Sodium fluoroacetate (also known as 1080)
CAS No. 62-74-8

 
 

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Adverse Effects
Abstracts

ACTIVITY: Rodenticide, Insecticide (unclassified)

CAS Name: Sodium fluoroacetate

Structure:

Adverse Effects:

Body Weight Decrease
Brain
CNS
Embryotoxic
Endocrine: Hypothalamus
Endocrine:
Testicular
Endocrine: Thymus

Heart

Environmental Effects:

Highly Toxic to Bears, Birds, Mammals, Mule Deer, Ferrets

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered:

Yes 

Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber in 1998 prohibited the use of such 1080-filled collars in Oregon.

US EPA PC Code: 075003 
California Chemical Code 633 
Registered use in
(includes only a limited list of countries)

Australia, Canada, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, US
Banned in these countries as of Dec 2003: Belize, Cuba, Laos, Slovenia, Thailand
Other Information
Molecular Formula: C2H2FNaO2  
Manufacturers: "... manufactured by one U.S. company, Tull Chemical Co. in Oxford, Ala. and much is exported to other countries such as New Zealand for pest control..." Ref. - See photo of Tull Chemical
Other Names:

1080
AI3-08434
Acetic acid, fluoro-, sodium salt
Caswell No. 770
Compound 1080
EINECS 200-548-2
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 075003
Fluorakil 3
Fluoroacetate de sodium [ISO-French]
Fluoroacetic acid sodium salt [BSI]
Fluoroacetic acid, sodium salt
Fluorietikkahapon natriumsuola (Finland) 
Fluoroctan sodny [Czech]
Fratol
Furatol
HSDB 743
Latka 1080 [Czech]
Monofluoressigsaures natrium [German]
NSC 77690
Natriumfluoracetaat [Dutch]
Natriumfluoracetat [German]
RCRA waste number P058
Ratbane 1080
Sodio, fluoracetato di [Italian]
Sodium fluoacetate
Sodium fluoacetic acid
Sodium fluoracetate
Sodium fluoroacetate
Sodium fluoroacetate [ISO]
Sodium fluoroacetate de [French]
Sodium monofluoroacetate
TL 869
Tenate
Yasoknock

Of special interest:
PAN BAD ACTOR - Acute Toxicity; Reproductive Toxicity 
December 16, 2005: US Congressman Peter DeFazio (D-Oregon) introduced a bill (H.R. 4567), known as the `Sodium Fluoroacetate Elimination Act' that would prohibit the "manufacture, processing, possession, or distribution in commerce of the poison sodium fluoroacetate (known as Compound 1080) to provide for the collection and destruction of remaining stocks of sodium fluoroacetate, to compensate persons who turn in sodium fluoroacetate to the Secretary of Agriculture for destruction, and for other purposes.' ...

September 20, 2005. Chances are slim that the toxin, possibly stolen inadvertently, will be found. By Tom Alex and Perry Beeman. Des Moines Register (Iowa).

... The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reports from other incidents that a woman who swallowed the compound suffered nausea and abdominal pain and later had neurological problems. A man who breathed the compound experienced speech loss and convulsions and lapsed into a coma, the agency reported...

September 17, 2005. Warning issued over stolen poison. By Tom Alex. Des Moines Register (Iowa).

"Burglars who broke into a Des Moines home this week apparently left with a dangerous poison that authorities want to find. "A 1-ounce portion of this powder has potentially enough lethal doses in it to possibly kill up to 50 average-size humans between 150 and 175 pounds," Police Lt. Ray Rexroat said. "The label on this can clearly says 'fatal poison.' We certainly don't want it out there where innocent people or children can come across this stuff." ...

DESCRIPTION: A natural organic fluorine extracted from a West African plant.

May 28, 2005 - Iraq's tests of coyote poison surface. Rep. Peter DeFazio says use of the poison that he had tried to have banned underscores loose U.S. controls on lethal agents. By Michael Milstein, The Oregonian.
... DeFazio "
said he will draft a bill next month to outlaw production, possession and import of Compound 1080... Compound 1080 was developed to control rats. But scientists later described it as 'so generally and highly toxic that it is too dangerous for general distribution.' ... It is legal in the United States only in a special sheep collar used in some states. Coyotes attacking domestic sheep puncture the collar and contact the poison, which kills them. Oregon Gov. John Kitzhaber in 1998 prohibited the use of such 1080-filled collars in Oregon... The poison is manufactured by one U.S. company, Tull Chemical Co. in Oxford, Ala., and much is exported to other countries such as New Zealand for pest control. The can pictured in Iraq bears a Tull label...

April 19, 2005. Canada: Re-evaluation Decision Document. Sodium Monofluoroacetate. RRD2005-05. (3 pages)

Excerpts: "...The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) has determined that sodium monofluoroacetate is acceptable for continuing registration provided that the mitigation measures specified in the PACR [June 18, 2004 -see below] are implemented. The registrants will be informed by letter of the specific requirements affecting their product registrations and the regulatory options available to comply with this decision."

June 18, 2004. Canada: Re-evaluation of Sodium Monofluoroacetate. The purpose of this document is to solicit public comment for continued use in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan for coyote and wolf control. It is formulated as a solution inside livestock protection collars or as tablets. Collars are attached to goats and sheep. Tablets are placed in small drop baits (usually meat, viscera or chicken heads) and buried beneath snow, leaves, or soil in order to minimize non-target exposure. The PMRA will accept written comments on this proposal up to 45 days from the date of publication of this document. Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Document No. PACR2004-20.

Note from FAN: This is an acutely toxic substance - non-target animals die excruciating deaths when exposed. - EC.

2002: "Stopping 1080" by Brooks Fahy, Predator Press (Vol. 9, Issue 1).
"For more than 10 years, Predator Defense Institute has been working for a national comprehensive ban on sodium monofluoroacetate, known commonly as compound 1080... Wildlife Services, a division of the USDA, supports and encourages the use of 1080-filled LPC's [livestock protection collar] by ranchers, at taxpayers' expense..."
July 2002 - Australia: RECONSIDERATION OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING SODIUM FLUOROACETATE (1080) AND THEIR LABELS. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals 1080 Review Scope Document 
Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) - US EPA, September 1995 (Long) 
Sodium Fluoroascetate: EPA R.E.D. Facts - June 1995 
Sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080). US EPA Fact Sheet - August 1990 
TOXNET profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank  
June 2002 - In Australia when Sodium Monofluoroacetate is used as "Baits for control of cats, dogs, foxes, pigs, rabbits and rodents in situations where contact will not occur with crops, soil in which crops are grown, or food products" no maximum residue levels are required. Ref: June 2002. Table 5. Uses of substances where maximum residue limits are not necessary. Australian National Registration Authority for Agricultural Veterinary Chemicals. The MRL Standard. Maximum residue limits in food and animal feedstuff. http://www.nra.gov.au/residues/mrl5.pdf
April 9, 2001. Australia. Exemptions Listing - TECHNICAL GRADE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS EXCLUDED FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF NRA APPROVAL The list generally includes chemicals which have not been primarily developed as agricultural chemicals and thus for which an extensive package of data would not be readily available. Approval by the National Registration Authority for these TGACs is currently not required. Fluoride compounds exempted include: Cupro-ammonium Fluoroborate complex, Sodium fluoride, Sodium fluoroacetate, Sodium fluorosilicate. 
Extremely hazardous. WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2000-2002. Table 1. EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS (Class Ia) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides, p 16. 
Abstracts

Classified by the State of California: "Known to Male Reproductive Toxicity"

Identified by the State of California as "Known to Cause Male Reproductive Toxicity" - Prop 65
Included on The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances US 40 CFR - CHAPTER I - PART 355 - updated October 3, 2003 
Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet - New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, April 2000 
Rodenticide Products - Partial List.
Sodium Monofluoroacetate: Toxic Chemicals in Your Environment - Total Environment Centre
2000 US Toxic Release Inventory - Brief summary. 

Rationale for US EPA to add Sodium Fluoroacetate to the Toxic Release Inventory

In a 13-week oral study in rats, gavage administration of sodium fluoroacetate (0.02 mg/kg/day) resulted in decreased testis weight and altered spermatogenesis in males (the NOAEL was 0.05 mg/kg/day). In addition, increased heart weight was noted in females and males administered 0.20 mg/kg/day of sodium fluoroacetate. The increase in heart weight, however, was only accompanied by subacute, minimal inflammation (not dose-related). Also, fluorocitrate levels were significantly increased after 4 weeks in males administered 0.50 mg/kg/day and after 13 weeks in both male and female rats administered 0.20 or 0.50 mg/kg/day. The testicular and cardiac effects were reported to be consistent with those noted in the literature.

A case study reported a deliberate ingestion of an unspecified dose of sodium fluroacetate by a healthy female. The woman experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain 30 minutes after ingestion, with subsequent seizures occurring 60 minutes after the initial onset of symptoms. Neurological examination after 2 weeks revealed severe cerebellar dysfunction. By 18 months, memory disturbances and depressive behavior persisted. Inhalation exposure to unspecified levels of sodium fluoroacetate caused salivation, loss of speech, violent convulsions, and coma in a male worker. The patient ultimately recovered. Neurological effects have also been reported in rats in a 13-week oral study. Four of 20 female rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg/day (the highest dose tested) exhibited convulsions at day 79, with no recurrences for the remainder of the study. An estimated lethal dose of sodium fluoroacetate in humans ranges from 5 to 10 mg/kg.

EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing sodium fluoroacetate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the neurologic, reproductive, and myocardial toxicity data for this chemical.

Measured oral LD 50 values of fluoroacetate in the house sparrow, redwinged blackbird, starling and golden eagle are 3.0, 4.22, 2.37, and 1.25 to 5 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, measured acute toxicity data for mammalian wildlife include an oral LD50 of 0.22 to 0.44 mg/kg for mule deer, an oral LD50 of 1.41 mg/kg for male ferrets, and an oral LD 50 of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg for bears. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing sodium fluoroacetate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the environmental toxicity data for this chemical.

Ref: USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993).

As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.


Animals poisoned with 1080 scream, vomit, defecate and suffer violent seizures.

Development and use of 1080 as a predacide and rodenticide occurred in the US in the 1940s, but all registrations were cancelled in 1972 together with those for other predator control agents containing strychnine and sodium cyanide. Registration of livestock protection collars was restored in 1985 and remains the only approved use in the US. 1080 is also used in Mexico and Israel, but the bulk of world usage occurs in New Zealand and, to a lesser extent, Australia. 1080 has been registered in New Zealand since 1964... The use of 1080 in Australia was pioneered in the early 1950s as a rabbit poison in Tasmania. Since this time, 1080 has been approved for use in various States of Australia for the control of various vertebrate pests. Application of 1080 baits is by aerial or ground distribution. It has been estimated that approximately 200 kg of 1080 active ingredient is used in Australia annually.

Sodium fluoroacetate (1080), is a fluorinated carboxylic acid ester with high to very high toxicity to birds and mammals. Once ingested 1080 is metabolised to fluorocitrate. Fluorocitrate interferes with energy production in the Krebs cycle, a metabolic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates to provide energy for normal cell functions. The malfunctioning Krebs cycle results in an accumulation of citrate in the tissue and blood, energy deprivation and death. No antidote to 1080 exists.

Ref: July 2002. RECONSIDERATION OF PRODUCTS CONTAINING
SODIUM FLUOROACETATE (1080) AND THEIR LABELS.

Australia National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals
1080 Review Scope Document


US Federal Register
Date Published Docket Identification Number Details
Nov 16, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944

Petition Requesting EPA to Issue a Notice of Intent to Cancel the Registrations of M-44 Sodium Cyanide Capsules and Sodium Fluoroacetate. EPA requests public comment during the next 60 days on a petition, and its addendums, received from Sinapu, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER), Beyond Pesticides, Forest Guardians, Predator Defense, Western Wildlife Conservancy, Sierra Club, The Rewilding Institute, Animal Defense League of Arizona, and Animal Welfare Institute requesting that the Agency cancel all uses of M-44 sodium cyanide capsules and sodium fluoroacetate (compound 1080). The petitioners claim that sodium cyanide M-44 capsules and compound 1080 cannot perform their intended functions without causing unreasonable adverse effects on the environment and posing an imminent hazard.

• Comments must be received on or before January 15, 2008.

Documents available on sodium fluoroacetate in docket (see docket for specific reports on sodium cyanide):

• 3/20/07. Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0010.

1/24/07. First Addendum to Sinapu et al.'s Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. 111 pages. (Listed as EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0002; downloaded as 0009)

(Page 22-23) Furthermore, livestock protection collars can be easily lost or punctured by vegetation or barbed wire. In one study, 107 collars were either inadvertently lost or punctured, while only 57 were pierced by coyotes (Watson 1990). Connolly (1998) suggests that coyotes can bury collars or drag them away from sheep carcasses and that about half of missing collars were not recovered in research studies. Apparently, LPCs routinely go missing which constitutes "imminent harm" to the environment. 7 U.S.C. §136(l). More alarming, the EPA and APHIS rely on individuals to properly dispose of Compound 1080 once a spill has occurred. Livestock producers, who have been trained by licensed applicators, are expected to incinerate or bury everything that has come into contact with Compound 1080. Those that bury the toxicant must do so under three feet of soil (Connolly 1998). The burial site is supposed to be one-half mile from human habitation and away from water sources; no more than 10 collars can be buried at one site and the sites must be ten feet apart from each other (Connolly 1998). Relying on livestock producers to properly dispose of Compound 1080, without any oversight by certified personnel, presents potential problems including the theft or improper disposal that could cause intentional or unintentional human poisonings to occur.

(PAGE 23) In 1989, a newly-hired predator control agent to the Wyoming office of the Wyoming Department of Agriculture found that those officials had hoarded Compound 1080 despite the ban. They sold 1080 to private individuals who used it to poison wildlife, including bald and golden eagles (Robinson 2005). In 1991, the FWS and the EPA raided the offices of the Wyoming Department of Agriculture; the FWS subsequently engaged in a law enforcement action that led to several, copvictions (Ibid.). (FWS's investigative documents involving many defendants attached, Exhibits 7 and 8.) But that would not be the end of illegal poisonings. In 2001, approximately 30 pets were poisoned by 1080 in Grand Junction, Colorado and the investigating police officer, David Palacios, who handled the poisoned animals, experienced, "`flu like symptoms, only 10 times worse"' (Lofholm 4/12/O1). The Grand Junction police and federal investigators were never able to apprehend the culprit who ultimately dumped the poison into the local sewer system (Lofholm 3/15/O1, 4/12/01).

• 7/27/07: Second Addendum to Sinapu et al .'s Petition to Ban Sodium Cyanide (M-44) and Sodium Flouroacetate (Livestock Protection Collars). Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0003.

• 9/1994. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Sodium Fluoroacetate. Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0004.

• 6/1995. R.E.D. FACTS for Sodium Fluoroacetate. Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0944-0006.

Feb 19, 2003 OPP-2003- 0003

Recordkeeping Requirements for Certified Applicators Using 1080 Collars on Livestock; Renewal of Pesticide Information Collection Activities and Request for Comments. EPA is seeking comments on the following ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1249.07, OMB Control No. 2070-0074. ICR status: This ICR is a renewal of an existing ICR that is currently approved by OMB and is due to expire September 30, 2003. Abstract: This ICR affects approximately 75 certified pesticide applicators who utilize 1080 toxic collars for livestock protection. Four states (Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Wyoming) monitor the program, and five pesticide registrants are required to keep records of: (1) Number of collars purchased; (2) number of collars placed on livestock; (3) number of collars punctured or ruptured; (4) apparent cause of puncture or rupture; (5) number of collars lost or unrecovered; (6) number of collars in use and in storage; and (7) location and species data on each animal poisoned as an apparent result of the toxic collar. Applicators maintain records, and the registrants/ lead agencies do monitoring studies and submit the reports. These records are monitored by either the: State lead agencies; EPA regional offices; or the registrants. EPA receives annual monitoring reports from registrants or State lead agencies.

June 21, 2001 RSPA-2000-7702 (HM-215D) Hazardous Materials Regulations for Fluoride/fluorinated( substances. Harmonization of international shipment of Dangerous Goods. Final Rule.
May 15, 1996 OPP-34093 EPA's Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Development Schedule.
March 20, 1996 OPP-34091 Availability of Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document for Comment
March 15, 1995 na EPA denied request from Texas Department of Agriculture for the use of sodium fluoroacetate on certain mammalian vectors to control gray fox rabies. A notice of receipt of this public health exemption was published in the Federal Register of August 24, 1994 (59 FR 43580), an extension of comment period later published September 8, 1994 (59 FR 46428). The Agency concluded that the proposed vector control program cannot be expected with any degree of certainty to be effective in halting the spread of the epizootic. For this reason, the Agency denied the request for a public health exemption.
Jan 12, 1994 OPPTS-400082 EPA's proposal to add 41 fluorine and organofluorine chemicals to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). See excerpt in box above. Also available at http://www.epa.gov/tri/frnotices/59fr1788.htm
 
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