Hexafluoropropene polymer with tetrafluoroethylene
CAS No. 25067-11-2
 
 

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ACTIVITY: US EPA List 3 Inert

Systematic Name: 1-Propene, 1,1,2,3,3,3-hexafluoro-, polymer with tetrafluoroethene

Adverse Effects for Tetrafluoroethylene:

Cancer: multiple organs
Kidney
Liver

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes
US EPA List 3 Inert  
Other Information
Molecular Formula: (C3-F6.C2-F4)x-  
Manufacturers: DUPONT 
Of special interest:

See FANs compilation of the Thermal Decomposition Products of Teflon

National Occupational Exposure Survey (1981 - 1983)
Perfluoroalkylate: Material Safety Data Sheet: Chemical Listed as Carcinogen National Toxicology Yes; I.A.R.C. Yes; OSHA Yes. Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure May aggravate skin disorders or respiratory ailments. 

Uses: This compound is used primarily as a monomer, comonomer and termonomer for polytetrafluoroethylene resins (which are used in mold coatings, electrical insulation, filter cloths, electrical tapes, gaskets and Teflon products). This chemical is also used as a propellant for food product aerosols.
Ref: US National Toxicology Program. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem1/Radian116-14-3.html

US EPA List of Inerts. This substance is on List 3.

Note: US EPA allows so-called "Inert" ingredients to be commonly mixed with the "active" pesticidal ingredient to create a formulated pesticide product. According to EPA, "The term `inert' is not intended to imply nontoxicity; the ingredient may or may not be chemically active." "Inert" ingredients include solvents, emulsifiers, spreaders, and other substances mixed into pesticide products to increase the effectiveness of the active ingredients, make the product easier to apply, or to allow several active ingredients to mix in one solution. Both US EPA and California Department of Pesticide Regulation require pesticide manufacturers to identify inert ingredients in their products but do not disclose this information to the general public because the pesticide industry considers product formulations trade secrets, protected by law and by the US EPA. The US EPA category of Inerts (as of September 2003):

List 1 - Of Toxicological Concern
List 2 - Potentially Toxic / High Priority for Testing
List 3 - Of Unknown Toxicity
List 4A - Generally Regarded as Safe
List 4B - EPA states it has Sufficient Information to Reasonably Conclude that the Current Use Pattern in Pesticide Products will not Adversely Affect Public Health or the Environment
List 4 (all)

See good report: Toxic Secrets": "Inert" Ingredients in Pesticides 1987-1997, published by Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides.



Tetrafluoroethylene
10th Report on Carcinogens.
Published 2002 by US National Institutes for Health. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s170tfe.pdf

CARCINOGENICITY

Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of malignant tumor formation at multiple sites in multiple species of experimental animals (NTP 1997). When administered by inhalation to F344 rats,TFE induced renal tubule neoplasms, hepatocellular neoplasms, liver hemangiosarcoma,and mononuclear cell leukemia. When administered by inhalation to B6C3F1 mice,TFE induced liver hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, hepatocellular neoplasms, and histiocytic sarcomas.

No adequate human studies of the relationship between exposure to TFE and human cancer have been reported (IARC 1999).

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RELEVANT TO CARCINOGENESIS OR POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF CARCINOGENESIS

In prokaryotic systems,TFE was negative for the induction of gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium with and without S9 activation.In mammalian systems in vitro ,TFE was also negative for the induction of gene mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells (HSDB 2001). No increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in peripheral blood samples obtained from TFE-exposed mice (NTP 1997).

The frequency of H-ras codon 61 mutations observed in TFE-induced hepatocellular neoplasms (15%) was significantly less than the corresponding frequency (56 to 59%) in spontaneous liver neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice, suggesting that TFE induces liver neoplasms via a ras -independent pathway (NTP 1997).

The kidney-specific toxicity and carcinogenicity of TFE is most likely related to the selective uptake and subsequent processing of TFE-glutathione conjugates by renal -lyase (Miller and Surh 1994, Anders et al .1988). In rats,a TFE cysteine conjugate is bioactivated in the kidney to a difluorothionacetyl fluoride,the putative reactive metabolite for TFE-induced nephrotoxicity (NTP 1997).

No data were available that would suggest that the mechanisms thought to account for tumor induction by TFE in experimental animals would not also operate in humans.

EXPOSURE

The primary route of exposure to TFE is inhalation.TFE has been reported to be present, along with several other low-molecular weight halogenated compounds, in volcanic emissions (Gribble 1994). Environmental exposure may occur due to releases of TFE through various waste streams; these releases may occur during its production and use in the production of fluoropolymers, nitroso rubbers, and low molecular mass compounds and intermediates (HSDB 2001).

Potential occupational exposure to TFE may occur with workers involved in the production of polymers and copolymers of products containing the chemical. The National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES), conducted by NIOSH between 1981 to 1983, listed a total of 14,963 employees, including 325 females, potentially exposed to TFE in 870 facilities (NIOSH 1990). The National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS), conducted between 1972 to 1974, estimated that 5,326 workers were potentially occupationally exposed to the chemical in 622 facilities. Of the total, 224 employees were in 28 plants reporting under industrial classification for the manufacture of chemicals and allied products (SIC Code 28), and 365 workers were in 99 plants reporting under industrial classification for manufacture of rubber and plastics products (SIC Code 30)(NIOSH 1976).

REGULATIONS

EPA regulates TFE under the Clean Air Act (CAA). It considers the compound a regulated flammable substance and designates a threshold quantity of 10,000 lb for accidental release prevention. It has placed TFE in its list of toxic and reactive highly hazardous chemicals that have a potential for a catastrophic event at or above a designated threshold quantity (TQ); for TFE, the TQ is 5,000 lb.

FDA approves TFE polymers and copolymers for food-related uses.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends a threshold limit value (TLV)of 2 ppm (8.2 mg/m 3 ). OSHA regulates the compound under the Hazard Communication Standard and as a chemical hazard in laboratories. Regulations are summarized in Volume II, Table 170.

 
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