Rodenticide, Insecticide (unclassified)
Toxic to Bears, Birds, Mammals, Mule Deer, Ferrets
(only comprehensive for the US)
Gov. John Kitzhaber in 1998 prohibited the use of such 1080-filled
collars in Oregon.
EPA PC Code:
(includes only a limited list of countries)
Canada, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, US
in these countries as of Dec 2003:
Cuba, Laos, Slovenia, Thailand
manufactured by one U.S. company, Tull Chemical Co. in Oxford,
much is exported to other countries such as New Zealand for
Ref. - See
of Tull Chemical
Acetic acid, fluoro-, sodium salt
Caswell No. 770
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075003
Fluoroacetate de sodium [ISO-French]
Fluoroacetic acid sodium salt [BSI]
Fluoroacetic acid, sodium salt
Fluoroctan sodny [Czech]
Latka 1080 [Czech]
Monofluoressigsaures natrium [German]
RCRA waste number P058
Sodio, fluoracetato di [Italian]
Sodium fluoacetic acid
Sodium fluoroacetate [ISO]
Sodium fluoroacetate de [French]
BAD ACTOR - Acute Toxicity; Reproductive
16, 2005: US
Congressman Peter DeFazio (D-Oregon) introduced a bill (H.R.
4567), known as the `Sodium Fluoroacetate Elimination Act'
that would prohibit the "manufacture,
processing, possession, or distribution in commerce of the poison
sodium fluoroacetate (known as Compound 1080) to provide for
the collection and destruction of remaining stocks of sodium
fluoroacetate, to compensate persons who turn in sodium fluoroacetate
to the Secretary of Agriculture for destruction, and for other
20, 2005. Chances
are slim that the toxin, possibly stolen inadvertently, will
be found. By Tom Alex and Perry Beeman. Des Moines Register
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports from other
incidents that a woman who swallowed the compound suffered
nausea and abdominal pain and later had neurological
problems. A man who breathed the compound experienced
speech loss and convulsions and lapsed into a coma, the
Warning issued over
stolen poison. By Tom Alex. Des Moines Register (Iowa).
who broke into a Des Moines home this week apparently left
with a dangerous poison that authorities want to find.
"A 1-ounce portion of this powder has potentially enough
lethal doses in it to possibly kill up to 50 average-size
humans between 150 and 175 pounds," Police Lt.
Ray Rexroat said. "The label on this can clearly says
'fatal poison.' We certainly don't want it out there where
innocent people or children can come across this stuff."
A natural organic fluorine extracted from a West African
28, 2005 - Iraq's
tests of coyote poison surface. Rep. Peter DeFazio says
use of the poison that he had tried to have banned underscores
loose U.S. controls on lethal agents. By Michael Milstein, The
... DeFazio "said
he will draft a bill next month to outlaw production, possession
and import of Compound 1080... Compound 1080 was developed to
control rats. But scientists later described it as 'so
generally and highly toxic that it is too dangerous for general
distribution.' ... It is legal in the United States only in
a special sheep collar used in some states.
Coyotes attacking domestic sheep puncture the collar and contact
the poison, which kills them. Oregon Gov.
John Kitzhaber in 1998 prohibited the use of such 1080-filled
collars in Oregon... The poison is manufactured
by one U.S. company, Tull Chemical Co. in Oxford, Ala.,
and much is exported to other countries such as New Zealand
for pest control. The can pictured in Iraq bears a Tull label...
19, 2005. Canada:
Decision Document. Sodium Monofluoroacetate. RRD2005-05.
"...The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has
determined that sodium monofluoroacetate is acceptable for
continuing registration provided that the mitigation measures
specified in the PACR [June 18, 2004 -see below] are implemented.
The registrants will be informed by letter of the specific
requirements affecting their product registrations and the
regulatory options available to comply with this decision."
18, 2004. Canada:
Re-evaluation of Sodium Monofluoroacetate. The purpose
of this document is to solicit public comment for continued
use in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan for coyote
and wolf control. It is formulated as a solution inside livestock
protection collars or as tablets. Collars are attached to
goats and sheep. Tablets are
placed in small drop baits (usually meat, viscera or chicken
heads) and buried beneath snow, leaves, or soil in order to
minimize non-target exposure. The
PMRA will accept written comments on this proposal up to 45
days from the date of publication of this document.
Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Document No. PACR2004-20.
from FAN: This is an acutely
toxic substance - non-target animals die excruciating deaths
when exposed. - EC.
1080" by Brooks Fahy, Predator Press (Vol. 9, Issue
"For more than 10 years, Predator Defense Institute has
been working for a national comprehensive ban on sodium monofluoroacetate,
known commonly as compound 1080... Wildlife
Services, a division of the USDA, supports and encourages the
use of 1080-filled LPC's [livestock protection collar] by ranchers,
at taxpayers' expense..."
2002 - Australia:
RECONSIDERATION OF PRODUCTS
CONTAINING SODIUM FLUOROACETATE (1080) AND THEIR LABELS.
National Registration Authority for Agricultural
and Veterinary Chemicals Ð 1080 Review Scope Document
Eligibility Decision (RED) - US EPA,
September 1995 (Long)
Fluoroascetate: EPA R.E.D. Facts -
fluoroacetate (Compound 1080). US EPA Fact Sheet - August
profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank
2002 - In Australia when Sodium Monofluoroacetate
is used as "Baits
for control of cats, dogs, foxes, pigs, rabbits and rodents
in situations where contact will not occur with crops, soil
in which crops are grown, or food products" no
maximum residue levels are required. Ref: June 2002.
Table 5. Uses of substances where maximum residue limits
are not necessary. Australian National Registration Authority
for Agricultural Veterinary Chemicals.
The MRL Standard. Maximum residue limits in food and animal
9, 2001. Australia. Exemptions Listing -
TECHNICAL GRADE ACTIVE
CONSTITUENTS EXCLUDED FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF NRA APPROVAL
The list generally includes chemicals
which have not been primarily developed as agricultural chemicals
and thus for which an extensive package of data would not be
readily available. Approval by the National Registration Authority
for these TGACs is currently not required. Fluoride compounds
exempted include: Cupro-ammonium Fluoroborate complex, Sodium
fluoride, Sodium fluoroacetate, Sodium fluorosilicate.
Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines
to Classification 2000-2002. Table
1. EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS (Class Ia) active ingredients (technical
grade) of pesticides, p 16.
by the State of California: "Known to Male Reproductive
by the State of California as "Known to Cause Male Reproductive
Toxicity" - Prop 65
List of Extremely Hazardous Substances US
40 CFR - CHAPTER I - PART 355 - updated October 3, 2003
Substance Fact Sheet - New Jersey
Department of Health and Senior Services, April 2000
Products - Partial List.
Monofluoroacetate: Toxic Chemicals in Your Environment -
Total Environment Centre
US Toxic Release Inventory
- Brief summary.
for US EPA to add Sodium Fluoroacetate to the Toxic Release
13-week oral study in rats, gavage administration of sodium
fluoroacetate (0.02 mg/kg/day) resulted in decreased
testis weight and altered spermatogenesis in males
(the NOAEL was 0.05 mg/kg/day). In addition, increased
heart weight was noted in females and males administered
0.20 mg/kg/day of sodium fluoroacetate. The increase in
heart weight, however, was only accompanied by subacute,
minimal inflammation (not dose-related). Also, fluorocitrate
levels were significantly increased after 4 weeks in males
administered 0.50 mg/kg/day and after 13 weeks in both male
and female rats administered 0.20 or 0.50 mg/kg/day. The
testicular and cardiac effects were reported to be consistent
with those noted in the literature.
study reported a deliberate ingestion of an unspecified
dose of sodium fluroacetate by a healthy female. The woman
experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain 30 minutes
after ingestion, with subsequent seizures occurring 60 minutes
after the initial onset of symptoms. Neurological examination
after 2 weeks revealed severe cerebellar
dysfunction. By 18 months,
memory disturbances and depressive behavior persisted. Inhalation
exposure to unspecified levels of sodium fluoroacetate caused
salivation, loss of speech, violent convulsions, and coma
in a male worker. The patient ultimately recovered. Neurological
effects have also been reported in rats in a 13-week oral
study. Four of 20 female rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg/day
(the highest dose tested) exhibited convulsions at day 79,
with no recurrences for the remainder of the study. An
estimated lethal dose of sodium fluoroacetate in humans
ranges from 5 to 10 mg/kg.
believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing sodium
fluoroacetate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section
313(d)(2)(B) based on the neurologic, reproductive, and
myocardial toxicity data for this chemical.
oral LD 50 values of fluoroacetate in the house sparrow,
redwinged blackbird, starling and golden eagle are 3.0,
4.22, 2.37, and 1.25 to 5 mg/kg, respectively. In
addition, measured acute toxicity
data for mammalian wildlife include an oral LD50 of
0.22 to 0.44 mg/kg for mule deer, an oral LD50 of 1.41
mg/kg for male ferrets, and an oral LD 50 of 0.5 to 1.0
mg/kg for bears. EPA believes that there is sufficient
evidence for listing sodium fluoroacetate on EPCRA section
313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the
environmental toxicity data for this chemical.
USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological
Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993).
by US EPA in: Federal
Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372.
Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting;
Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.
poisoned with 1080 scream, vomit, defecate and suffer violent
and use of 1080 as a predacide and rodenticide occurred
in the US in the 1940s, but all registrations were cancelled
in 1972 together with those for other predator control agents
containing strychnine and sodium cyanide. Registration of
livestock protection collars was restored in 1985 and remains
the only approved use in the US. 1080 is also used in Mexico
and Israel, but the bulk of world usage occurs in New Zealand
and, to a lesser extent, Australia. 1080 has been registered
in New Zealand since 1964... The use of 1080 in Australia
was pioneered in the early 1950s as a rabbit poison in Tasmania.
Since this time, 1080 has been approved for use in various
States of Australia for the control of various vertebrate
pests. Application of 1080 baits is by aerial or ground
distribution. It has been estimated that approximately 200
kg of 1080 active ingredient is used in Australia annually.
fluoroacetate (1080), is a fluorinated carboxylic acid ester
with high to very high toxicity to birds and mammals. Once
ingested 1080 is metabolised to fluorocitrate. Fluorocitrate
interferes with energy production in the Krebs cycle, a
metabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates to provide
energy for normal cell functions. The malfunctioning Krebs
cycle results in an accumulation of citrate in the tissue
and blood, energy deprivation and death. No
antidote to 1080 exists.
SODIUM FLUOROACETATE (1080) AND THEIR LABELS.
Australia National Registration Authority
for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals
1080 Review Scope Document
|Nov 16, 2007
Petition Requesting EPA to Issue a Notice of Intent to Cancel the Registrations of M-44 Sodium Cyanide Capsules and Sodium Fluoroacetate. EPA requests public comment during the next 60 days on a petition, and its addendums, received from Sinapu, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER), Beyond Pesticides, Forest Guardians, Predator Defense, Western Wildlife Conservancy, Sierra Club, The Rewilding Institute, Animal Defense League of Arizona, and Animal Welfare Institute requesting that the Agency cancel all uses of M-44 sodium cyanide capsules and sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080). The petitioners claim that sodium cyanide M-44 capsules and compound 1080 cannot perform their intended functions without causing unreasonable adverse effects on the environment and posing an imminent hazard.
• Comments must be received on or before January 15, 2008.
Documents available on sodium fluoroacetate in docket (see docket for specific reports on sodium cyanide):
• 3/20/07. Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0010.
• 1/24/07. First Addendum to Sinapu et al.'s Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. 111 pages. (Listed as EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0002; downloaded as 0009)
(Page 22-23) Furthermore, livestock protection collars can be easily lost or punctured by vegetation or barbed wire. In one study, 107 collars were either inadvertently lost or punctured, while only 57 were pierced by coyotes (Watson 1990). Connolly (1998) suggests that coyotes can bury collars or drag them away from sheep carcasses and that about half of missing collars were not recovered in research studies. Apparently, LPCs routinely go missing which constitutes "imminent harm" to the environment. 7 U.S.C. §136(l). More alarming, the EPA and APHIS rely on individuals to properly dispose of Compound 1080 once a spill has occurred. Livestock producers, who have been trained by licensed applicators, are expected to incinerate or bury everything that has come into contact with Compound 1080. Those that bury the toxicant must do so under three feet of soil (Connolly 1998). The burial site is supposed to be one-half mile from human habitation and away from water sources; no more than 10 collars can be buried at one site and the sites must be ten feet apart from each other (Connolly 1998). Relying on livestock producers to properly dispose of Compound 1080, without any oversight by certified personnel, presents potential problems including the theft or improper disposal that could cause intentional or unintentional human poisonings to occur.
(PAGE 23) In 1989, a newly-hired predator control agent to the Wyoming office of the Wyoming Department of Agriculture found that those officials had hoarded Compound 1080 despite the ban. They sold 1080 to private individuals who used it to poison wildlife, including bald and golden eagles (Robinson 2005). In 1991, the FWS and the EPA raided the offices of the Wyoming Department of Agriculture; the FWS subsequently engaged in a law enforcement action that led to several, copvictions (Ibid.). (FWS's investigative documents involving many defendants attached, Exhibits 7 and 8.) But that would not be the end of illegal poisonings. In 2001, approximately 30 pets were poisoned by 1080 in Grand Junction, Colorado and the investigating police officer, David Palacios, who handled the poisoned animals, experienced, "`flu like symptoms, only 10 times worse"' (Lofholm 4/12/O1). The Grand Junction police and federal investigators were never able to apprehend the culprit who ultimately dumped the poison into the local sewer system (Lofholm 3/15/O1, 4/12/01).
• 7/27/07: Second Addendum to Sinapu et al .'s Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0003.
• 9/1994. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Sodium Fluoroacetate. Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0004.
• 6/1995. R.E.D. FACTS for Sodium Fluoroacetate. Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0006.
Requirements for Certified Applicators Using 1080 Collars
on Livestock; Renewal of Pesticide Information Collection
Activities and Request for Comments. EPA is seeking comments
on the following ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1249.07, OMB Control
No. 2070-0074. ICR status: This ICR is a renewal of an existing
ICR that is currently approved by OMB and is due to expire
September 30, 2003. Abstract: This
ICR affects approximately 75 certified pesticide applicators
who utilize 1080 toxic collars for livestock protection. Four
states (Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Wyoming) monitor
the program, and five pesticide registrants are required to
keep records of: (1) Number of collars purchased; (2) number
of collars placed on livestock; (3) number of collars punctured
or ruptured; (4) apparent cause of puncture or rupture; (5)
number of collars lost or unrecovered; (6) number of collars
in use and in storage; and (7) location and species data on
each animal poisoned as an apparent result of the toxic collar.
Applicators maintain records, and the
registrants/ lead agencies do monitoring studies and submit
the reports. These records are monitored by either the: State
lead agencies; EPA regional offices; or the registrants. EPA
receives annual monitoring reports from registrants or State
Materials Regulations for
Fluoride/fluorinated( substances. Harmonization of international
shipment of Dangerous Goods. Final Rule.
Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Development Schedule.
of Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document for Comment
denied request from Texas Department of Agriculture for the
use of sodium fluoroacetate on certain mammalian vectors to
control gray fox rabies. A notice of receipt of this public
health exemption was published in the Federal Register of August
24, 1994 (59 FR 43580), an extension of comment period later
published September 8, 1994 (59 FR 46428). The Agency concluded
that the proposed vector control program cannot be expected
with any degree of certainty to be effective in halting the
spread of the epizootic. For this reason, the Agency denied
the request for a public health exemption.
proposal to add 41
fluorine and organofluorine chemicals to the Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI). See excerpt in box
above. Also available at http://www.epa.gov/tri/frnotices/59fr1788.htm