ppm fluoride consumed by the cows were responsible for this epidemic.

... The thyroids of calves were enlarged 2 to 5 times their normal weight and the cows afficted with fluorosis showed evidence of hypo-thryoidism. The depression of the serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) correlated with the increase in urinary fluoride, with the number of red blood cells, with the hemoglobin, serum cholesterol, calcium, glucose and albumin. Fluoride also decreased the serum cholesterol at a lower level of significance (P <.06).

With respect to the hematological findings eosinophilia increased in correlation with urinary fluoride (P <.004) and should be considered an early manifestation of fluoride toxicity. Moreover fluorotic animals manifested anemia...

The authors suggested that the National Research Council recommendation of a level of 30 ppm maximum dietary fluoride "may be too high for high producing dairy cattle fed phosphate sources of fluoride."



Aust Vet J 1989 Apr;66(4):120-1

Superphosphate and its effect on bone fluoride concentrations in sheep.

Mason RW, Reid RN, Brown PG.

Department of Agriculture, Mt Pleasant Laboratories, Kings Meadows, Tasmania.

PMID: 2543354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

From Toxline at Toxnet

Principles of Health and Safety in Agriculture, J. A. Dosman and D. W. Cockcroft, Editors; CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, pages 329-332, 7 references, 1989

Health Considerations in the Manufacture of Granular Fertilizers

Jasper D

Health hazards encountered by workers at a granular chemical fertilizer factory in Calgary, Canada were discussed. Potential hazards included corrosive materials, noxious gases, nitrate melts, radioactivity, dusts, welding fumes, and physical agents such as noise, heat stress, and heavy lifting. Some chemicals presented a low potential hazard since there was minimal exposure due to normal operations of the facility. Catalysts used in the manufacturing process were potential hazards to those workers that are removing or installing charges. The phosphate rock used for making phosphoric-acid contained 100 parts per million uranium (7440-61-1). The greatest dose rate in the facility for alpha radiation was 0.12 working level months. The gamma radiation levels were 0.018 to 0.040 milliroentgen/hour. Workers in some areas were potentially exposed to silica (14808-60-7) in phosphate rock dust. The noxious gases that could be encountered during the manufacture of fertilizer were hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3) and hydrogen-sulfide. Hydrogen-fluoride and hydrogen-sulfide gases evolved during the production of phosphoric-acid since the phosphate rock contained both fluoride and sulfide.


Aust Vet J 1988 Sep;65(9):264-7

Phosphorus supplementation of cattle.

Jubb TF, Crough KF.

University of Melbourne, Bovine Medical Unit, Maffra, Victoria.

Severe lameness in a large proportion of an Angus cattle herd was attributed to phosphorus deficiency. The diagnosis was supported by a rapid response to phosphorus supplementation of the diet. A brief review of the development and diagnosis of phosphorus deficiency is presented. Practical considerations severely limit the choice of a phosphorus supplement. Directions for the use of the supernatant of high-phosphorus fertiliser and water mixtures, as feed or stock water additive and the production of a phosphorus lick are described. Other phosphorus supplements are discussed with particular reference to the fluorine hazard.

PMID: 2847701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Bull Inst Marit Trop Med Gdynia 1987;38(1-2):5-16

Estimation of occupational hazards of the employees of a phosphate fertilizers plant.

Renke W, Winnicka A, Graczyk M.

Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, Outpatient Dispensary of Occupational and Tropical Diseases.

Composite examinations of 116 persons, employees of Phosphate Fertilizers Plant in Gdansk, with an average length of service ca. 15 years, were carried out. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of the chronic non-specific diseases of the lungs was not higher than in other works where dust and gaseous hazards of respiratory tract occur. However, at persons with longer length of service, the long-term effects of fluorine influence were found. They were revealed in disturbances of the carbohydrates balance and mineral balance, with radiographically seen thickening of the osseous structure.

PMID: 2852039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

From Toxline at Toxnet

FLA SCI; 50 (2). 1987. 65-78.

Gaseous fluoride emissions from gypsum settling and cooling ponds.


Dep. Chem., Fla. Int. Univ., Miami, Fla. 33199.

Previous estimates of hydrogen fluoride fluxes from cooling and gypsum settling ponds associated with the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer are reviewed and a theoretical estimate based on vapor pressures of HF-H2O solutions is presented. The latter yields fluxes from 122 to 195 kg HF/day for a 450 metric ton P2O5/day plant. Sixty percent or more of the total plant release of HF is due to the ponds. Derived atmospheric residence times for HF (1 to 5 hr.) indicate that fluoride is dispersed throughout Central Florida (USA) at ppb levels in the particulate form and may be an environmental hazard to adjacent agricultural industry.


Arch Belg 1987;45(7-8):269-87

[Impregnation by atmospheric fluorine, of a population living near a phosphate fertilizer plant]

[Article in French]

Rondia D, Sartor F, Dans JM.

PMID: 2840869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Ind Med 1986;9(2):153-8

Exposure to fluoride in the chemical industry.

Levi S, Zilberman L, Frumin A, Frydman M.

Industries that use fluoride-containing materials are usually aware of their toxicity and adopt adequate medical measures. It has been found that workers in factories who have not been considered as subjected to fluorine hazard and therefore have not been controlled had significantly elevated urinary fluoride levels. Most workers in a medically controlled fertilizer plant had normal urinary levels. Maintenance workers were found to have higher values, up to 12 mg/liter.

PMID: 3008553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Czas Stomatol 1986 Aug;39(8):510-4

[Effect of oral water sprays on the content of fluorides in saliva and dental plaque of workers at the Poznan phosphate fertilizer plant]

[Article in Polish]

Chmielnik M, Wasik A, Rydzewska AN, Kaniewski A.

PMID: 3477392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Am Dent Assoc 1985 Apr;110(4):513-5

The availability of fluoride chemical supplies.

Reeves TG.

The availability of adequate supplies of fluoride chemicals is a critical factor in consistently maintaining the optimal fluoride concentration in water supply systems. The most recent shortage of fluoride chemicals occurred in 1982. The factors precipitating and contributing to periodic fluoride chemical shortages are discussed and recommendations for preventing future shortages are outlined.

PMID: 2987329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Z Ernahrungswiss 1985 Mar;24(1):54-66

Fluoride content of selected human food, pet food and related materials.

Siebert G, Trautner K.

A survey was made of the fluoride content of selected human foods, some animal feeds, and related materials, with the purpose of a better characterization of products whose fluoride may contribute to the intake of fluoride by man as well as by some kinds of animals. Uptake of fluoride, especially from food with or without a foregoing food chain, was found to be more widely spread than has been documented previously. The major source of fluoride is represented by marine organisms, regardless of the ways by which man or animals are exposed to fluoride. As a consequence of the detailed analytical data given, recommendations would extend towards
i) a more wide-spread analytical control of foods and feeds for fluoride,
ii) an intensified assessment of fluoride bioavailabilities from foods and feeds, and
iii) the consideration of such data in the evaluation of fluoride supplementations for optimized intakes, as recommended.


From Toxline at Toxnet

Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 38, pages 63-68, 23 references, 1984

The Effects Of Fluoride On Animals And Plants In The South Safi Zon

Kessabi M, Assimi B, Braun JP

The hazards of fluoride (16984488) exposure were studied in southern Morocco. The areas selected were zones of phosphate mining and factories that process phosphoric-acid (7664382) fertilizers (SIC-2874). Three farms were randomly selected from each of 15 villages. Samples from water tanks, grass, straw, barley, and corn forage were collected; samples from unpolluted areas served as controls. Fluoride content of the samples was measured by a digital pH meter fitted with an ion selective electrode. Clinical examination was performed on 10 percent of the exposed animals to test for clinical, bone, and dental abnormalities. Concentrations of fluoride measured in the northeast region were 430 to 4300 parts per million (ppm) in grass, 60 to 155ppm in straw, 19 to 22ppm in barley, 350 to 650ppm in corn forage, and 1.9ppm in water. Concentrations of fluoride in these samples were much lower in the east and southeast areas. Severe dental fluorosis occurred in several animals particularly in cattle and sheep; camels showed a much higher degree of lesion severity to fluoride pollution. Corn in the fluoride polluted area accumulated 2 to 6 times more the concentrations of fluoride than wheat or barley when compared with respective control values. The authors conclude that industrial fluoride pollution exists in southern Morocco.


Probl Khig 1984;9:73-8

[Kinetics of fluorine elimination in exposed workers]

Article in Bulgarian]

Chuturkova R.

The fourteen-day kinetics of fluorine (F) elimination in urine was followed up in 24 operators from three main workshops of the plant for phosphorous fertilizers. The concentration of F in urine was determined at the beginning, by 6th h and during the last two hours of a working shift in four successive days and at the beginning of the following production cycle after the discontinuation of the exposure. In parallel, the gas-like fluorine compounds in the air of working environment was also determined. Analogous investigations were performed with a control group--30 non-exposed workers. A potentio-metric method with fluorine-selective electrode was used for the determination of F content in urine and the concentration of the gas-like fluorides in the air. A well manifested tendency to increased excretion was established by the end of the working shift and in the course of the working cycle. The data on the rate of fluorine elimination show that it is the highest during the last two exposure hours, most manifested in the workers from the workshop TSP, less-in the workshop PhA and least--in the workshop NTPP. The concentration of fluorine ions in urine for the three groups of workers investigated, was increased as compared with control values, both by 6th h and during the last two hours.

PMID: 6091097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Ind Med 1982;3(2):227-36

Occupational fluorosis through 50 years: clinical and epidemiological experiences.

Grandjean P.

Fifty years ago, in 1932, skeletal fluorosis was discovered as an occupational disease in cryolite workers in Copenhagen, Denmark. Following the initial reports, new cases were identified in other industries, such as the production of aluminum and superphosphate fertilizer. In light cases of fluorosis, the bone changes are often associated with nonspecific joint and muscle pains, but the disease may be entirely asymptomatic. The fluoride-induced osteosclerosis seems to be reversible, but the long-term significance of fluoride accumulation in the body is not known. Family cases of dental fluorosis have been occurred in long-term residents near fluoride-emitting industries, and in hot areas with high, natural fluoride levels in the drinking water. Skeletal fluorosis has only played a minor role in the discussion concerning fluoridation of drinking water, however. Changing and increasing uses of fluorides have led to a renewed interest in this occupational disease.

PMID: 7137176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

1982 Bureau of Mines, Avondale, MD. Avondale Research Center. 1982.

Available from NTIS: Order Number: NTIS/PB82-176330, 23p.

Fluorine and Uranium in Phosphate Rock Processing and Waste Materials

Haynes BW, Kramer GW, Jolly JA.

Source: Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio, Industrial Hygiene Survey Report No. 57-05, 44 pages, 11 references, 1982

Industrial Hygiene Characterization Of The Phosphate Fertilizer Industry, Report No. 57-05

Herrick RF

An in depth industrial hygiene survey was conducted to evaluate occupational health hazards in the phosphate fertilizer industry (SIC-2874). Four fertilizer factories and one phosphate ore mining and beneficiation facility were studied. Samples were collected for phosphoric-acid (7664382), sulfuric-acid (7664939), fluoride, cadmium (7440439), chromium (7440473), uranium (7440611), vanadium (7440622), arsenic (7440382), respirable free silica (14808607), and respirable quartz (14808607). Radon (10043922) gas samples were also measured. One of the factories exceeded the OSHA standards for fluoride concentrations, with an average concentration of 3.39 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Another factory exceeded the OSHA standards for arsenic, vanadium, and respirable silica. The concentrations of these substances at this factory were 0.08, 0.08, and 0.195mg/m3, respectively. Total chromium concentrations ranged from 0.001 to 0.008mg/m3. This was below OSHA standards but at or above NIOSH recommended standards of 0.001mg/m3 for carcinogenic chromium-VI. All other measurements at the four factories were below applicable OSHA standards. At the phosphate-ore mining facility, concentrations of uranium, arsenic, respirable silica, and respirable dust exceeded either OSHA or NIOSH standards. The concentrations for these substances were 0.228, 0.003, 0.07, and 1.62mg/m3, respectively. Of 19 samples collected, 2 showed detectable concentrations of radon daughters but were below exposure standards. The author concludes that the survey identified potentially hazardous substances in this industry. They recommend additional investigations be conducted on employee exposure to arsenic, chromium, and silica, and suggest an aggressive program of respiratory protection.

Hydrometallurgy - Volume 9, Issue 1 , September 1982, Pages 69-82

A discussion of uranium control in phosphogypsum

Fred J. Hurst and Wesley D. Arnold

Chemistry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, U.S.A.

Wet-process phosphoric acid plants produce about 4.5 tons of gypsum for each ton of fertilizer (P2O5 equivalent). About 33 million tons of gypsum are produced at phosphoric acid plants in the United States each year, and about 330 million tons are contained in existing stockpiles. Although most of the uranium initially present in phosphate rock is dissolved when the rock is acidulated to produce phosphoric acid, a fraction of it remains undissolved and the gypsum contains 0.03 to 0.08 lb of uranium per ton. Uranium concentrations in filter cakes produced by the hemihydrate process are significantly higher (as much as 0.2 lb/ton). This material hydrates to gypsum in the wastepile and most of the uranium becomes readily soluble in the process; the concentration of insoluble uranium in the hydrated cake is about the same as that in filter cake produced by the dihydrate process. Even at these low concentrations, the gypsum produced at phosphoric acid plants each year contains 1 to 2 million lb of uranium, and the stockpiled gypsum may contain a total of 10 to 20 million lb.
Economical recovery of uranium from gypsum appears very unlikely in the foreseeable future. The losses to the filter cake, however, can possibly be reduced by operating the phosphoric acid plant under conditions that maximize uranium dissolution during rock acidulation. Studies of this problem showed that the major variable affecting the distribution of uranium between phosphoric acid and gypsum during phosphoric acid manufacture was the redox potential of the slurry during acidulation. Other variables affecting the uranium distribution included rock size, digestion temperature, and concentrations of excess sulfuric acid and fluoride.


Vopr Pitan 1981 Nov-Dec;(6):46-7

[Effect of rations containing fluorine ion on biochemical and hematological indices of body status]

[Article in Russian]

Lykova AS, Mitrofanova AI, Skachkov MA.

A study was made of the fluorine-ion content in the vegetables and grain grown on experimental plots of land fertilized for 4-6 years with
fluorine-containing fertilizers: active slurry potassium
tetrafluoroborate and sodium fluorosilicate. It was found that the fluorine-ion content in individual samples of the vegetables and grain was increased 2-32-fold as compared to that in the control samples. As for the diet, the total content of fluorine-ion was increased 6.1-12.3-fold. Experiments were made on rabbits and rats whose diets contained the vegetables and grain from the experimental plots of land. The animals of the experimental groups manifested a lowering of the prothrombin index by the end of the 6th month of the experimental studies. There was a statistically significant fall in the cholinesterase activity and an increase in the activity of glutaminopyruvic aminotransferase (by 35-42 units). The activity of total alkaline phosphatase progressively increased at the expense of the elevated activity of liver and intestinal isozymes.

PMID: 6275610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Dairy Sci 1980 Jul;63(7):1167-71

Inappetence in ruminants as a measure of fluoride solubility in various phosphates.

Ammerman CB, Henry PR, Conrad JH, Fick KR, Araujo EC.

Experiments with soft phosphate and fertilizer grade concentrated superphosphate and diammonium phosphate were to measure effects on voluntary intake of their fluoride in relation to that from calcium fluoride and sodium fluoride given once daily by capsule. Mature wethers were offered 1200 or 1400 g daily of mixed grain-roughage diet, and responses to fluoride were measured by inappetence, consumption of less than 10% of offered diet. When 40 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride was given for 2 days, inappetence resulted, whereas 2,400 ppm fluoride as calcium fluoride did not decrease feed intake. Time required for recovery of appetite increased with more fluoride. When soft phosphate, concentrated superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate were tested at 100, 200, and 400 ppm fluoride, inappetence occurred always but severity of reduction of intake was related to parts per million fluoride. Solubility of fluoride in soft phosphate, concentrated superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate is more similar to sodium fluoride than to calcium fluoride, and their use should be in keeping with fluoride tolerances established for ruminants fed sodium fluoride.

PMID: 6252253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Czas Stomatol 1980 Sep;33(9):761-5

[Effect of the work environment on acid phosphatase and lysozyme activity in the saliva of workers in phosphate fertilizer plants]

[Article in Polish]

Witek E, Afeltowicz E, Kreglewska B, Zajaczkowska L, Nowicka J, Umiastowski J.

PMID: 6256127 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

From Toxline at Toxnet

Order Number: NTIS/PB80-102247, 187p

1979 - Evaluation of Control Technology for the Phosphate Fertilizer Industry

Boscak VG

Research Corp. of New England, Wethersfield, CT.

The report gives results of a phosphate fertilizer industry study to evaluate multimedia control technology, identify information gaps, and define needed RDandD projects. The following manufacturing processes were covered: wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, diammonium phosphate, and normal and triple superphosphate. Air emission control technology, based largely on using wet scrubbers, is adequate for control of fluoride and particulate and is used throughout the industry. The cross-flow packed scrubber appears to be the best and applies to all processes. The gypsum pond appears to be the major environmental concern: main problems are fluoride emissions to the atmosphere and possible leaching of fluoride, phosphate, and radioactive substances. None of the several control alternatives are economically attractive. RDandD projects identified and defined in this study are: (1) an epidemiologic study of the industry; (2) studies of gypsum pond emissions and chemistry; (3) an evaluatio [absract truncated]
Environmental surveys
Chemical industry
Inorganic phosphates
Pollution control
Phosphate rocks

From Toxline at Toxnet

1980 - Approved Occupational Health Guide: Hydrogen Fluoride

National Health and Medical Research Council, Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Health, 10 pages, 5 references

Guidelines are provided for controlling occupational exposure to hydrogen-fluoride (7664393). Hydrogen-fluoride in both gaseous and aqueous forms is strongly corrosive and causes severe painful burns to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. The respiratory tract is a major site of injury. Exposure to hydrogen-fluoride may occur in aluminum (7429-90-5) smelting, welding, fertilizer production, fluorocarbon and fluoride (16984-48-8) production, metal refining, uranium (7440-61-1) enrichment, and the pickling, etching, and polishing of glass and pottery. Where exposure is likely, work practices should be examined and procedures adopted to ensure that employees are not exposed to an extent likely to adversely affect their health. Personal respiratory protective equipment should be provided where engineering controls are not feasible or do not reduce the hydrogen-fluoride concentration to values below the recommended hygienic standard. Protective clothing and eye protection should be provided and used as necessary. The protective equipment should be made of materials resistant to hydrogen-fluoride. Hydrogen-fluoride should be stored in well ventilated areas and shipped in appropriate containers. Emergency procedures are described for handling hydrogen-fluoride spills or leaks and exposure to fire. Information is provided on the first aid procedures and medical treatment required for hydrogen-fluoride injuries to the skin and eyes and in cases of inhalation.


Med Pr 1979;30(6):451-6

[Lysozyme activity in the saliva of industrial workers exposed to fluorine compounds]

[Article in Polish]

Zajaczkowska L, Kreglewska B, Afeltowicz E, Nowicka J, Umiastowski J, Kunicka D.

The authors performed investigations in Phosphoric Fertilizers Works in Gdansk to find out whether or not the work environment contaminated by fluorine compounds affects the activity of lysozome--the protective enzyme of saliva. In some in vitro experiments lysozome activity in exposed workers' saliva was found to be significantly lowered, as opposed to that in unexposed workers. In vivo experiments did not indicate any effects of work conditions on the activity of this enzyme. The obtained results, in vivo and in vitro, do not demonstrate any clear effects of work environment in the Phosphoric Fertilizers Works in Gdansk, upon lysozome activity in workers' saliva.

PMID: 232533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Chemosphere Volume 7, Issue 6 , 1978, Pages 537-547

Fluoride deposition in snow in the surroundings of a mixed fertilizer factory

Pentti Kauranen

Department of Chemistry University of Kuopio, Kuopio 70101, Finland

The fluoride content of snow was determined at various distances from a mixed fertilizer factory in Siilinjärvi, central Finland. Elevated fluoride levels were observed at less than 2 km from the factory, and the highest concentrations close to the factory were about 600 g of fluoride per liter of melt water. At unpolluted reference sites the fluoride content was about 6g/1. The background level of fluoride in precipitation is discussed. An ion selective electrode and a simple calibration method were used in the analyses.


Med Lav 1978 Sep-Oct;69(5):594-604

[Risk of fluorosis in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers]

[Article in Italian]

Fabbri L, De Rosa E, Potenza I, Mapp C, Rossi A, Brighenti F, Forin F.

PMID: 45743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Lav Um 1977 Jul;29(4):97-105

[Epidemiological study of chronic bronchitis in a population of workers in a fertilizer factory]

[Article in Italian]

Jedrychowski W, Cichocki T, Olszewski E, Nowicki Z, Mruk K.

The authors investigated the influence of working conditions--with particular reference to dust and fluorite pollution--on the epidemiology of chronic bronchitis in 197 subjects working in a fertilizer producing plant in Krakow (Poland). The investigation included history, respiratory function tests (VC, TVC), height and weight measurement, rhinolaryngologic examination, nasal mucosa cytology and physical examination. The environmental survey included measurements of the dust respirable fraction and fluorite concentration in the air. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was found to increase with the length of working activity and to be much higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Furthermore, in subjects working at the sites with the worst environmental situations it proved to be twice as high as in the remainders. Likewise higher proved to be the prevalence of laryngitis and sinusitis. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was found to be much higher in workmen with more marked spirometric changes. In subjects affected with chronic bronchitis alterations of the nasal mucosa epithelium were also found.

PMID: 904421 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Lav Um 1977 Mar;29(2):50-7

[Chronic broncopneumopathy and pneumoconiosis in workers employed in phosphoric acid production (author's transl)]

[Article in Italian]

Fabbri L, Mapp C, Rossi A, Cortese S, Saia B.

Thirty-five subjects employed in a phosphoric acid producing plant were studied by the authors. The investigation included: history, according to the C.E.C.A. questionnaire for chronic bronchitis and emphysema; physical examination, chest X-ray spirometry and lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide by the steady state method (DLCOSS). High prevalence of chronic bronchitis (45.7%), obstructive spirometric impairment (37.1%), and decreased values of DlcoSS (31.4%) were detected. Two subjects were found to be affected with p 1/0 and 7 with p 0/1 pneumoconiosis. Such findings were significantly related to the lenght of working activity as well as to dust and gaseous fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, hexafluorosilicic acid and silicon tetrafluoride) exposure.

PMID: 865215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Residue Rev 1977;68:37-57

Fluorine in foods.

Kumpulainen J, Koivistoinen P.

Publication Types: Review

PMID: 337435 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


N Z Vet J 1976 SEP;24(9):193-7

Deaths in cattle suggestive of subacute fluorine poisoning following ingestion of superphosphate.

Clark RG, Hunter AC, Stewart DJ.

PMID: 1070620 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J S Afr Vet Assoc 1975 Jun;46(2):161-3

Chronic fluoride poisoning in sheep.

Zumpt I.

Chronic fluoride poisoning in sheep and cattle was diagnosed on a farm in the Vredenburg district, Cape Province, and confirmed by laboratory analysis. The source of the poisoning was pastures contaminated with rock phosphate dust containing 2,1 to 3,3% of fluoride emitted from a fertilizer factory. Tabulated analyses of blood, liver, bone, pasture and water are given.

PMID: 1195267 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

From Toxline at Toxnet

REV BELGE MED DENT; 28 (2). 1973 125-138

Elevated fluoride content in the Antwerp drinking water through a fluoride leak into the Neuse.


The population of Antwerp receives its drinking water from the Albert canal which contains water derived from the river Neuse near Liege, Belgium. Because of a discharge of fluorides from a fertilizer factory near Liege, the fluoride content of Antwerp water varies according to season, usually within the legally acceptable range of 1 mg/1. During a particularly dry season in the fall of 1971, the legal limit of 1.5 mg/1 was considerably exceeded. The responsible authorities quickly diluted the Meuse water at the purification plant with water of low fluoride content from subsidiary canals, thus avoiding a serious public health crisis. It was later made known that the fertilizer plant possessed a purifying system which enabled it to recover 3/4 of the fluorides in its discharge water, but this equipment was not used because the factory could not find a buyer for its fluorides. In the spring of 1973 they finally found a customer for fluorides, so that a drop in river Meuse fluorides could soon be expected. Actually, fluoride measurements did not bear out this optimistic prediction, and the desirability of public intervention is suggested.

From Toxline at Toxnet

ANAL CHEM; 45 (7). 1973 1272-1273

Comparison of the SPADNS-Zirconium Lake and specific ion electrode methods of fluoride determination in stack emission samples.


Fluoride is an important pollutant emitted into the air predominantly from phosphate fertilizer and Al reduction processes. A widely used analytical method for determining fluoride concentration in stack emission samples is the SPADNS-Zirconium Lake technique. Although this method is generally regarded as accurate and sensitive, it is time consuming, requiring a sulfuric acid or perchloric acid distillation step to remove interferences. The specific ion electrode (SIE) has gained wide acceptance for the determination of soluble fluoride in ambient air particulate matter. The SIE method offers significant advantages over the SPADNS method by virtue of its simplicity, high precision and speed. The application of the fluoride SIE to emission sample analysis has been limited because it responds to interfering ions and may not provide data that are comparable to the SPADNS method. This report describes the results of a study to assess the equivalence of the SIE and SPADNS methods for the determination of soluble fluoride in emission samples from phosphate fertilizer and A1 reduction plants.


Gig Sanit 1972 Nov;37(11):112-4

[Daily intake of fluorine together with nutritional products in persons living in the area of the Kokand Superphosphate Plant]

[Article in Russian]

Tadzhibaeva NS.

PMID: 4267896 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


N Z Vet J 1972 Nov;20(11):224

The possible relationship of selenium and superphosphate to the frequency of intestinal carcinomas in sheep.

Simpson BH.

PMID: 4519617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Nihon Univ Sch Dent 1972 Sep;14(3):99-105

Use of compost instead of chemical fertilizer to avoid fluorine contamination of soil, water, and food.

Schatz A, Schatz V.

PMID: 4509827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Rev Odontol P R 1972 Aug-Oct;10(3):16-20

Use of compost instead of chemical fertilizers.

Schatz A, Schatz V.

PMID: 4526647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Gig Sanit 1970 Aug;35(8):114-5

[Fluorine content of vegetable and melon crops with the use of mineral fertilizers in Uzbekistan]

[Article in Russian]

Tashbekov TU, Khasanov IuU.

PMID: 5502701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Zh Ushn Nos Gorl Bolezn 1970 Sep-Oct;30(5):21-4

[The effect of occupational factors on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract in superphosphate production]

[Article in Russian]

Rasskazova TV.

PMID: 5521605 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1969 Sep;13(9):26-8

[Fluorine content of biological media during pregnancy in female workers engaged in superphosphate production]

[Article in Russian]

Kuznetsova LS.

PMID: 5365300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Czas Stomatol 1968 Sep;21(9):1081-7

[The influence of chemical factors on the oral cavity in workers of the Szczecin Plant of Phosphorous Fertilizers in the light of our own investigations]

[Article in Polish]

Domzalska E, Grabowska K, Kamocka D.

PMID: 5246606 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Farmakol Toksikol 1965 May-Jun;28(3):365-8

[On the biological effect of composite mineral fertilizers (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers)]

[Article in Russian]

Boiarchuck IF.

PMID: 5869660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fluorides and industrial health: Derryberry, O. M., Bartholomew, M. D. & Fleming, R. B. L. (1963).

Fluoride exposure and worker health. The health status of workers in a fertilizer manufacturing plant in relation to fluoride exposure. Arch. environ. Hlth. 6, 503 
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, Volume 2, 1964, Page 271

From Toxline at Toxnet

Commercial Fertilizer, Vol. 88, pages 42-45, 73, 76, 2 references, 1954

The Potential Fluorine Hazard in the Fertilizer Industry

Poppe WH Jr

Results of engineering studies made in 3 phosphate rock and 4 fertilizer blending plants show that a definite fluoride hazard exists in the commercial fertilizer plants wherever natural phosphate rock materials are used. Results yielded by urinalysis of workers and by the investigation of environmental air samples collected, together with maximum allowable concentrations for prolonged fluoride exposure expressed as hydrofluoric-acid (7664-39-3) are presented.


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