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1981 Fluoride Abstracts.

Abstracts for the following years:
Part 1 - mainly biochemistry and physiology (brain, hormonal, G-proteins, etc.)
Part 2 ("b") - all other



















1976 -
1970 -



















1974 -
1968 -



2005-b continued










1990 -b







1972 -
Up to

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):182-191

Fluorosis: geographical pathology and some experimental findings

AA Zahvoronkov and LS Strochkova

Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, USSR

... A.P. Tarinsky (4) revealed a 2-3 fold increase of symptoms of oligospermia and azoospermia in male workers suffering from industrial fluorosis compared with healthy men of the same age. Tokar (5, 6) found an association between fluorosis and hypogonadism. These data made it necessary to study the changes in synthetic processes in the testes of mice in experimental fluorosis. A total scintillation method of probe computing on the counter revealed certain shifts of RNA and protein metabolism in this organ, but the data were not statistically significant. More informative, was the cytochemical investigation of certain cell types in the testes on the separate stages of spermatogenesis, particularly on the 7th stage. The cells of spermatogenic epithelium with farily stable DNA content -Sertoli cells, spermatogones of A type, spermatides and also interstitial cells of Leidig - were studied. Between the second and third week afer the beginning of the experiment there was a decrease of rRNA in the basal part of the Sertoli cells, in Leidig cells and in spermatides.

In the spermatogones this index was not significantly changed (Fig. 6a). During the course of hyperfluoridation a decrease of the dry weight appeared in Leidig cells and in spermatides (Fig. 6b). An adaptation of the cells to the toxic influence of fluoride is suggested since at the termination of the experiment a tendency to normalization of the rRNA content developed and the dry weight of the spermatides and the interstitial cells reached almost the control level. It is known that Sertoli cells constitute a part of the hematotesticular barrier and are actively attacked by fluoride ions, which is perhaps the cause of the decrease of rRNA in these cells. On the other hand, these cells play a trophic role for spermatides and probably supply them with rRNA. Consequently the decrease of the rRNA content and of the dry weight in spermatides is caused by the disturbance of the metabolims in Sertoli cells and therefore presents a secondary event.

The noted cytochemical alterations in Leidig cells and in the basal parts of the Sertoli cells reflect the disturbances in the protein synthesising system of these cells in fluorosis and to a certain degree explain the hormonal imbalance in this disease, since Leidig cells synthesize testosterone and Sertoli cells produce protein-binding androgens. The high resistance of the spermatogones to the influence of fluoride in comparison with Sertoli cells is difficult to explain since in most cases the unfavorable factors affect primarily the sperm cells.

Since the various stages of spermatogenesis are controlled by different hormones (e.g. testosterone controls the process of meiosis) (2) the present findings allow one to develop a more complete concent of the alteratin of the germinative epithelium in fluorosis - not only through the disturbance of the functioning of the cell enzyme systems but also by the way of induction of hormonal imbalance in the body...

(2) Hannson V, Djoseland M, Forgersen O, Ritzen EM, French F, Nayfen S (1976). Hormones and hormal tartet cells in the testis. Andrologia, 8:195-2-2.
(4)Tarinsky, AP (1972). The influence of some industrial factors of aluminum industry on the generative function of men. Thesis, Sverdlovsk.
(5)Tokar VI, Potapenko OV, Naugolnikh EZ (1970). Metabolism of steroids in fluorosis. 1. Oestrogens in male urine. J Steroid Biochem, 1:255-257.
(6) Tokar Vi, Savchenko ON (1977). The influence of inorganic fluorine compounds of functional condition of the hypophysis-testes system. Problems of Endocrinology, 23:104-107.


Brain Res 1981 Aug 10;218(1-2):267-77

Distribution and different activation of adenylate cyclase by NaF and of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 in neuronal and glial cells separated from rat cerebral cortex.

Nanba T, Ando M, Nagata Y, Kitajima S, Nakazawa K.

Distribution of adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase activities in neuronal perikarya and glial cells separated from rat brain, and cellular differences in activation between of adenylate cyclase by NaF and of guanylate cyclase by NaN3 have been studied. Adenylate cyclase activity was higher in the glial cells than in the neuronal fraction, while guanylate cyclase activity was equally detected in both cell fractions. Adenylate cyclase was mainly derived from the particulate fraction of both brain cell homogenates, whereas the major portion of guanylate cyclase activity was found in their soluble rather than in the particulate fractions. Although bulk-separated neurons and glial cells almost failed to change intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels in response to some putative neurotransmitters, activation of adenylate cyclase by NaF was found to be greater in neuronal than in glial cell fractions, and was observed more clearly in the soluble than in the particulate fractions. Sodium azide greatly increased guanylate cyclase in the particulate fraction, but did not affect it considerably in the soluble one. Addition of catalase to the reaction mixture together with NaN3 further stimulated guanylate cyclase both int he soluble and the particulate fractions. These results suggest that adenylate cyclase and guanylate cyclase without intimate coupling to the transmitter-receptor system, but with activation by NaF or NaN3, may be distributed ubiquitously in the cells separated from rat cerebral cortex.

PMID: 6115697 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Anal Toxicol 1981 Nov-Dec;5(6):300-6

Determination of tri-, di-, and monobutyltin and inorganic tin in biological materials and some aspects of their metabolism in rats.

Iwai H, Wada O, Arakawa Y.

A chromatographic method to separate and determine simultaneously trace amounts of tri-, di-, and monobutyltin and inorganic tin (IV) in biological materials has been established. These compounds were eluted stepwise on a silica gel column with an organic solvent system and were sensitively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The calibration curves show linearity up to 6 mumol/L. The detection limit was 1.5 ng of tin for each of the tin compounds. The reproducibility and recovery were satisfactory. Tetra- and tributyltin were also sensitively determined by the gas chromatographic application of this method. This new method was applied to the study on the metabolism of tributyltin in rats. The contents of tributyltin in the liver of rats, to which a single oral dose of tributyltin fluoride had been administered, showed a rapid decrease following an initial transient increase. The tributyltin, once transported to the liver, seemed to be rapidly dealkylated. The most significant finding was the remarkable retention of monobutyltin and inorganic tin (IV) in the brain.

PMID: 7339215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):4-9

Maternal ionic fluoride concentrations during pregnancy and after delivery

H Hanhijarvi and I Penttila

Institute of Dentistry and Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, Finland. [Note. Dr. Penttila's name was inadvertenly omitted in the original article. The correction was noted in Fluoride 1985; 18(4):226.]

Summary: Strong evidence that fluoride accumulates in fetal bone is probably reflected in the maternal fluoride balance. The present study further supports the earlier findings that maternal ionic plasma (IPF) concentrations significantly decrease during pregnancy compared to concentrations in nonpregnant controls of the same age. After delivery the mean IPF concentrations start to return to usual levels despite the onset of the excretion of milk. Normalization takes place in about two weeks. The reason for the inverse correlation between maternal IPF-concentrations and the birth weight of the child remains unsolved.

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):10-13

Fluoride concentration in the cortex and in full thickness samples of the iliac crest

Czerwinski E, Skoiarczyk A, Klewska A, Kajfoss J, Szymczyk S

Orthopaedic Department, Cracow Academy of Medicine, Cracow Institute of Forensic Expertise, Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow

Summary: The fluoride content was evaluated in iliac crest samples taken from cadavers without previous history of fluoride exposure. Fluoride concentration in the cortex before and after ashng was determined by the Coulomb excitation method using a C-48 cyclotron. Fluoride was then estimated in the same samples by the microdiffusion method. Fluoride assays in full thickness iliac crest samples were also made.

Varying fluoride concentrations in adjacent areas were noted as well as in the cortex and in full thickness samples. The significance of the differences is discussed.

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):14-21

Effect of longterm fluoridation of drinking water on mineral content of the skeletal system

Franke KJ, Runge HGC, Fengler FPB

Orthopedic Clinic of Martin Luther University, Halle, Germany

Summary: By means of photon absorptiometry the mineral content of bone (radius) of 1160 residents of Karl-Marx-Stadt (fluoridated since 1959) was compared with that of 4150 inhabitants of nonfluoridated Halle. Only in the age group 16-20, among those who had been drinking fluoridated water since birth, was an increase in bone mass encountered following longterm fluoridation of drinking water. In the other age groups, a tendency to lower values was observed in the fluoridated city.

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):21-29

Boron as antidote to fluoride: effect on bones and claws in subacute intoxication of rabbits

Elsair J, Merad R, Denine R, Azzouz M, Khelfat K, Hamrour M, Alamir B, Benali S, Reggabi M

Laboratories of Physiology, Toxicology and Galenic Pharmacy, Medical Institute, Algiers, Algeria

Summary: Rabbits were "subacutely" intoxicated by administration of 30 mg/kg/day of fluoride for 3 months followed by 15 mg/kg/day for a subsequent 3 months (F). Boron was given alone (B) as preventive and simultaneously with fluoride prophylactically (F + Bp), as well as therapeutically namely midway during the experimental period (F + Bpc) while fluoride was being administered and after it was discontinued (Bc compared with fluoirde interuption F*), at a constant F/B ratio. All groups were compared to normal controls.

Boron administered during fluoride intoxication or after its interruption, reduces fluoremia and increases urinary fluoride excretion. Skeletal fluoride levels are directly relatd to those of claws. They bear no relationship to fluoride in hair. The high fluoride content in bone in lot F decreases with addition of boron. It is still high in lot F* but returns to normal in loc Bc. Calcium content of bones remains normal in all lots. Posterior pad radiography shows a cortical thickness in lot F which is less pronounced in lots F + Bpc and F*, and returns to normal in lot Bc.

Med Lav 1981 Jul-Aug;72(4):313-7

The influence of fluoride recovery alumina on the work environment and the health of aluminium potroom workers.

Lie A, Eduard W.

Reprints: Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway

The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of fluoride recovery alumina on the dust exposue and on the short-term health effects of the aluminum potroom operator. The study was carried out during two periods, each lasting eight days, using recovery alumina during the first period and pure alumina during the second period. The same employees were working day shift during both investigatory periods.

The prevalence of work-related symptoms was significantly higher during the recovery alumina period. The percentage of participants having a symptom code of 4 or more, the result of answers to 7 questions regarding acute work-related health complaints and other factors, was higher during the recovery alumina period. Pot-opertors were relatively more bothered due to recovery alumina than other potroom workers. Workers reporting chronic pulmonary symptoms had a much higher prevalence of acute complaints than other workers. Elimination of selection factors by comparing each worker to himself during the two periods, revealed a correlation between dust exposure and acute health complaints.

Not only was dust exposure and the prevalence of acute health complaints higher during the operating period when recovery alumina was used, but prevalence of chronic pulmonary complaints was significantly higher than expected.


Biochem Pharmacol 1981 May 15;30(10):1085-9

Effects on fluorine analogs of norepinephrine on stimulation of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in intact pinealocytes.

Auerbach DA, Klein DC, Kirk KL, Cantacuzene D, Creveling CR.

PMID: 6266425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Book Notice

Patologija fljuorosa [Path. of Fluorosis]

by AP Avcyn and AA Zahvoronkov

Translated from Russian by J. Franke

Novosibirsk: Nauka 1981, 333 page, 43 figs., 32 tables

A brief survey of the occurrence of fluoride in tissue and fluids of plants and animals, fluoride distribution in nature and occurrence of endemic fluorosis in all parts of the world were compiled geographically. Own investigations regarding the occurrence of endemic fluorosis in Northern Kazakhstan (Soviet Russia) complete the first portion of the book. The main portion includes pathological-anatomical investigations by the authors combined with a review of the literature covering all organ systems in experimental and human fluorosis, with emphasis on the changes in the glands of internal secretion and the nervous system.


Acta Odontol Scand 1981;39(5):313-20

Some effects of bone meal supplemented diet on bone and teeth of growing rats.

Rasmussen P, Wesenberg GR.

Bone meal (containing 500 ppm F) was added to the diet of growing rats in an amount corresponding to that recommended ingested by children. Addition of bone meal did not influence body weight increment, or growth and ash content of bone and teeth. Fluoride in bone and teeth increased as compared to control animals, but the increase was 2-4 times less than if fluoride had been given as NaF. Analyses of feces disclosed significantly increased values of Ca and F in animals fed the bone meal supplemented diet, indicating low absorption of these minerals from bone meal.

PMID: 6950640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):30-38

Fluoride absorption by the root and foliar tissues of the horse-bean (Calciole) and Lupin (Calcifuge)

Preliminary Studies

JP Garrec and L Letourneur

Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, Department de Recherche Fondamentale, Laboratoire de Biologie Vegetale, Grenoble, France

Summary: In the root and foliar tissues of calciole (horse-bean) and calcifuge (lupin) plants, absorption of fluoride, at least in weak concentrations, does not appear to be related to the metabolism of these plants.

Nevertheless the comparison of these two tissues highlights clearly the differences in absorption of fluoride in the two species. Absorption apears to be slower and of longer duration in calcifuge plants whereas between the two tissues, absorption is essentially quantitative, the foliar tissues always showing higher levels of fluoride than the roots. On the other hand, fluoride is only weakly attached to the tissues since most of it can be easily exsorbed into the water. Our data disclose a great similarity in the absorption mechanism of fluoride and calcium ions in calciole and calcifuge plants.

Fluoride 1981; 14(1):38-41

Effect of fluoride on hemoglobin and hematocrit

B Uslu

Orthopaedic Department, Anadolu Univ., Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey

Summary: Hemoglobin and hematocrit values in human subjects residing in an endemic fluorotic area were within the normal range. Rats that received 30 to 100 ppm NaF in drinking water up to 45 days showed no significant change in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):51-55

X-ray analysis of 34 cases of foodborne skeletal fluorosis

H Daijei

Department of Radiology, Guiyang Medical College, Guizhou, People's Republic of China

Summary: Thirty-four cases of foodborne endemic skeletal fluorosis are reported in an area where the fluoride content in drinking water is very low, but that of food is high. The radiological changes include osteosclerosis, ossification of tendons and ligaments, bony exostoses. These changes are essentially the same as those of waterborne skeletal fluorosis.


... In the area under study, the residents are chiefly vegetarians. The average fluoride content of seven staple food items -rice, corn, cabbages, soya beans, potatoes and wheat- ranged between 8.3 and 11.7 mg/kg. Tea showed the highest fluoride content mainly between 35.1 and 59.2 mg/kg, whereas potatoes were lowest in fluoride (0.7 - 0.8 mg/kg)....

Table 1 - Fluoride Contents

Air 0.07 mg/m3 Average of 10 samples
Water 0.15 - 0.18 ppm 38 samples
Rocks 303.3 - 468.5 mg/kg  
Soil 213.7 - 999.1 mg/kg  

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):56-61

Fluoride levels in bones and teeth of mice

SA Khalawan

Summary: Fluoride concentration in long bones and teeth from four successive generations of albino mice on a low-fluoride diet (0.1 - 0.3 ppm F) was determined. The concentration of fluoride in bones and teeth, except incisors, increased significantly with the age of the animals. A trend of reduction in the concentration of bone fluoride with successive generations was observed.

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):61-68

Effect of fluoride after discontinuation of occupational exposure

Czerwinski E, Pospulka W, Nowacki G, Skolarczyk A

Department of Orthopedics, Cracow Academy of Medicine and the Department of Clinical Chemistry Cracow Academy of Medicine

Summary: Sixty subjects who had discontinued their work in an aluminum plant for 1-7 years were examined. Earlier they had been exposed to fluoride for an average 16.9 years. Orthopedic, radiological and biochemical examinations were made. The fluoride, calcium and phosphorus levels in the 24 hour urine, the serum calcium, phosphorus and acid and alkaline phosphatase levels, hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, color index, serum protein, and the electrophoretic fractions were determined. The urine fluoride level was markedly increased and the other analytical test results were within normal limits.

The findings in a group of subjects who had discontinued working in the aluminum plant one year previously were compared with those who had ceased working there for 2 - 7 years (average 3.4 years). In the group without exposure for a longer period, the urinary fluoride level was 25.4% lower, and clinical changes in the locomotor system were less pronounced. No differences in the occurrence of osteosclerosis were observed.

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):69-74

Hydro-geochemical aspects of endemic skeletal fluorosis in India - an epidemiologic study

Teotia SPS, Teotia M, Singh RK

Department of Human Metabolism and Endocrinology, L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut, India

Summary: The most common fluorine-bearing materials which constitute the natural source for fluoride in drinking water are fluorite, apatite, rock phosphate and topaz. The epidemiologic prevalence of endemic fluorosis is directly related to the distribution of fluoride-bearing minerals in the various endemic areas.

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):75-86

Biological monitoring for occupational fluoride absorption

JR Jackson and H Hammersley

Albright & Wilson Ltd., Medical Department, Oldbury W. Midlands, England

Fluoride 1981; 14(2):86-90

Prevalence of fluorosis in a rural community near Varanasi

Ray SK, Ghosh S. Nagchaudhuri J, Tiwari IC, Kaur P

Departments of Preventative and Social Medicine and Physiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Summary: A study, in a rural area near Varanasi, showed an incidence of 28.2% of dental fluorosis in the general population. The prevalene rate was highest in the age group 13-18 and was higher in males than in females, with a rising trend associated with an increase in fluoride content of the water. At a concentration of <0.5 ppm fluoride in water, the incidence of dental fluorosis was 16.9%.

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):150-154

Chemical profile of human serum in fluoride toxicity and fluorosis. I. Total protein-bound carbohydrates, seronucoid and fluoride levels

Sushella AK, Sharma YD, Jha M, Rajalakshmi K, and NV Rama Mohan Rao

Fluorosis Reseach Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India and Institute of Preventive Medicine, Hyderabad

Summary: Sera of 15 patients, aged 10 to 50 years - afflicted with fluorosis - were analysed for fluoride, total protein-bound carbohydrates (namely protein-bound hexose, hexosamine, fucose) and seromucoid contents. The level of the glycoprotein components declined significantly with increased circulating levels of fluoride. In the seromucoid fraction, the protein part was greatly affected by fluoride ions compared to its sugar component. Inhibition of glycoprotein biosynthesis is reflected in low circulating levels of glycoprotein. Interferences of fluoride ions in glycoprotein biosynthesis is therefore suggested.

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):155-160

Effect of administration of sodium fluoride on urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites

Geeraerts F, Schimpfessel L, Crokaert R

Department of Biochemistry, Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Faculteit Geneeskunde en Farmacie, Brussel, Belgium.

Preliminary results presented at the 3rd International Meeting on Tryptophan Metabolism, August 4-7, 1980, Kyoto, Japan This work was supported by grant 3.0016.75 of the Fonds voor Geneeskundig en Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek. [acknowldgement noted in Fluoride 1982; 15(2):104]

Summary: The effect of the oral administration of sodium fluoride on the urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites was examined in rats. In relation to the creatinine excretion a single dose of 10 mg NaF caused a 50% decrease in the excretion of the metabolites of the serotonin pathway. No further changes were observed when the NaF administration was continued and the effect was reversible when the NaF administration was discontinued. These results suggest the fluorides interact with tryptophan metabolism.

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):161-168

The effects of fluoride on fish in Gabes Gulf [Tunesia]

Milhaud G, El Bahri L, Dridi A

Technical collaboration of Mlle E. Charles and Mme T. Gonichon D'Alfort, France and Sidi Thabet, Tunisia

Summary: Factories processing natural phosphate discharge fluoride-rich effluents into Gabes Gulf. The fish caught in the vicinity of the outflow reveal, in various tissues, fluoride levels which are four or five times higher than in fish caught in Tunis Gulf. In the mullets caught in Gabes Gulf the mean values of fluoride are: Fishbone: 320 +- 225 ppm; muscle 9.6 +- 10.2 ppm; muscle plus skin: 14.6 += 11.1 ppm. The high values of the standard deviations show that there is a great disparity in contamination; some fish have accumulated much more fluoride than others.

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):169-171

Fluoride levels in soil, water, plants and cattle in the Darmous zone of Morocco

M Kesaabi and M Amouzigh

Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, Rabat-Agdal, Morocco

Summary: In the Darmous zone in Morocco, contamination of cattle by fluoride can be correlated with the duration of fluoride ingestion. From a practical point of view it can be accurately and easily evaluated by the dental lesions which, when correlated with bone fluoride levels, reflect the severity of contamination of the animal.

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):172-181

Industrial fluorosis

BW Carnow and SA Conibear

University of Illinois Medical Center, Chicago

Summary: In 1242 apparently healthy and actively employed workers of a Canadian aluminum facility, the history of musculosketal symptoms, of the incidence of fractures, of neck and back surgery, as well as the x-ray findings were reviewed. A highly significant relationship of exposure to fluoride was established with the frequency of back and neck surgery, fractures, symptoms of musculoskeletal disease and past history of diseases of bones and joints in the absence of the typical findings of skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring exposed workers for the early manifestations of "musculoskeletal fluorosis" is recommended prior to the development of destructive and degenerative changes in the skeleton.

Kleintier Praxis 1981; 26:147-150

[Fluoride content of bone samples in dogs]

[Article in German]

Loeffler K, Brehm H, Oelschlager W, Schenkel H, Freyler L

Bone specimens from 36 dogs, ranging from 3 months to 11 years of age, were examined for their fluoride content. They were derived from bone splinters obtained in the treatment of fractures and from animals that were autopsied; an additional ten speciments were exostoses which had been removed surgically. In the ashed bone of the autopsied animals, the fluoride content ranged from 280 to 1700 ppm; in the exostoses of the ten animals, from 990 to 2670 ppm. Fluoride levels were higher in the older animals. Likewise the fluoride conent of the spongiosa and of the exostoses was more elevated than that of compact bone.

Science of the Total Environemnt 1981; 17:223-241

Fluoride cycles in an estuarine ecosystem

F Murray

Excerpt: The author sampled fluoride content of vegetation, soil and wildlife at Kooragang Island near the estuary of the Hunter River of New South Wales. Three fluoride-emitting facilities situated in that area release approximately 176 tons of fluoride yearly. The fluoride assays were compared with those of a relatively unpolluted area at Karuah...

Fluoride 1981; 14(4):196-197

In Memorium

Clarence Conrad Gordon
July 16, 1928 - July 11, 1981

by John Marier

Excerpt: During his all-too-brief lifetime Clancy Gordon had gained worldwide repute, notably as coordinator of the Environmental Studies Laboratory at the University of Montana's Botany Department where extensive studies were conducted on the phytotoxic aspects of environmental fluoride...

[Note from FAN: I only got to know "Gordon CC" by typing the abstracts of the papers he co-authored that were all published in Fluoride. From this perspective it was easy to spot a dedicated group of researchers. Their analyses and research on fluoride contaminated areas in Montana always caught my interest to read more than just the abstract. Clancy, it's been good to get to know you. EC]


Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1981 Aug;60(1):121-30

No Abstract available

Observations on 2'-chloro-2,4-dinitro-5',6-di(trifluoromethyl)-diphenylamine-induced edema in the white matter of the central nervous system of the rat.

Lock EA, Scales MD, Little RA.

PMID: 7281170 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Note from FAN: this is the chemical name for Fentrifanil, an acaricide]

[Note from EC: Polytetrafluoroethylene is Teflon.]


Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1981 Apr;42(4):319-21

Exposure to polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products during the initial use of some pad heaters.

Dwiggins GA, Wiggins MC Jr, Dwyer MJ.

The initial heating of pad heaters fabricated from materials coated with PTFE can result in employee exposures to harmful levels of PTFE thermal decomposition products. The details of two such incidents and the results of subsequent environmental monitoring for hydrolyzable fluoride are presented. Average concentrations of hydrolyzable fluoride probably ranged from .05 mg/m3 to 1.0 mg/m3 in the air of the work areas where illness (PFF) occurred. Reduction or elimination of the potential for exposure to these and other thermal decomposition products can be effected by "burning off" the coating in a safe location prior to use.

PMID: 7234690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Diabetes 1981 Dec;30(12):1013-21

Triphenyltin fluoride (TPTF) as a diabetogenic agent. TPTF induces diabetic lipemia by inhibiting insulin secretion from morphologically intact rabbit B-cell.

Manabe S, Wada O.

Recent work in our laboratory has shown that oral administration of triphenyltin fluoride (TPTF) evokes hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits. The present experiments were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of TPTF-induced hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits by a combined biochemical and ultrastructural approach. After a single TPTF administration, fasting blood glucose and plasma triglyceride levels increased significantly (P less than 0.02) for about 20 days. On the other hand, both plasma and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was markedly decreased (P less than 0.001) during this period, and triglyceride production rates on day 2 after TPTF administration was significantly decreased (P less than 0.01). Density-gradient ultracentrifugation showed a remarkable accumulation of chylomicron and VLDL in the composition of plasma lipoproteins. Insulin injection to the hypertriglyceridemic rabbits induced a significant recovery of the decreased plasma LPL activity with a concomitant decrease of plasma triglyceride levels, while abeyance of insulin injection resulted in a decrease of LPL activity again. A significant inhibition of insulin release in response to the loading of glucose, glucagon, or arginine was observed in the TPTF rabbits (P less than 0.02). Inhibition of glucagon release was also observed in the arginine-loading test (P less than 0.01). Electron microscopic studies showed small abnormalities in the pancreatic islets of TPTF-treated rabbits. These findings suggest that TPTF inhibits insulin release from rabbit islets, subsequently inducing diabetic lipemia due to the insulin deficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to provide a new animal model for diabetes and diabetic lipemia by administration of TPTF to rabbits.

PMID: 7030827 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 1981 Oct;36(4):687-93

No Abstract available

[Triphenyltin fluoride-induced hypertriglyceridemia in rabbits (author's transl)]

[Article in Japanese]

Manabe M, Wada O, Manabe S.

PMID: 7334675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Am J Anat 1981 Nov;162(3):233-41

Fluoride stimulation of the rat parathyroid gland: an ultrastructural study.

Ream LJ, Principato R.

The parathyroid glands of rats given 150 ppm fluoride in the drinking water for 10 weeks are evaluated ultrastructurally and compared to the parathyroid glands of untreated rats. As a result of fluoride ingestion, the majority of the parathyroid cells are dark chief cells, indicating that these cells are in the active stages of the secretory cycle. More significantly, in the fluoride-treated rats, the cytoplasmic organelles of the dark chief cells are even more developed that those seen in the dark chief cells of untreated rats. The dark cells contain an electron-dense cytoplasm with abundant lamellar arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum, spiral aggregations of free ribosomes, multiple dilated Golgi complexes, and increased numbers of secretory granules. The cells are at a minimum dimension with maximum tortuosity of the plasma membranes; and, as a result, large intercellular spaces are often seen between contiguous cells. Based on these observations, it is suggested that, in the fluoride-treated rat, a type of secondary hyperparathyroidism develops resulting in an increase in the organelles involved in protein synthesis and secretion.

PMID: 7315751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Experientia 1981 Dec 15;37(12):1328-9

Zinc, copper and manganese levels in various tissues following fluoride administration.

Kanwar KC, Singh M.

Distribution of zinc, copper and manganese has been studied in liver, kidney and bone of rats subjected for 10 months to varied fluoride concentrations in drinking-water. In the liver a significant fall in the levels of Mn, Cu and Zn was registered. In the kidney, the Mn level fell whereas the zinc level increased. In the bone, the copper content fell, whereas the manganese content increased.

PMID: 7327247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Sci Total Environ 1981 Dec;22(1):79-83

Zinc Depletion following experimental fluorosis in mice.

Kanwar KC, Singh M.

The effect of fluoride administration on zinc levels in liver, kidney and bone, and on protein content (microgram/mg tissue wt) in liver and kidney was investigated by subjecting albino mice for 16 weeks to different concentrations of fluoride (0 ppm - control; 10 ppm - group I; 25 ppm - group II; 50 ppm - group III; 100 ppm - group IV; and 200 ppm- group V) in drinking water. Zinc levels decreased significantly in liver and bone of groups III, IV and V; the decrease being 17%, 25% and 44% (P less than 0.005) in the case of liver, and 14% (p less than 0.01), 24% (p less than 0.005), and 39% (p less than 0.005) in the case of bone in groups III, IV and V respectively. Zinc depletion in the kidney of the fluoridated animals was only statistically significant (p less than 0.005) in groups IV and V. Similarly the protein content also decreased in liver and kidney (in liver significant at p less than 0.005, p less than 0.01, and p less than 0.005; in kidney significant at p less than 0.005, p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.005 in groups III, IV and V respectively). The experimental animals, especially in groups IV (100 ppm F) and V (250 ppm F), also exhibited retardation in growth.

PMID: 7336202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cancer Res 1981 Dec;41(12 Pt 1):5130-3

Increased activity of a neutral protease in cytosol from rat hepatoma induced by N-2-fluorenylacetamide.

Wada K, Matsui H, Tsukada K.

A protease active with N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide with an optimum pH of 7.3 has been found in the cytosol of rat liver. The activity of this protease increased in N-2-fluorenylacetamide-induced hepatoma as well as in fetal liver. It has been purified from normal liver and hepatoma about 200-fold. Its molecular weight is estimated by gel filtration to be about 200,000 in each tissue. The protease activity is unaffected by chymostatin, pepstatin, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. Antipain, leupeptin, tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone, and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibit the protease activity. This protease appears to be a serine protease.

PMID: 7030484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nature 1981 Dec 10;294(5841):560-2

No Abstract Available

The regulatory subunit of adenylate cyclase interacts with cytoskeletal components.

Rasenick MM, Stein PJ, Bitensky MW.

PMID: 7312044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Prophyl Ergonomie 1981 Dec;31(12):484-8

No Abstract Available

[Effect of fluoride and its inorganic compounds on the worker and its monitoring]

[Article in German]

Massmann W.

PMID: 7344379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [B] 1981 Dec;174(3):191-9

No Abstract available

[Fluoride map of the Federal Republic of Germany for the prevention of caries. (Naturally occurring fluoride concentrations in drinking waters of the Federal Republic of Germany) (author's transl)]

[Article in German]

Eberle G.

PMID: 7331582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Ariz Med 1981 Nov;38(11):833-5

Skeletal fluorosis from eating soil.

Fisher JR, Sievers ML, Takeshita RT, Caldwell H.

A woman with chronic pyelonephritis developed progressive muscular weakness and bone pain. For twenty years she had habitually ingested fluoride-rich soil. Osteosclerosis was found on x-ray examination, and fluorosis was confirmed by bone biopsy. Renal failure augmented skeletal retention of excessive fluoride intake which, in turn, appears to have intensified symptomatic renal osteodystrophy. Skeletal fluorosis from this unexpected source has not been previously described.

PMID: 7316820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Naturwissenschaften 1981 Dec;68(12):621-2

No Abstract available

Effects of hydrogen fluoride on benzo[a]pyrene and dimethylnitrosamine metabolism in rats.

Dophuoc H, Bompart G, Bourbon P.

PMID: 6278331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


C R Seances Acad Sci III 1981 Nov 16;293(10):619-24

[In vitro dentinogenesis of mice fetuses tooth germs in the presence of fluoride. Morphological nad historical observations]

[Article in French]

Triller M, Mallet JP, Weil R.

Observations show that fluoride alters dentinogenesis in vitro. Morphological and cellular alterations are greater when the tooth germs are young and/or when the time of incubation is longer and the dose of fluoride higher. In the predentine, the stainability of proteoglycans is partially reduced. The persistence of alcianophilic zones far from the site of secretion indicates some delay of the process of matricial maturation.

PMID: 6174188 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Gig Sanit 1981 Dec;(12):66-7

[Effect of nitrate and fluorine compounds entering the body simultaneously]

[Article in Russian]

Diskalenko AP, Opopol' NI, Trofimenko IuN, Dobrianskaia EV.

PMID: 7327415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Biol Chem 1981 Nov 10;256(21):11036-41

No Abstract available

Hysteretic activation of adenylyl cyclases. I. Effect of Mg ion on the rate of activation by guanine nucleotides and fluoride.

Iyengar R, Birnbaumer L.

PMID: 7287749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1981 Nov;61(2):172-6

No Abstract available

The distribution of fluoride and calcium in the liver of the carbon tetrachloride-poisoned rat.

Silverman DM, Taves DR.

PMID: 7324063 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Tsitol Genet 1981 Nov-Dec;15(6):19-22

No Abstract available

[Cytogenetic activity of vitamins in the bone marrow cells of rat femurs in sodium fluoride induction of mutations]

[Article in Russian]

Aliev AA, Babaev DA.

PMID: 7324162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Biochem J 1981 Sep 15;198(3):631-8

No Abstract available

Activation of adenylate cyclase in bovine corpus-luteum membranes by human choriogonadotropin, guanine nucleotides and NaF.

Lydon NB, Young JL, Stansfield DA.

PMID: 7326028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Toxicol Eur Res 1981 Nov;3(6):299-304

No Abstract available

[Effect of fluoride on hepatic parenchyma of guinea pigs exposed to an atmosphere containing 150 micrograms of hydrofluoric acid per m3 for several months]

[Article in French]

Rioufol C, Bourbon P, Levy P, David JF, Alzieu J.

PMID: 6120585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1981 Sep;15(5):281-3

No Abstract available

[Endemic fluorine poisoning caused by smoked foods with coal-smoke (author's transl)]

[Article in Chinese]

PMID: 7341106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1981 Sep 16;102(1):30-7

No Abstract available

Regulation of protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates: inhibition of eIF-2 phosphoprotein phosphatase by NaF, pyrophosphate and cations.

Ranu SR, Bhala KK.

PMID: 6272793 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Anal Biochem 1981 Dec;118(2):336-43

No Abstract available

Characterization of fluorinated metabolites by a gas chromatographic-helium microwave plasma detector--the biotransformation of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanol to perfluorooctanoate.

Hagen DF, Belisle J, Johnson JD, Venkateswarlu P.

PMID: 7337230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NOTE: AG Gilman, co-author of this report, shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for the discovery of "G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells."


J Biol Chem 1981 Dec 25;256(24):12911-9

The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein.

Hanski E, Sternweis PC, Northup JK, Dromerick AW, Gilman AG.

The regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase has been purified from turkey erythrocyte plasma membranes by adaptation of procedures developed for purification of the rabbit liver protein. The major modifications entail inclusion of high concentrations of NaCl to facilitate extraction and reconstitution of the protein. A typical preparation yields 200 micrograms of protein with a reconstitutive specific activity of 3-4 mumol . min-1 mg-1. Turkey erythrocyte G/F contains two putative subunits of 35,000 and 45,000 daltons. The 52,000-dalton polypeptide that appears to be a component of rabbit liver G/F is lacking. In solution, G/F behaves as a particle with Mr = 81,000. This value is reduced to 50,000 in the presence of activating ligands, suggesting dissociation of subunits. Activation of G/F by guanine nucleotide analogs is markedly accelerated in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+. Reconstitutive and physical properties of the protein are also affected by fluoride. Cyc- S49 lymphoma membranes reconstituted with turkey erythrocyte G/F acquire properties that are characteristic of the turkey adenylate cyclase system; at least certain differing characteristics of adenylate cyclase systems are thus dictated by the nature of their G/F.

PMID: 6273414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NOTE: AG Gilman, co-author of this report, shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for the discovery of "G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells."


J Biol Chem 1981 Nov 25;256(22):11517-26

The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties.

Sternweis PC, Northup JK, Smigel MD, Gilman AG.

The regulatory component (G/F) of adenylate cyclase, which has been purified previously, contains three putative subunits with molecular weights of 52,000, 45,000, and 35,000 (Northup, J. K., Sternweis, P. C., Smigel, M. D., Schleifer, L. S., Ross, E. M., and Gilman, A. G. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 6516-6520). The published procedure has been modified to reduce the time required for preparation and to increase the yield. Application of the improved procedure allows purification of .5 to 1.0 mg of purified G/F from 1.5 kg of frozen rabbit liver. Greater than 95% of the protein observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels is found in the three bands mentioned above. Purified G/F has the following properties:
1. Hydrodynamic measurements in cholate indicate that purified hepatic G/F has a molecular weight of about 70,000. If G/F is activated with either fluoride or GTP analogs, its apparent molecular weight is reduced to 50,000.
2. The measurement of G/F by reconstitution with the catalytic moiety of adenylate cyclase is dependent on the concentrations of both G/F and catalytic moiety. This interaction is consistent with a model derived from a simple bimolecular binding equilibrium.
3. Purified G/F can be activated by fluoride and guanine nucleotide analogs in a Mg2+-dependent reaction. The rate of activation by guanine nucleotides is markedly stimulated by high concentrations of Mg2+, indicating a site of action of divalent metallic cations on G/F.
4. The 52,000- and 45,000-dalton polypeptides can be partially resolved by heptylamine-Sepharose chromatography. G/F fractions that are enriched in the 52,000-dalton protein reconstitute hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity more efficiently and are activated by GTP analogs more rapidly than are fractions that are essentially free of this polypeptide. The 35,000-dalton protein is present in all cases.

PMID: 6271754 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

NOTE: Martin Rodbell (co-author of this report) and Alfred G. Gilman shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for the discovery of "G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells."


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1981 Feb;78(2):722-6

Structure of the turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase system.

Nielsen TB, Lad PM, Preston MS, Kempner E, Schlegel W, Rodbell M.

Target analysis of the turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC] system showed that the molecular weight of the ground state enzyme increases from 92,000 with MnATP as substrate and no stimulatory ligands to 226,000 when activated by fluoride ion or by 5'-guanyl imidodiphosphate (p[NH]ppG) subsequent to clearance of previously bound GDP. The identical increment in size (130,000) suggests that the same regulatory unit is involved in the activation by both effectors. When assayed with isoproterenol and p[NH]ppG, the enzyme system displayed a further increment in size of 90,000 daltons. Based on binding of the antagonist 125I-labeled hydroxybenzylpindolol, the beta-adrenergic receptor is about 90,000 daltons or the same as that seen for activation of the enzyme by isoproterenol through the beta-adrenergic-receptor. Because single targets were seen for the ground state enzyme system under all conditions, it would appear that the various regulatory and catalytic components are structurally linked prior to activation by hormone, guanine nucleotides, and fluoride ion. Furthermore, based on reported subunit sizes of the nucleotide regulatory and receptor components are composed of multiple subunits, either homologous or heterologous in structure.

PMID: 6262765 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1981 May;19(5):807-12

Enhanced transmembrane proton conductance in Streptococcus mutans GS-5 due to ionophores and fluoride.

Eisenberg AD, Marquis RE.

The uptake of protons by intact cells of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was measured directly by assessing the pH increase in lightly buffered cell suspensions as protons moved across the plasma membrane after acid pulses. The barrier function of the cell membrane for protons was disrupted completely by 5% (vol/vol) butanol. This function was compromised severely by the ionophores valinomycin and gramicidin and by the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Proton conduction across the membrane was also enhanced by fluoride. It appeared that HF traversed the membrane and acted as a carrier. Once in the relatively alkaline cytoplasm, HF dissociated to yield F- and H+, which acted to acidify the cytoplasm and reduced the pH difference across the membrane.

PMID: 6170255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


No Abstract available

Blood 1981 May;57(5):913-21

Neutrophil iodination reaction induced by fluoride: implications for degranulation and metabolic activation.

Clark RA.

PMID: 7214022 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Occup Med 1981 Feb;23(2):112-3

Subacute fluoroacetate poisoning.

Peters RA, Spencer H, Bidstrup PL

Fluoroacetic acid and some other monofluoro-compounds are among the most poisonous substances known. In man symptoms of poisoning begin after a latent period of one-half to several hours and death follows rapidly. Convulsions and arrhythmia are common terminal signs. No specific changes have been found at postmortem. It is suggested, but unproven, that sudden death of the patient whom this case report concerns was due to subacute fluoroacetate poisoning.

PMID: 7205420 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Postepy Biochem 1981;27(3-4):327-37

[The effect of fluorine compounds on respiratory enzymes]

[Article in Polish]

Machoy Z.

Data are presented concerning the mechanism of interactions of fluorine compounds with respiratory enzymes. These enzymes contain iron or copper, or both of these elements simultaneously. The interaction of fluorine with iron and copper is generally believed to be due to inhibition of activity of the respiratory enzymes. Fluoride is an anion which complexes strongly with the atoms or ions of a number of metals.

Kinetic data showing the inhibitory effect of fluoride on cytochrome oxidase have been presented for enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The activity found for another one of the enzymes - succinate dehyrdrogenase - reflects inhibition not only by fluoride but also by a large group of organic fluorine derivatives applied as anesthetics. In regard to plant peroxidases fluoride's effect on peroxidase of radish, milk and cytochrom c has been studied. The mechanism of fluoride binding with cuproproteinic oxidases, lactase, ceruloplasmin, and ascorbate oxidase, are well known. However, data on the interaction of fluoride with other oxidoreductases are sketchy and sparse. Among those studied are such enzymes as catalase, malate dehydrogenase, citrate dehydrogenase and plant polyphenyloxidase.

The activity of respiratory enzymes is, as a rule, inhibited by fluoride. The group of cuproproteid oxidases has atoms of copper incorporated in a similar manner which display almost the same properties as far as the reaction with fluoride is concerned. On the basis of previous observations, we have failed to establish a direct dependence between the capacity of fluoride to form complexing of the metals and the changes in the activity of metaloproteidic enzymes.

Bromat Chem Toksykol 1981; 14:101-104

Effect of fluorine compounds on respiratory chain

Z Machoy

Biochemistry 1981; 20:454-467

Effects of halides on reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding properties and catalytic activity of beef heart lactate dehydrogenase

SR Anderson

Drug Metab Dispos 1981; 9:19-24

A review of clinical research on the use of prenatal fluoride administration for prevention of dental caries

WS Driscoll

The author recommends additional research on placental transfer of fluoride and the mechanims of its action and states that permanent teeth are unlikely to benefit from dietary fluoride supplements. Since conclusive clinical evidence that administration of dietary fluoride supplements to pregnant women reduces dental caries in the teeth of offspring is lacking, the procedure cannot be recommended at this time.

Patologia polska 1981; 32:67-77

Experimental evaluation - influence of sodium fluoride on bone and some internal organs

Dominiczak K, Put A, Marcickiewicz E, Stawarczyk W

Sodium fluoride (10 or 20 mg/kg), administered to male Wistar rats, fed a standard diet, during 6 and 10 months resulted in proliferation of periosteal cells in iliac bone and fibrosis. In another group of animals treated with 10 mg/kg fluoride and calcium carbonate (CaCO3), periosteal reactions were less pronounced.

Fatty degeneration of hepatocytes was found in the group receiving 10 and 20 mg/kg of NaF. Histological changes were observed likewise in kidneys; histochemical reactions, under the influences of NaF, were altered.

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