Flumequine
CAS No. 42835-25-6
 
 

Return to
Adverse Effects
Abstracts

ACTIVITY: Microbiocide (Unclassified)

Synonym: 9-fluoro-6,7-dihydro-5-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-benzo[ij]quinolizine-2-carboxylic acid

Structure:

Adverse Effects:

Bladder
Blood
Body Weight Decrease
Bone

Eye
Liver
Mitogenic
Potent Photosensitizer
Teratogenic

Environmental Effects:

Very persistent in sediments (at a fish farm site)

Contamination of the environment of a coastal river

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: No 
European Commission:

Not allowed to be used as an active ingredient after July 25, 2003.

Other Information
Molecular Formula: C14H12NO3 F 
Other Names;

Apurone 
EINECS 255-962-6
Flumequino [INN-Spanish]
Flumequinum [INN-Latin]
Flumigal
Flumiquil
Flumisol
Flumix
HSDB 7034
Imequyl
R 802
R 802 (bactericid
e)

9-Fluoro-6,7-dihydro-5-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-
benzo(ij)quinolizine-2-carboxylic acid
1H,5H-

Benzo(ij)quinolizine-2-carboxylic acid, 9-fluoro-6,7-
dihydro-5-methyl-1-oxo-

6,7-Dihydro-9-fluoro-5-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-quinolizine-2-
carboxylic acid

Of special interest:
PAN Data 
2004 - Flumequine (addendum). First draft prepared by Mrs. M.E.J. Pronk, Centre for Substances and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
November 26, 2002 - European Commission: Flumequine is one of 320 pesticides to be withdrawn in July 2003." Some 320 substances used in plant protection products (PPPs) – including insecticides, fungicides and herbicides – are to be withdrawn from the market by 25 July 2003 as part of the European Commission’s new approach to the evaluation of active substances in plant protection products. This aims to improve safeguards to ensure that all such products in use are safe for the environment and human health. Users, wholesalers and retailers of plant protection products will need to be aware of whether the products they use or sell are likely to be withdrawn, so as to prevent them being left with stocks of unusable material. Those concerned should contact their national authority to check the authorisation status for any particular product. The Regulation (n° 2076/2002 of 20 November 2002), with the list of the 320 substances, has now been published in the Offical Journal. Ref: MIDDAY EXPRESS. News from the Press and Communication Service's midday briefing.  
January 2002 - Flumequine (Extension to all food producing species). Summary Report (4). Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Producs.
June 1998 - Use of Quinolones in Food Animals and Potential Impact on Human Health. Report of a WHO Meeting Geneva, Switzerland. 2-5 June 1998. WHO/EMC/ZDI/98.10  
1997 - WHO Food Additive Series 39. Toxicological evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food.
June 1996 - Flumequine. Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/104/96-FINAL. Study performed by EMEA, London UK for the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. Also available at http://www.emea.eu.int/pdfs/vet/mrls/010496en.pdf 
Abstracts 
Overview of maximum residue levels 

European Commission: Not allowed to be used as an active ingredient after July 25, 2003.

-- Flumequine's production and use as an antibiotic(1) and antibiotic feed-additive on fish farms(2) may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams(SRC). [(1) Budavari S, ed; The Merck Index. 13th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc. p. 732 (2001) (2) Halling-Sorensen B et al; Chemosphere 36: 357-93 (1998)]
-- Authorized or allowed for use in aquaculture (2 day withdrawal time in France). ... Registered or approved for use in aquatic or fishery situations in Japan (20 mg/kg per day) [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V3 (1992) 618]
--
Ref: Hazardous Substance Data Bank for Flumequine. Available at Toxnet.

Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.
Authors: STEFFENAK I HORMAZABAL V YNDESTAD M
Author Address: Dep. Food Hygiene, Norw. Coll. Vet. Med., P.O. Box 8146-Dep., N-0033 Oslo 1, Norway.
Source: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA; 35 (3). 1994. 299-301.
Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.


 
Fluoride Action Network | Pesticide Project | 315-379-9200 | pesticides@fluoridealert.org