to PFOS / PFOA Index Page
interest of the FAN Pesticide Project in this issue is directly
related to the fact that several PFOS and PFOA chemicals were
used as "inerts" in pesticides. However, most, but
not all, have been deleted from use since 2001. The so-called
"inerts" are used in pesticides and can account for
as much as 99%, or more, of a pesticidal formulation. US EPA's
policy is to allow the public information only on the "active
substance" and to deny the public the names of the chemicals
used as "inerts" in specific pesticide products --
even though the majority of inerts are toxic and biologically
• See the molecular
structure for some of these chemicals
February 2006. In an article
in Environmental Science & Technology called
Weinberg Proposal, a
5-page letter was made publicly available from
the international consultant firm called the The Weinberg
Group Inc. to DuPont. The letter is a proposal to DuPont
to manage their corporate strategy on the maelstrom surrounding
PFOA to DuPont's advantage. This is indeed a very rare look
at the strategies of managing a polluters image to the polluters
advantage. For example, P. Terrance Gaffney, Esq., of The
Weinberg Group wrotet:
For over two decades, clients have repeatedly communicated
to us that of all the services we provide, the most valued
is our ability to provide an overall science-based defense
strategy. This strategy can be applied to litigatlon,
regulatory, or legislative problems that cause a particular
product to be under pressure. Specifically,
during the initial phase of our engagement by a client,
we will hamess, focus, and involve the scientific and
intellectual capital of our company with one goal in mind
-creating the outcome our client desires....
February 2006. Investigation
of perfluorochemical (PFC) contamination in Minnesota. Phase
One. Report to Senate Environmental Committee. By Fardin
Oliaei, Don Kriens and Katrina Kessler.
January 20, 2006. Review
of EPA's Draft Risk Assessment of Potential Human Health
Effects Associated with PFOA and Its Salts. US EPA Science
January 13, 2005. Results
of survey on production and use of PFOS, PFAS and PFOA,
related substances and products/mixtures containing these
substances. ENV/JM/MONO(2005)1. Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development. OECD Environment, Health and
Safety Publications. Series on Risk Management No. 19.
Jan 4, 2005. Draft
Risk Assessment of the potential human health effects associated
with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts.
US EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Risk Assessment
Division. (132 pages)
Oct 2004 (release date). Environmental
Risk Evaluation Report: Perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS).
by D Brooke, A Footitt, T A Nwaogu. Research Contractor:
Building Research Establishment Ltd., Risk and Policy Analysts
Ltd. Report produced by the UK Environment Agency's Science
Group. (96 pages)
Sept 2004. Proposal
for Regulations on PFOS-Related Substances. Partial Regulatory
Impact Assessment. Prepared for the UK Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). Chemicals and
GM Policy Division by Risk & Policy Analysts Ltd. in
association with BRE Environment. Project: J454/PFOS RRS.
Aug 2004. Perfluorooctane
Sulphonate. Risk Reduction Strategy and Analysis of Advantages
and Drawbacks. Final Report. Prepared for Department
for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Environment
Agency for England and Wales. (266 pages)
Aug 1, 2003. Perfluorooctanoic
Acid. Physiochemical Properties and Environmental Fate Data.
Submitted to US EPA from Michael A. Santoro, Director, Environmental
Health Safety and Regulatory Affairs, 3M; and George H.
Millet, Director - Quality, Environmental, Health &
Safety, Dyneon LLC, 3M Company. Federal
Register Docket No. OPPT-2003-0012-0164
Aug 1, 2003. Submission
of Monitoring Data Pursuant to the 3M LOI dated March 13,
2003 and APFO Users LOI dated March 14, 2003. Letter
to US EPA from Michael A. Santoro, Director, Environmental
Health Safety and Regulatory Affairs. 3M. Federal
Register Docket No. OPPT-2003-0012-0163
April 10, 2003. Preliminary
Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity Associated
with Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts.
US EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Risk
Assessment Division. (63
March 13, 2003. Environmental,
Health and Safety Measures Relating to Perfluorooctanoic
Acid and its Salts (PFOA).
Letter to US EPA from Dr. Larry Wendling, VP, Performance
Materials Division, 3M Company (9 pages). Federal Register
Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salts.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
362 pages. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.
1, 2000. Sulfornated
Perfluorochemicals in the Environment: Sources, Dispersion,
Fate and Effects. Prepared by 3M. This report is part
of Federal Register Docket [OPPT-2002-0043] for US EPA's
Dec 9, 2002, Final Rule on Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates; Significant
New Use Rule.
February 5, 1999. The
Science of Organic Fluorochemistry 12 pages.
articles and Documents
related to the Class Action lawsuit in Ohio on the contamination
of drinking water with the PFOA Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate
(commonly called C8). The C8 contamination originated
from DuPont's Washington Works facility in Wood County,
Environmental Working Group (EWG) has been actively engaged
in the PFOA issue.
They published the first comprehensive report
on Perfluroinated Chemicals that includes a
database to hundreds of documents.
This is the public record of US EPA's statements and reguatory
actions on PFOS and PFOA.
for PFOS and PFOA chemicals
formulas of some PFOS - PFOA substances
of PFOA - PFOS chemicals to be regulated by US EPA as identified
in Federal Registers
Selected Statements, Studies and Reports
Sulfonate: Current Summary of Human Sera, Health and Toxicology
Science of Organic Fluorochemistry
Use, Distribution and Release Overview
Perfluorochemicals in the Environment: Sources, Dispersion,
Fate and Effects.
Capsule Toxicity Study with Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid
Potassium Salt (PFOS; T-6295) in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Draft
Report. COVANCE STUDY NUMBER 6329-223 VOLUME I of11
Peter J. Thomford, PhD Study
Completion Date: To be determined
Testing Facility: Covance Laboratories Inc. 330 1 Kinsman
Boulevard Madison, Wisconsin 53704-2595
Laboratory Study Identification: Covance 6329-223
Sponsor Study Identification: 3M Study NO. T-6295.7
ANALYTICAL LABORATORY REPORT ON THE Quantitative Analysis
of Fluorochemicals in Environmental Samples. REPORT NO.
FACT GEN-021, GEN-024, GEN-030, GEN-033 LRNW2491, W2845, W3197,
of phasing out chemicals
today announced it is phasing out of the perfluorooctanyl
chemistry used to produce certain repellents
and surfactant products.
... These include many Scotchguard products, such as soil,
oil and water repellent products; coatings used for oil and
grease resistance on paper packaging; fire-fighting foams;
and specialty components for other products. 3M said it plans
to substantially phase out production by the end of the year...
"Our decision anticipates increasing attention to the
appropriate use and management of persistent materials,"
said Dr. Charles Reich, executive vice president, Specialty
Material Markets.... Sophisticated testing capabilities -
some developed in only the last few years -- show that this
persistent compound, like other materials in the environment,
can be detected broadly at extremely low levels in the environment
and in people. All existing scientific knowledge indicastes
that the presence of these materials at these very low levels
does not pose a human health or environmental risk...
phasing out some of its specialy materials.
3M press release,
by US EPA
Auer, USEPA, Director, Chemical Control Division Office of
Pollution Prevention and Toxics. EPA OPPT.
- According to US EPA: "PFOS accumulates
to a high degree in humans and animals. It has an estimated
half-life of 4 years in humans.
It thus appears to combine Persistence,
Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity properties to an extraordinary
Plan for POSF-Based Products. Letter from William Weppner (3M)
to Charles Auer (US EPA)
Data on Half-Life of Perfluorochemicals in Serum
Assessment and Biomonitoring Data on Perfluorooctane Sulfonate
- PFOS, with cover memo from Jennifer Seed, EPA OPPT to Charles
Auer, EPA OPPT
at Dioxin 2002 Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
first environmental survey of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and
related compounds in Japan. Authors: Sachi Taniyasu (1),
Kurunthachalam Kannan (2), Yuichi Horii (1) and Nobuyoshi
Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST),
EMTECH, 16-1, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 JAPAN
(2) National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan, US
of Pollution, Prevention
Draft Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its
a preliminary assessment of the potential hazards to human
health and the environment associated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic
acid (PFOA) and its salts. The majority of the toxicology
information is for ammonium perfluorooctanoic acid (APFO).
This assessment includes a review of the studies that were
available as of October, 2002.
is primarily used as a reactive intermediate, while its salts
are used as processing aids in the production of fluoropolymers
and fluoroelastomers and in other surfactant uses... Groundwater
samples taken near fire-training areas that used fire-fighting
foams containing perfluorinated surfactants had elevated PFOA
concentrations many years after the foam use. This demonstrates
PFOA either existed in--or was formed via degradation of--
(2) PFOA or its precursors migrate through the soil, and
(3) PFOA persists in groundwater.
cohort mortality study demonstrated a weak, although statistically
significant association between prostate
cancer mortality and employment duration in the chemical
facility of a plant that manufactures PFOA. However, in a
recent update to this study in which more specific exposure
measures were used, a significant association for prostate
cancer was not observed. In a morbidity study, workers with
the highest PFOA exposures for the longest durations sought
care more often for prostate cancer
treatment than workers with lower exposures.
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salts
page report. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
might pose health risk to younger women and girls.
memos show DUPONT knew for decades that a chemical used to
make Teflon is polluting workers and neighbors by Michael
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity associated with
Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts.
Also available at http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/pfoa/pfoara.pdf
Acid (PFOA), Fluorinated Telomers; Request for Comment,
Solicitation of Interested Parties for Enforceable Consent Agreement
Development, and Notice of Public Meeting. Docket
of ABC-TV "20/20" program
OR SORRY? NEW EVIDENCE REVEALS DANGERS OF TEFLON. By: Brian
Fast-Food Fear, by Scott Fields
sources: factories outside, consumer products inside? by
"The levels of some volatile compounds that break down
to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) inside North American homes
are about 100 times higher than those of outdoor levels, according
to the first indoor measurements of three perfluorinated sulfonamides,
which are published in research recently posted to ES&T’s
Research ASAP website... Many treatment products consist of
fluorocarbons linked to a group that can polymerize and thus
bind to the carpet. In the past, it has been assumed that this
linkage would effectively sequester the fluorocarbons from the
environment. However, a small percentage of the fluorinated
treatment product lacks the polymerizing linkage. As a result,
free chemicals may be left in the carpet fibers after treatment.
Stock hypothesizes that these volatiles could be an important
source of PFOS and PFOA in the environment. In addition, breakdown
processes in homes may even release the chemically bound precursors."
Study of Young Children's Exposures in their Homes to
Selected Pesticides, Phthalates, Brominated Flame Retardants,
and Perfluorinated Chemicals (A
Children's Environmental Exposure Research Study--CHEERS).
Abstract: The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development's
National Exposure Research Laboratory proposes to conduct
a two-year longitudinal field measurement study of young children's
(aged 0 to 3 years) potential exposures to current-use pesticides
and selected phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and
perfluorinated compounds that may be found in residential
environments. The study will be conducted in Duval County,
Jacksonville, Florida over a two-year period from 2004 to
2006. Sixty young children will be recruited into this study
in two cohorts: (1) infants recruited into the study soon
after birth, and, (2) children recruited into the study at
approximately 12 months of age. ...
A: Supporting Statement
- EPA ICR Number: 2126.01 - 61 pages
From Table 2:
• Of 16 pesticides included in this study, 4 are
Bifenthrin, Fipronil, lamda-Cyhalothrin,
and Cyfluthrin I, II, III, IV,
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)
and Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)
Table 3: List of chemicals to be analyzed in biological
• one is fluorinated: 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic
• Perfluorooctanoic acid/Perfluorooctane