PFOS and PFOA are a class of perfluorinated chemicals that are
best known for their use in the production of Teflon and other
stain resistent materials. The interest of the FAN Pesticide Project
in this issue is due to the use of several of the PFOS and PFOA
chemicals as "inerts" in pesticides. However, most,
but not all, have been deleted from use since 2001. The so-called
"inerts" used in pesticides can account for as much
as 99%, or more, of a pesticidal formulation. US EPA's policy
is to allow the public information only on the "active substance"
and to deny the public the names of the chemicals used as "inerts"
in specific pesticide products -- even though the majority of
inerts are toxic and biologically active.
See the molecular structure
for some of these chemicals
The following is a selected list of abstracts. For more see PubMed
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006
Effects of prenatal perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS) exposure on lung maturation in the perinatal rat. Birth
Defects Research (Part B) 74:405-416, 2005.
Grasty RC, Bjork JA, Wallace
KB, Wolf DC, Lau CS, Rogers JM.
Dr. Douglas C. Wolf of the Environmental
Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Research
Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, contributed
substantively to the histologic analyses of the lung presented
in this article, in particular providing the data for Figure 2.
His insights into the overall project were very important. Dr.
Wolf should have been listed as a coauthor on this article but
was inadvertently not included.
PMID: 16496299 [PubMed - in process]
Toxicology. 2006 Oct 3;227(1-2):156-64.
Epub 2006 Aug 12.Click here to read Links
Pharmacokinetic modeling of saturable,
renal resorption of perfluoroalkylacids in monkeys--probing the
determinants of long plasma half-lives.
Andersen ME, Clewell HJ 3rd, Tan YM, Butenhoff
JL, Olsen GW.
CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC
27709-2137, United States.
Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)
compounds associated with surface protection product manufactures
are distributed globally. The 3-5-year half-lives, reproductive
and liver toxicity in animals, and lack of understanding of the
factors regulating retention in the body have led to a world-wide
public concern for use of these materials. Using a novel physiologically-motivated
pharmacokinetic model for renal clearance, perfluoroalkylacid
pharmacokinetics in monkeys was successfully described by renal
resorption via high efficiency transporters for both intravenous
and oral dosing. Intravenous dosing with both PFOA and PFOS in
Cynomolgus monkeys produced time course curves consistent with
a two-compartment distribution. Extending the PK model for intravenous
dosing to examine blood and urine time course data for repeated
oral dosing clearly identified the saturable renal resorption.
Resorption depends on kinetic factors for transport (T(mC), transport
maximum; K(T), transport affinity) and free fraction in plasma
(f(plasma)). For PFOA, these parameters were estimated to be 5mg/(h
kg) (T(mC)), 0.055 mg/L (K(T)), and 0.02 (f(plasma)). PFOS
has longer half-life and had respective values of 13.6 mg/(h kg),
0.023 mg/L, and 0.025. PFOS appeared to have a higher transport
capacity and lower affinity than PFOA. Human kinetics indicates
even higher resorption efficiency.
PMID: 16978759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006
[Effects of peroxisome proliferators PFOA
on immune system of mice.]
Li A, Yang Q, Li X.
of Medical Oncology of the First Affiliated Hospital, School of
Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.
examine the effects of peroxisome proliferators
(PP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), on mouse immune system.
METHODS: Male C57B/6 mice were received
the diet containing PFOA and the following parameters were examined,
including weight and cell number of thymus and spleen, cell cycle
of thymocytes by PI staining, cell phenotype in thymus and spleen
by flow cyto metry (FCM) analysis, IgM and IgG production by the
protein-A plaque and ELISA assay, and proliferation of splenocytes
in response to ConA or LPS by (3)H-TdR labeling.
RESULTS: Severe thymic and splenic atrophy was observed in mice
administrated with potent PP, e.g., PFOA. Number of both T and
B cells in spleen was decreased upon treatment. Thymocytes were
decreased over 90% by treatment, among which the immature CD4(+)
CD8(+) population was decreased most dramatically. The most obvious
change in thymocytes occurred in the S and G2/M phases. PFOA also
prevented the increase both in plaque formation by anti-IgM and
-IgG and in serum level of IgM and IgG that normally evoked by
immunization with horse red blood cells. Following withdrawal
of PFOA from diet, the above parameters rapidly returned to normal.
CONCLUSION: Potent PP significantly inhibits
mouse immune system.
PMID: 16507247 [PubMed - in process]
Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):748-51.
Is fish a major source
of fluorinated surfactants and repellents in humans living on
the Baltic Coast?
J, Taniyasu S, Gulkowska A, Yamashita N, Schulte-Oehlmann U.
of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University of Gdansk,
Gdansk, Poland. email@example.com
of 19 perfluorochemicals have been quantified in human blood and
in some marine food resources from the region of the Gulf of Gdansk
at the Baltic Sea south coast in Poland. We indicate that in addition
to PFOS and PFOA, a further 8 perfluorochemicals bioaccumulate
in the human body. Food chain is an important
route of exposure for all 10 perfluoroalkyl compounds detected
in nonoccupationally exposed humans. Individuals who declared
to have a high fish intake in their diet (mainly Baltic fish)
on average contained the highest load of all 10 fluorochemicals
when compared with the other human subpopulations. Baltic
seafood has been found to highly influence human body burden of
PFHxS, PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA,
and to a lesser extent PFOA.
16509313 [PubMed - in process]
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2006;57(2):113-24.
[Perfluorinated chemicals in the environment,
food and human body]
[Article in Polish]
Falandysz J, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N,
Jecek L, Rostkowski P, Gulkowska A, Mostrag A, Walczykiewicz B,
Zegarowski L, Falandysz J, Zalewski K.
Zaklad Chemii Srodowiska i Ekotoksykologii Uniwersytet Gdanski
80-952 Gdansk, ul. Sobieskiego 18. firstname.lastname@example.org
Some data on production, toxicity, properties, uses, analytics
as well as an environmental occurrence of PFCs in Poland are reviewed.
In total 16 fluorochemicals were detected in surface water (Radunia
River and Gulf of Gdansk), beaver's liver (Warmia and Mazury region),
cod and eider duck blood (Gulf of Gdansk), young cattle blood
(County of Stezyca) and human blood (Gdansk Coast; donors which
declared elevated Baltic fish intake) in Poland. In blood of the
Gdansk Coast inhabitants PFHxS, PFOS, PFOSA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA,
PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA and PFDo-DA were found. In surface water for
the first time were found fluorochemicals such as PFBuS, PFOcDA,
PFBA and PFPeA, while in beavers' liver also PFTeA and N-Ethyl
PMID: 17044304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2006;57(2):99-112.
[Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides,
polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic
substances in blood--Polish WWF study]
[Article in Polish]
Strucinski P, Goralczyk K, Ludwicki JK,
Czaja K, Hernik A, Korcz W.
Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny 00-791
Warszawa, ul. Chocimska 24. email@example.com
In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed
for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The
aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund)
was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative
chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in
our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign
supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to
the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals
(known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden
and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following
groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and
polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic
substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the
blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals
looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples
was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed,
the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was
p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly
like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from
6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among
analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following
congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180
(concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant
phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were
di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49
to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration
range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated
aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single
sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic
acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide
- PFOSA, perfluorononanoic acid - PFNA, and perfluorododecanoic
acid - PFDA). The predominant compound in
this class of contaminants was PFOS with the concentration ranging
from 4,4 to 14 ng/ml of blood. The limited number of samples
does not allow for making an analysis of potential impact of different
factors on concentrations of particular contaminants in human
blood. Results obtained in this survey confirm the ubiquitous
contamination by a cocktail of hazardous chemicals of every person
tested. Humans being a part of the environment are being contaminated
with the same chemicals which are present in surrounding air,
water, food, consumer articles, etc.
PMID: 17044303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):924-30.
Formation of C7F15COOH (PFOA) and other
perfluorocarboxylic acids during the atmospheric oxidation of
8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol.
TJ, Hurley MD, Xia J, Wuebbles DJ, Sillman S, Ito A, Penner JE,
Ellis DA, Martin J, Mabury SA, Nielsen OJ, Sulbaek Andersen MP.
Company, SRL-3083, P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, Michigan 48121-2053,
using a three-dimensional global atmospheric chemistry model (IMPACT)
indicate that n-C8F17CH2CH2OH (widely used in industrial and consumer
products) degrades in the atmosphere to give perfluorooctanoic
acid (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFOA
is persistent, bioaccumulative, and potentially toxic. Molar yields
of PFOA depend on location and season, are in the range of 1-10%,
and are of the correct order of magnitude to explain the observed
levels in Arctic fauna. Fluorotelomer alcohols
such as n-C8F17CH2CH2OH appear to be a significant global source
of persistent bioaccumulative perfluorocarboxylic acid pollution.
This is the first modeling study of the atmospheric chemistry
of a fluorotelomer alcohol.
16509338 [PubMed - in process]
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Jan 1;40(1):32-44.
Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates.
Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski
Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm
University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
This review describes the sources, fate, and transport of perfluorocarboxylates
(PFCAs) in the environment, with a specific focus on perfluorooctanoate
(PFO). The global historical industry-wide
emissions of total PFCAs from direct (manufacture, use, consumer
products) and indirect (PFCA impurities and/or precursors) sources
were estimated to be 3200-7300 tonnes. It was estimated
that the majority (approximately 80%) of PFCAs have been released
to the environment from fluoropolymer manufacture and use. Although
indirect sources were estimated to be much less importantthan
direct sources, there were larger uncertainties associated with
the calculations for indirect sources. The physical-chemical properties
of PFO (negligible vapor pressure, high solubility in water, and
moderate sorption to solids) suggested that PFO would accumulate
in surface waters. Estimated mass inventories
of PFO in various environmental compartments confirmed that surface
waters, especially oceans, contain the majority of PFO. The
only environmental sinks for PFO were identified to be sediment
burial and transport to the deep oceans, implying a long environmental
residence time. Transport pathways for PFCAs in the environment
were reviewed, and it was concluded that, in addition to atmospheric
transport/degradation of precursors, atmospheric and ocean water
transport of the PFCAs themselves could significantly contribute
to their long-range transport. It
was estimated that 2-12 tonnes/ year of PFO are transported to
the Artic by oceanic transport, which is greater
than the amount estimated to result from atmospheric transport/degradation
PMID: 16433330 [PubMed - in process]
Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Sep;29(9):1952-7.
Responses of the liver to perfluorinated
fatty acids with different carbon chain length in male and female
mice: in relation to induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation
and microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase.
Kudo N, Suzuki-Nakajima E, Mitsumoto A,
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Sakado,
Saitama, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The potency of the induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation
and microsomal 1-acylglycerophoshocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase
was compared among perfluorinated fatty acids (PFCAs) with 6-9
carbon chain length in the liver of male and female mice. All
PFCAs examined induced hepatomegaly and peroxisomal beta-oxidation
and the potency was in the order of perfluorononanonic acid (PFNA),
perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHA)
and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHeA) when compared with the relative
doses to induce the two parameters. Microsomal 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase
was induced by PFHA, PFOA and PFNA, as was peroxisomal beta-oxidation.
No significant sex-related difference was observed in the induction
of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by any PFCAs examined. PFNA and
PFOA accumulated in the liver of both male and female mice in
a dose-dependent manner. PFHA accumulated in the liver to a lesser
extent; little PFHeA accumulated in the liver. Hepatic concentrations
of PFNA, PFOA and PFHA were higher in male mice than those in
female mice. One linear regression line was confirmed between
the activities of peroxisomal beta-oxidation and hepatic concentrations
of PFHeA, PFHA, PFOA and PFNA in male mice regardless of their
carbon chain lengths, and the activities were saturable at the
concentrations over approximately 500 nmol/g liver. Similar linear
regression line was obtained between the two parameters in female
mice. These results suggest
(i) that the longer the perfluoroalkyl chain
becomes, the more PFCA accumulates in the liver of both male and
(ii) that the accumulated PFCAs induce hepatomegaly, peroxisomal
beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase, and
(iii) that the difference observed in the accumulation of PFHA,
PFOA and PFNA in the liver between male and female mice is not
enough to produce obvious sex-related difference in the induction
of peroxisomal beta-oxidation.
PMID: 16946516 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Aug;48(8):759-70.
Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate:
relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources.
Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, Freeman D, Desai C, Shaw LM.
University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 19104-4284, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine serum
(perfluorooctanoate [PFOA]) in residents near a fluoropolymer
production facility: the contributions from air, water, and occupational
exposures, personal and dietary habits, and relationships to age
METHODS: The authors conducted questionnaire and serum PFOA measurements
in a stratified random sample and volunteers residing in locations
with the same residential water supply but with higher and lower
potential air PFOA exposure.
RESULTS: Serum (PFOA) greatly exceeded general population medians.
Occupational exposure from production processes using PFOA and
residential water had additive effects; no other occupations contributed.
Serum (PFOA) depended on the source of residential drinking water,
and not potential air exposure. For public water users, the best-fit
model included age, tap water drinks per day, servings of home-grown
fruit and vegetables, and carbon filter use.
CONCLUSIONS: Residential water source was
the primary determinant of serum (PFOA).
PMID: 16902368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Jan;25(1):227-32.
Effects of air cell injection of perfluorooctane
sulfonate before incubation on development of the white leghorn
chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryo.
Molina ED, Balander R, Fitzgerald SD, Giesy
JP, Kannan K, Mitchell R, Bursian SJ.
Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
Fifty white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs per group
were injected with 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, or 20.0 microg perfluorooctane
sulfonate (PFOS)/g egg before incubation to investigate the effects
of PFOS on the developing embryo. Hatchlings were weighed, examined
for gross developmental abnormalities, and transferred to a battery
brooder, where they were raised for 7 d. Chicks were then weighed,
and 20 birds per treatment were randomly chosen for necropsy.
The brain, heart, kidneys, and liver were removed and weighed.
Livers were processed further for determination of PFOS concentrations
and histological assessment. Hatchability was reduced significantly
in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. The calculated
median lethal dose was 4.9 microg PFOS/g egg. Perfluorooctane
sulfonate did not affect posthatch body or organ weights.
Exposure to PFOS caused pathological changes in the liver characterized
by bile duct hyperplasia, periportal inflammation, and hepatic
cell necrosis at doses as low as 1.0 microg PFOS/g egg. Perfluorooctane
sulfonate concentrations in the liver increased in a dose-dependent
manner. Based on reduced hatchability, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect
level was 0.1 microg PFOS/g egg.
PMID: 16494246 [PubMed - in process]
Sci Technol. 2006 Feb 1;40(3):715-20.
Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals
in human blood samples from China.
LW, So MK, Jiang G, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Song M, Wu Y, Li
J, Giesy JP, Guruge KS, Lam PK.
of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee
Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.
(POSF)-based compounds have been manufactured and used in a variety
of industrial applications. These compounds degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate
(PFOS) which is regarded as a persistent end-stage metabolite
and is found to accumulate in tissues of humans and wildlife.
PFOS, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA),
and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) have been found in human
sera from the United States. In this study, concentrations of
PFHxS, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), PFOS, perfluorohexanoic
acid (PFHxA), PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic
acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic
acid (PFDoDA), and PFOSA were measured in 85 samples of whole
human blood collected from nine cities (eight provinces) in China,
including Shenyang (Liaoning), Beijing (Hebei), Zhengzhou (Henan),
Jintan (Jiangsu), Wuhan (Hubei), Zhoushan (Zhejiang), Guiyang
(Guizhou), Xiamen (Fujian), and Fuzhou (Fujian).
Among the 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) measured, PFOS was
the predominant compound. The mean concentration of PFOS was greatest
in samples collected from Shenyang (79.2 ng/mL) and least in samples
from Jintan (3.72 ng/mL). PFHxS was the next most abundant
perfluorochemical in the samples. No age-related differences in
the concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFHxS were observed.
Gender-related differences were found,with
males higher for PFOS and PFHxS, and females higher in PFUnDA.
Concentrations of PFHxS were positively correlated with those
of PFOS, while concentrations of PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA were positively
correlated with those of PFOA. There were differences in the concentration
profiles (percentage composition) of various PFCs in the samples
among the nine cities.
16509308 [PubMed - in process]
J Carcinog. 2006 Nov 27;5:26.
Hepatocellular proliferation in response
to agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha:
a role for kupffer cells?
Alsarra IA, Brockmann WG, Cunningham ML,
University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that PPARalpha agonists stimulate
Kupffer cells in rodents which in turn, release mitogenic factors
leading to hepatic hyperplasia, and eventually cancer. However,
Kupffer cells do not express PPARalpha receptors, and PPARalpha
agonists stimulate hepatocellular proliferation in both TNFalpha-
and TNFalpha receptor-null mice, casting doubt on the involvement
of Kupffer cells in the mitogenic response to PPARalpha agonists.
This study was therefore designed to investigate whether the PPARalpha
agonist PFOA and the Kupffer cell inhibitor methylpalmitate produce
opposing effects on hepatocellular proliferation and Kupffer cell
activity in vivo, in a manner that would implicate these cells
in the mitogenic effects of PPARalpha agonists.
METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intravenously via
the tail vein with methylpalmitate 24 hrs prior to perfluorooctanoic
acid (PFOA), and were sacrificed 24 hrs later, one hr after an
intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Sera were
analyzed for TNFalpha and IL-1beta. Liver sections were stained
immunohistochemically and quantified for BrdU incorporated into
RESULTS: Data show that PFOA remarkably
stimulated hepatocellular proliferation in the absence of significant
changes in the serum levels of either TNFalpha or IL-1beta. In
addition, methylpalmitate did not alter the levels of these mitogens
in PFOA-treated animals, despite the fact that it significantly
blocked the hepatocellular proliferative effect of PFOA. Correlation
between hepatocellular proliferation and serum levels of TNFalpha
or IL-1beta was extremely poor.
CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that mechanisms involving Kupffer cells
play an eminent role in the hepatic hyperplasia, and consequently
hepatocarcinogenicity attributed to PPARalpha agonists. This conclusion
is based on the above mentioned published data and the current
findings showing animals treated with PFOA alone or in combination
with methylpalmitate to have similar levels of serum TNFalpha
and IL-1beta, which are reliable indicators of Kupffer cell activity,
despite a remarkable difference in hepatocellular proliferation.
PMID: 17129391 [PubMed - in process]
Manag Assoc. 2006 Jan;56(1):48-55.
Characterizing perfluorooctanoate in ambient air near the fence
line of a manufacturing facility: comparing modeled and monitored
CA, Butler LE, Zarzecki CJ, Flaherty J, Kaiser M.
Wilmington, DE 19898, USA. Catherine.A.Barton@usa.dupont.com
to improve our understanding of the nature, measurement and prediction
of salts of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in air, two studies
were performed along the fence line of a fluoropolymer manufacturing
facility. First, a six-event, 24-hr monitoring series was performed
around the fence line using the OSHA versatile sampler (OVS) system.
Perfluorooctanoate concentrations were determined as perfluorooctanoic
acid (PFOA) via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Those
data indicated that the majority of the PFOA was present as a
particulate. No vapor-phase PFOA was detected above a detection
limit of approximately 0.07 microg/m3. A follow-up study using
a high-volume cascade impactor verified the range of concentrations
observed in the OVS data. Both studies aligned with the major
transport direction and range of concentrations predicted by an
air dispersion model, demonstrating that model predictions agreed
with monitoring results. Results from both monitoring methods
and predictions from air dispersion modeling showed the primary
direction of transport for PFOA was in the prevailing wind direction.
The PFOA concentration measured at the site fence over the 10-week
sampling period ranged from 0.12 to 0.9 microg/m3. Modeled predictions
for the same time period ranged from 0.12 to 3.84 microg/m3. Less
than 6% of the particles were larger than 4 microm in size, while
almost 60% of the particles were below 0.3
microm. These studies are believed to be the first published
ambient air data for PFOA in the environment surrounding a manufacturing
16499146 [PubMed - in process]
EPA Science Advisory Board
of EPA's Draft Risk Assessment of Potential Human Health Effects
Associated with PFOA and Its Salts
Comment on the Proposed Descriptor
for the Carcinogenic Potential of PFOA
Most Panel members concluded
that the experimental weight of evidence with respect to the carcinogenicity
of PFOA was stronger than proposed in the draft document, and
suggested that PFOA cancer data are consistent with the EPA guidelines
descriptor ‘likely to be carcinogenic to humans’.
According to EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk
Assessment 1 (also known as EPA’s Cancer Guidelines), this
descriptor is typically applied to agents that have tested positive
in more than one species, sex, strain, site or exposure route,
with or without evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Conclusions
of these Panel members were based on the following:
• While human data are ambiguous, two separate
feeding studies in rats demonstrate that
PFOA is a multi-site carcinogen.
• Uncertainties still exist (see Issue 1 comments)
as to whether PPAR-alpha agonism constitutes the sole MOA for
PFOA effects on liver. This was based
on the fact that PFOA, but not the prototypical PPAR-alpha agonist,
WY14,643, increases liver weights in PPAR-alpha knockout mice,
a finding of uncertain significance in the absence of liver histopathology
and replication of this finding. Further, mitochondrial proliferation
was suggested in the document as a basis of liver toxicity in
monkeys exposed to PFOA.
• The exclusion of mammary
tumors in the draft document based on comparisons to historical
control levels from other laboratories was deemed inappropriate,
since the most appropriate control group is a concurrent control
group. Using that comparison, increases in both fibroadenomas
(22%, 42% and 48% for rats treated with 0, 30 and 300 ppm APFO
(ammonium perfluorooctanoate or C8, the ammonium salt of PFOA),
respectively) and adenocarcinomas (15, 31% and 11%, respectively)
were seen in the Sibinski et al. (1987) 2 yr PFOA feeding study.
• Insufficient data are currently available
to determine the MOA for the observed Leydig
cell tumors, pancreatic acinar cell tumors and mammary gland tumors.
In the absence of a defined MOA for these tumor types, they must
be presumed to be relevant to humans, as suggested by EPA’s
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006
Jan 24; [Epub ahead of print]
Occurrence of Perfluoroalkyl Surfactants
in Water, Fish, and Birds from New York State.
Sinclair E, Mayack DT, Roblee
K, Yamashita N, Kannan K.
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health,
and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, State University
of New York at Albany, Albany, New York, 12201-0509, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)
and several other perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PASs) were determined
in nine major water bodies (n = 51) of New York State (NYS). These
PASs were also measured in the livers of two species of sport
fish (n = 66) from 20 inland lakes in NYS. Finally, perfluorinated
compounds were measured in the livers of 10 species of waterfowl
(n = 87) from the Niagara River region
in NYS. PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA),
and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS) were ubiquitous in NYS waters.
PFOA was typically found at higher concentrations
than were PFOS and PFHS. Elevated concentrations of PFOS
were found in surface waters of Lake
Onondaga, and elevated
concentrations of PFOA were found in the Hudson
River. PFOS was the most abundant
perfluorinated compound in all fish and bird samples. PFOS
concentrations in the livers of fishes ranged
from 9 to 315 ng/g wet weight. PFOS, PFOA, and PFOSA (perfluorooctanesulfonamide)
concentrations in smallmouth and largemouth bass (taken together)
caught in remote mountain lakes with no known point sources of
PAS contamination were 14 to 207, < 1.5 to 6.1, and < 1.5
to 9.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively. PFOS concentrations in the
livers of birds ranged from 11 to 882 ng/g wet weight. PFOS concentrations
were 2.5-fold greater (p = 0.001) in piscivorous birds than in
non-piscivorous birds. However, PFOA, PFOSA, and PFHS were
not found in bird livers. Overall, average
concentrations of PFOS in fish were 8850-fold greater than those
in surface water. An average biomagnification
factor of 8.9 was estimated for PFOS in common merganser relative
to that in fish. This study highlights the significance of dietary
fish in PFOS accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, our
results provide information on the distribution of PASs in natural
waters, fish, and several bird species in NYS.
PMID: 16435086 [PubMed - as supplied
Toxicol Sci. 2006 Jan
16; [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure
during Pregnancy in the Mouse.
Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson
RG, Narotsky MG, Rogers JM, Lindstrom AB, Strynar MJ.
Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health
and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research
and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl
acids that have wide commercial applications, has recently been
detected in humans and wildlife. The current study characterizes
the developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse. Timed pregnant
CD-1 mice were given 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg PFOA by oral
gavage daily from gestational day (GD) 1 to 17; controls received
an equivalent volume (10 ml/kg) of water.
PFOA treatment produced dose-dependent full-litter resorptions;
all dams in the 40 mg/kg group resorbed their litters. Weight
gain in dams that carried pregnancy to term was significantly
lower in the 20 mg/kg group. At GD 18, some dams were sacrificed
for maternal and fetal examinations (group A), and the rest were
treated once more with PFOA and allowed to give birth (group B).
Postnatal survival, growth and development of the offspring were
monitored. PFOA induced enlarged liver in
group A dams at all dosages, but did not alter the number
of implantations. The percent of live fetuses
was lower only in the 20 mg/kg group (74% vs. 94% in controls),
and fetal weight was also significantly lower in this group.
However, no significant increase in malformations was noted in
any treatment group. The incidence of live
birth in group B mice was significantly lowered by PFOA: ca. 70%
for the 10 and 20 mg/kg groups compared to 96% for controls. Postnatal
survival was severely compromised at 10 or 20 mg/kg, and moderately
so at 5 mg/kg. Dose-dependent growth deficits were detected in
all PFOA-treated litters except the 1 mg/kg group. Significant
delays in eye-opening (up to 2-3 days) were noted at 5 mg/kg and
higher dosages. Accelerated sexual maturation was observed in
male offspring, but not in females. These
data indicate maternal and developmental toxicity of PFOA in the
mouse, leading to early pregnancy loss, compromised postnatal
survival, delays in general growth and development, and sex-specific
alterations in pubertal maturation.
PMID: 16415327 [PubMed - as supplied
Chemosphere. 2006 Jan 2; [Epub ahead
Perfluorinated chemicals in relation to
other persistent organic pollutants in human blood.
Karrman A, van Bavel B, Jarnberg U, Hardell
L, Lindstrom G.
Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Department of Natural
Sciences, Orebro University, SE-701 82 Orebro, Sweden.
In order to evaluate blood levels of some perfluorinated chemicals
(PFCs) and compare them to current levels of classical persistent
organic pollutants (POPs) whole blood samples from Sweden were
analyzed with respect to 12 PFCs, 37 polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene
(HCB), six chlordanes and three polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs). The median concentration, on whole
blood basis, of the sum of PFCs was 20-50 times higher compared
to the sum of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, 300-450 times higher than HCB,
sum of chlordanes and sum of PBDEs. Estimations of the
total body amount of PFCs and lipophilic POPs point at similar
body burdens. While levels of for example PCBs and PBDEs are normalized
to the lipid content of blood, there is no such general procedure
for PFCs in blood. The distributions of a number of perfluorinated
compounds between whole blood and plasma were therefore studied.
Plasma concentrations were higher than whole blood concentrations
for four perfluoroalkylated acids with plasma/whole blood ratios
between 1.1 and 1.4, whereas the ratio for perflurooctanesulfonamide
(PFOSA) was considerably lower (0.2). This suggests that
the comparison of levels of PFCs determined in plasma with levels
determined in whole blood should be made with caution. We
also conclude that Swedish residents are exposed to a large number
of PFCs to the same extent as in USA, Japan, Colombia and the
few other countries from which data is available today.
PMID: 16403420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Full free report at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/8149/8149.html
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jan;114(1):100-5.
Estrogen-like properties of fluorotelomer
alcohols as revealed by mcf-7 breast cancer cell proliferation.
Maras M, Vanparys C, Muylle F, Robbens
J, Berger U, Barber JL, Blust R, De Coen W.
Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology, University
of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. email@example.com
We investigated estrogen-like properties of five perfluorinated
compounds using a combination of three in vitro assays. By means
of an E-screen assay, we detected the proliferation-promoting
capacity of the fluorotelomer alcohols 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctan-1-ol
(6:2 FTOH) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-decan-1-ol (8:2 FTOH). The
more widely environmentally distributed compounds perfluoro-1-octane
sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorononanoic acid
did not seem to possess this hormone-dependent proliferation capacity.
We investigated cell cycle dynamics using flow cytometric analyses
of the DNA content of the nuclei of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Exposure to both fluorotelomer alcohols stimulated resting MCF-7
cells to reenter the synthesis phase (S-phase) of the cell cycle.
After only 24 hr of treatment, we observed significant increases
in the percentage of cells in the S-phase. In order to further
investigate the resemblance of the newly detected xenoestrogens
to the reference compound 17beta-estradiol (E2), gene expression
of a number of estrogen-responsive genes was analyzed by real-time
polymerase chain reaction. With E2, as well as 4-nonylphenol and
the fluorotelomer alcohols, we observed up-regulation of trefoil
factor 1, progesterone receptor, and PDZK1 and down-regulation
of ERBB2 gene expression. We observed small but relevant up-regulation
of the estrogen receptor as a consequence of exposures to 6:2
FTOH or 8:2 FTOH. The latter finding suggests an alternative mode
of action of the fluorotelomer alcohols compared with that of
E2. This study clearly underlines the need
for future in vivo testing for specific endocrine-related end
PMID: 16393665 [PubMed - in process]
Environ Sci Technol. 2006
Poly and perfluorinated carboxylates
in North American precipitation.
Scott BF, Spencer C, Mabury
SA, Muir DC.
Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division,
Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada.
Although perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) have been
detected in a number of environmental matrices, there are very
few reports on concentrations in precipitation. In this study
PFCAs, fluorotelomercarboxylates (FTCAs), and fluorotelomer-unsaturated
carboxylates (FTUCAs), were determined in wet only precipitation
samples from nine sites in North America. The analytical method
involved derivatization of the carboxylates and measurement of
the 2,4-difluoroanilide by GC-MS. Samples from three remote sites
in Canada had low concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)
(<0.1-6.1 ng/L). Significantly higher concentrations of PFOA
were found at 4 northeastern United States and 2 southern urban
Canadian sites, with Delaware having the highest levels (85 ng/L
PFOA, with a range of 0.6-89 ng/L) and a maximum flux of 13 000
ng/m2. 8:2- and 10:2 FTCAs and FTUCAs were detected at all 4 U.S.
sites and 2 urban Canadian sites (<0.07-8.6 ng/L), most frequently
at the Delaware site. Longer chained PFCAs (deca-, undeca-, and
dodeca-perfluorocarboxylates) were detected (<0.07-5.2 ng/L)
at 2 urban Ontario sites but not determined in other samples.
Air mass back trajectory results for 3 U.S.
sites indicate highly populated urban areas in the New York to
Washington corridor as the main sources of PFOA, although low
PFOA levels associated with air masses coming off the Atlantic
Ocean imply multiple sources.
PMID: 17180963 [PubMed - indexed
Environ Sci Technol. 2006
and related fluorochemicals in albatrosses, elephant seals, penguins,
and polar skuas from the Southern Ocean.
Tao L, Kannan K, Kajiwara
N, Costa MM, Fillmann G, Takahashi S, Tanabe S.
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health,
School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany,
Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509,
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used as
surfactants in industrial and commercial products for over 50
years. Earlier studies of the geographical distribution of PFCs
focused primarily on the Northern Hemisphere, while little attention
was paid to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, livers from
eight species of albatrosses, blood from elephant seal, and blood
and eggs from penguins and polar skua collected from the Southern
Ocean and the Antarctic during 1995-2005 were analyzed for 10
PFCs. In addition, for comparison with the Southern Ocean samples,
we analyzed liver, sera, and eggs from two species of albatrosses
from Midway Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. Perfluorooctanesulfonate
(PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were found in livers
of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. PFOS was the major contaminant,
although the concentrations were <5 ng/g, wet wt, in 92% of
the albatross livers analyzed. PFOA was detected in 30% of the
albatross livers, with a concentration range of <0.6-2.45 ng/g,wet
wt. Other PFCs, including long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs),
were below the limits of quantitation in livers of albatrosses
from the Southern Ocean. In liver, sera, and eggs of albatrosses
from the North Pacific Ocean, long-chain PFCAs (perfluorononanoate,
perfluorodecanoate, perfluoroundecanoate, and perfluorododecanoate)
were found at concentrations similar to those of PFOS and PFOA.
The mean concentration of PFOS in livers of Laysan albatrosses
from the North Pacific Ocean (5.1 ng/g, wet wt) was higher than
that in several species of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean
(2.2 ng/g, wetwt). Species-specific differences in the
concentrations of PFOS were noted among Southern Ocean albatrosses,
whereas geographical differences in PFOS concentrations among
the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and South Atlantic Ocean
were insignificant. Concentrations of PFOS
and PFOA were, respectively, 2- and 17-fold higher in liver than
in sera of Laysan albatrosses. PFOS was found in the blood
of elephant seals from Antarctica at concentrations ranging from
<0.08 to 3.52 ng/mL. PFOS was found in eggs (2.1-3.1 ng/g)
and blood (<0.24-1.4 ng/ mL) of polar skuas but was not detected
in penguins from Antarctica. Our study documents
the existence of low but detectable levels of PFOS and PFOA in
Southern Hemisphere fauna, suggesting distribution of these compounds
on a global scale.
PMID: 17256507 [PubMed - indexed
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006
[Comparison of perfluorooctane
sulfonate and perfluorooctane acid in serum of non-occupational
human from Shenyang and Chongqing areas]
[Article in Chinese]
Jin YH, Dong GH, Shu WQ,
School of Public Health, China Medical University,
Shenyang 110001, China.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was
to illustrate the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane
acid (PFOA) levels in serum of non-occupational exposure human
from Shenyang and Chongqing areas and to compare the distributing
character and region difference of PFOS and PFOA in those two
METHODS: Sera samples of non-occupational human from Shenyang
and Chongqing areas were collected, and the concentration of PFOS
and PFOA in serum were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass
Selective Detector (HPLC/MS-MIS).
RESULTS: The average Shenyang and Chongqing fluorochemical concentrations,
respectively, were as follows: PFOS, 22.40 microg/L vs 7.40 microg/L,
PFOA, 4.32 microg/L vs 1.00 microg/L. Statistical analysis indicated
that serum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were significantly
(P < 0.01) higher in Shenyang human than in Chongqing human.
Furthermore, there are sex differences in PFOS and PFOA concentrations
in serum at all location. In Shenyang the
concentration of PFOS in females were significantly (P < 0.05)
higher than in males. The correlations of PFOS (r = 0.298)
and PFOA (r = 0.271) with age were significant in females from
Chongqing area, and especially the correlations were higher in
older females (age t 50) than the groups of age < 13 and 13
- 50 years old.
CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that there
are predominant regional differences and distributing character
for both PFOS and PFOA concentrations in Shenyang and Chongqing
areas, and the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in serum were correlated
with age and sex.
PMID: 17086703 [PubMed - in process]
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2006
in surface and drinking waters.
Skutlarek D, Exner M, Farber
University of Bonn, Institute for Hygiene and Public
Health, Department of Water Chemistry, Germany.\
GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: In this paper recent
results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12
perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different surface and drinking
waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In
the last years, many studies have reported ubiquitous distribution
of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane
sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment,
particularly in wildlife animal and human samples (Giesy and Kannan
2001, Houde et al. 2006, Prevedouros et al. 2006). Perfluorinated
surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials
for reproductory interference and carcinogenity in animal experiments
as well as partly long half-lives in humans (Guruge et al. 2006,
FSA UK 2006a, FSA UK 2006b, 3M 2005, OECD 2002, Yao and Zhong
2005). They possess compound-dependent extreme recalcitrance against
microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they
show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in animals and humans
(Houde et al. 2006).
METHODS: Surface and drinking water samples were collected from
different sampling sites: Surface waters: samples taken from the
rivers Rhine, Ruhr, Moehne and some of their tributaries. Further
samples were taken from the Rhine-Herne-Canal and the Wesel-Datteln-Canal.
Drinking waters: samples taken in public buildings of the Rhine-Ruhr
area. After sample clean-up and concentration by solid-phase extraction,
the perfluorinated surfactants were determined using HPLC-MS/MS.
RESULTS: All measured concentrations (sum of seven mainly detected
components) in the Rhine river and its main tributaries (mouths)
were determined below 100 ng/L. The Ruhr
river (tributary of the Rhine) showed the highest concentration
(94 ng/L), but with a completely different pattern of components
(PFOA as major component), as compared with the other tributaries
and the Rhine river. Further investigations
along the Ruhr river showed remarkably high concentrations of
PS in the upper reaches of the Ruhr river and the Moehne river
(tributary of the Ruhr) (Ruhr: up to 446 ng/L, Moehne: up to 4385
ng/L). The maximum concentration of all drinking water samples
taken in the Rhine-Ruhr area was determined at 598 ng/L with the
major component PFOA (519 ng/L).
DISCUSSION: The surface water contaminations most likely stem
from contaminated inorganic and organic waste materials (so-called
'Abfallgemisch'). This waste material was legally applied to several
agricultural areas on the upper reaches of the Moehne. Perfluorinated
surfactants could be detected in some suchlike soil samples. They
contaminated the river and the reservoir belonging to it, likely
by superficial run-off over several months or probably years.
Downstream, dilution effects are held responsible for decreasing
concentrations of PS in surface waters of the Moehne and the Ruhr
river. In analogy to the surface water samples, PS (major component
PFOA) can be determined in many drinking water samples of the
Rhine-Ruhr area where the water supplies are mainly based on bank
filtration and artificial recharge.
CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations found in drinking waters decreased
with the concentrations of the corresponding raw water samples
along the flow direction of the Ruhr river (from east to west)
and were not significantly different from surface water concentrations.
This indicates that perfluorinated surfactants are at present
not successfully removed by water treatment steps.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Because of their different problematic
properties (persistence, mobility, toxicity, bioaccumulation),
the concentrations of specific perfluorinated surfactants and
their precursors in drinking waters and food have to be minimised.
Therefore, it is of utmost importance to take the initiative to
establish suitable legal regulations (limitations/ban) concerning
the production and use of these surfactants and their precursors.
Furthermore, it is indispensable to protect water resources from
these compounds. A discussion on appropriate limit values in drinking
water and foodstuffs is urgently needed. Concerning the assumed
soil contamination, the corresponding regulation (Bioabfall-Verordnung
1998--Regulation on Organic Waste 1998) should be extended to
allow the control of relevant organic pollutants.
PMID: 17067024 [PubMed - indexed
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):4916-21.
Perfluorinated contaminants in sediments
and aquatic organisms collected from shallow water and tidal flat
areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan: environmental fate of perfluorooctane
sulfonate in aquatic ecosystems.
Nakata H, Kannan K, Nasu T, Cho HS, Sinclair
E, Takemurai A.
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University,
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA),
perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide
(PFOSA) are widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems. Despite
studies reporting the occurrence of PFCs in aquatic organisms,
the fate of PFCs in tidal flat and marine coastal ecosystems is
not known. In this study, we determined concentrations of PFOS,
PFOA, PFNA, PFHS, and PFOSA in sediments; benthic organisms, including
lugworm, mussel, crab, clam, oyster, and mudskipper fish from
tidal flat; and shallow water species, such as filefish, bream,
flounder, shark, finless porpoise, gull, and mallard collected
from the Ariake Sea, Japan. PFOS and PFOA were detected in most
of the samples analyzed, followed by PFNA, PFOSA, and PFHS. In
shallow water species, PFOS was the dominant contaminant, and
elevated concentrations were found in higher trophic level species,
such as marine mammals and omnivorous birds. These results suggest
biomagnification of PFOS through the coastal food chain. In contrast,
PFOA was the most abundant compound in tidal flat organisms and
sediments. PFOA concentrations in sediments, lugworms, and omnivorous
mudskippers in tidal flat were approximately 1 order of magnitude
greater than the levels of PFOS. This indicates differences in
exposure pattern and bioavailability of PFOS and PFOA between
shallow water and tidal flat organisms. The accumulation profiles
of PFCs were compared with those of organochlorines (polychlorinated
biphenyls, PCB), organotin (tributyltin,TBT), and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tidal flat and shallow water samples collected
from the Ariake Sea. Concentrations of PFCs in sediments and in
tidal flat organisms were significantly lower than that found
for PCBs, TBT, and PAHs. Nevertheless, PFOS
concentrations in shallow water species were comparable to and/or
significantly greater than those of other classes of contaminants.
This implies that the aqueous phase is a major sink for PFCs,
which is different from what was observed for nonpolar organic
PMID: 16955886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):4943-8.
Association between perfluorinated compounds
and pathological conditions in southern sea otters.
Kannan K, Perrotta E, Thomas NJ.
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany,
New York 12201-0509, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including
perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA),
were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters
collected from the California coast during 1992-2002. Concentrations
of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1-884 and <5-147
ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers
of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for
marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also
was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations
of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association
between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS
and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died
from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent
emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly
higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in
the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were
not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated
otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated
otters did not affectthe concentrations of perfluorochemicals
in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from
1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992to
1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant
association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations
of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern
and suggests the need for further studies.
PMID: 16955890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Sep;25(9):2374-80.
Perfluorinated compounds in streams of
the Shihwa Industrial Zone and Lake Shihwa, South Korea.
Rostkowski P, Yamashita N, So IM, Taniyasu
S, Lam PK, Falandysz J, Lee KT, Kim SK, Khim JS, Im SH, Newsted
JL, Jones PD, Kannan K, Giesy JP.
Department of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, University
of Gdansk, Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, Poland.
Concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFAs), including
perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorobutanesulfonate,
perfluorooctanesulfonamide, perfluorodecanoate, perfluorononanoic
acid, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoate, and perfluorohexanoate,
were measured in the streams of the Shihwa and Banweol industrial
areas on the west coast of South Korea as well as the adjacent
Lake Shihwa (an artificial lake) and Gyeonggi Bay. Perfluorinated
alkyl compounds were concentrated from water using solid-phase
extraction and were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/
triple-quadrapole tandem mass spectrometry. Of the PFAs measured,
PFOS and PFOA occurred at the greatest concentrations. Concentrations
of PFOS ranged from 2.24 to 651 ng/L, and concentrations of PFOA
ranged from 0.9 to 62 ng/L. The concentrations of PFOS observed
in Lake Shihwa were among the greatest ever measured in the environment.
These results suggest local industrial sources of PFOS and PFOA
as well as other PFAs. Because of dilution, the greatest concentrations
occur in a rather restricted area, near the points of discharge
of the streams that empty into the lake. The
greatest measured concentration of PFOS exceeded the threshold
for effects predicted for predatory birds consuming aquatic organisms
continuously exposed to this level.
PMID: 16986792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Sep 15;40(18):5647-52.
Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate
in red panda and giant panda from China.
Dai J, Li M, Jin Y, Saito N, Xu M, Wei
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080,
P.R. China. email@example.com
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)
are important perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in various applications.
Recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread
in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The giant panda and
the red panda belong to the order Carnivora, but are highly specialized
as bamboo feeders. Both species are considered rare and endangered.
In this study, we report for the first time on levels of PFOS
and PFOA in serum of the giant panda and the red panda captured
in zoos and animal parks from six provinces in China. PFOS
was the predominant compound in all panda samples measured (ranging
from 0.80 to 73.80 microg/L for red panda and from 0.76 to 19.00
microg/L for giant panda). The PFOA level ranged from 0.33
to 8.20 microg/L for red panda, and from 0.32 to 1.56 microg/L
for giant panda. There was a positive significant correlation
between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the serum obtained
from pandas. No age- or sex- related differences were observed
in concentrations of the fluorochemicals in panda sera. Greater
concentrations of the fluorochemicals were found for those individuals
collected from zoos near urbanized or industrialized areas than
for other areas. These data combined with other reported
data suggest that there are large differences in distribution
of perfluorinated compounds in terrestrial animals.
PMID: 17007121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Water Sci Technol. 2006;54(11-12):317-25.
Photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic
acid in water under irradiation of 254 nm and 185 nm light by
use of persulfate.
Chen J, Zhang P.
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua
University, Beijing 100084, China.
The photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water
using two types of low-pressure mercury lamps, one emitting 254
nm and the other emitting 254 nm and 185 nm, by use of persulfate
(K2S2O8) as an oxidant was investigated. PFOA was significantly
decomposed under irradiation of 185 nm light, while it was very
slow and negligible under 254 nm light irradiation. This was due
to its strong absorption of PFOA from deep UV-region to 220 nm
and a weak absorption from 220-460 nm. The addition of K2S2O8
led to efficient PFOA decomposition and defluorination no matter
what light irradiation. Sulfate radical anion (SO4-), generated
by photolysis of K2S2O8, initiated the oxidation of PFOA. Under
irradiation of 185 nm light, PFOA was jointly decomposed through
185 nm light photolysis and initiation of sulfate radical. However,
under irradiation of 254 nm light, PFOA decomposition was only
initiated by sulfate radical. PFOA decomposed
and defluorinated much faster under oxygen atmosphere than under
nitrogen atmosphere, which suggested that oxygen molecules played
an important role in PFOA decomposition.
PMID: 17302335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Environ Sci Technol. 2006
Struggle for quality in determination
of perfluorinated contaminants in environmental and human samples.
van Leeuwen SP, Karrman A,
van Bavel B, de Boer J, Lindstrom G.
Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Free
University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The
The first worldwide interlaboratory study on the
analyses of 13 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in three environmental
and two human samples indicates a varying degree of accuracy in
relation to the matrix or analyte determined. The ability of 38
participating laboratories from 13 countries to determine the
analytes in the various matrices was evaluated by calculation
of z-scores according to the Cofino model. The PFCs which were
reported most frequently by the laboratories, and assessed with
the most satisfactory agreement, were perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In general, the level
of agreement between the participating laboratories decreased
in the following order: PFC standard solution (76% satisfactory
z-scores of <1 for PFOS) < human blood (67%) < human
plasma (63%) < fish liver extract (55%) < water (31%) <
fish tissue (17%). This shows that relative good agreement between
laboratories was obtained for the study of standard and human
matrices. For the fish extract, most laboratories
underestimated the actual PFOS concentration due to matrix effects.
The results for the fish tissue and water are also poor, indicating
that the extraction and cleanup steps require further improvement.
It was concluded that the PFC determinations in various matrices
are not yet fully mastered.
PMID: 17256538 [PubMed - indexed
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006
Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmacokinetics and Acute Lethality of
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to Juvenile Mallard and Northern
Newsted JL, Beach SA, Gallagher SP, Giesy
ENTRIX, Inc, 4295 Okemos Rd., Okemos, Michigan, 48864, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ten-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern bobwhite
quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed perfluorooctanesulfonate
(PFOS) in their diet for 5 days. The birds were then observed
for 3 days while being given uncontaminated feed, and half of
the birds were sacrificed on Day 8 of the trial. The remaining
birds were maintained for an additional two weeks prior to being
euthanized on Day 22 of the trial. Birds were assessed for growth,
rate of feed consumption, behavior, physical injury, mortality,
and gross abnormalities. Liver weight and concentrations of PFOS
in blood serum and liver were also assessed. Based on the average
daily intake (ADI) of PFOS calculated over the 5-day exposure
period, the LD(50) for juvenile mallards was determined to be
150 mg PFOS/kg body weight (bw)/day, equivalent to a total cumulative
dose of 750 mg PFOS/kg bw calculated over a 5-day period. For
juvenile quail, the LD(50) based on the ADI was 61 mg PFOS/kg
bw/day, equivalent to a total cumulative dose of 305 mg PFOS/kg
bw. Reductions in weight gain and body weight were observed in
quail from the 141 mg PFOS/kg treatment, but these measures returned
to control levels by Day 22. The no-mortality dietary treatments
were 70.3 and 141 mg PFOS/kg feed for quail and mallards, respectively.
Both mallards and quail accumulated PFOS in blood serum and liver
in a dose-dependent manner. The half-lives of PFOS in mallard
blood serum and liver were estimated to be 6.86 and 17.5 days,
respectively. In quail, the half-life of PFOS in liver was estimated
to be 12.8 days, while the half-life of PFOS in quail blood serum
could not be estimated. Concentrations of PFOS in juvenile mallard
and quail liver associated with mortality are at least 50-fold
greater than the single maximum PFOS concentration that has been
measured in livers of avian wildlife.
PMID: 16392015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006
Jan 13;339(2):554-61. Epub 2005 Nov 16.
Effects of perfluorinated amphiphiles on
backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum.
Matsubara E, Harada K, Inoue
K, Koizumi A.
Department of Health and Environmental Sciences,
Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 6068501, Japan.
PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitous contaminants in the
environment. We investigated the effects of fluorochemicals on
calcium currents in Paramecium caudatum using its behavioral changes.
Negatively charged amphiphiles prolonged backward swimming (BWS)
of Paramecium. PFOS significantly prolonged BWS, while PFOA was
less potent (EC(50): 29.8+/-4.1 and 424.1+/-124.0microM, respectively).
The BWS prolongation was blocked by cadmium, indicating that the
cellular calcium conductance had been modified. The positively
charged amphiphile FOSAPrTMA shortened BWS (EC(50): 19.1+/-17.3).
Nonionic amphiphiles did not affect BWS. The
longer-chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFNA and PFDA were more
potent than PFOA (EC(50): 98.7+/-20.1 and 60.4+/-10.1microM, respectively).
However, 1,8-perfluorooctanedioic acid and 1,10-perfluorodecanedioic
acid did not prolong BWS. The critical micelle concentration (CMC)
and BWS prolongation for negatively charged amphiphiles showed
a clear correlation (r(2)=0.8008, p<0.001).
In summary, several perfluorochemicals and PFOS and PFOA had similar
effects in Paramecium, while chain length, CMC, and electric charge
were major determinants of BWS duration.
PMID: 16300727 [PubMed - in process]