persistent in sediments (at a fish farm site)
of the environment of
a coastal river
(only comprehensive for the US)
allowed to be used as an active ingredient after July 25,
R 802 (bactericide)
benzo(ij)quinolizine-2-carboxylic acid 1H,5H-
Benzo(ij)quinolizine-2-carboxylic acid, 9-fluoro-6,7-
- Flumequine (addendum).
First draft prepared by Mrs. M.E.J. Pronk, Centre for Substances
and Integrated Risk Assessment, National Institute for Public
Health and the Environment. Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
26, 2002 - European Commission:
is one of 320 pesticides to be withdrawn
in July 2003." Some 320 substances
used in plant protection products (PPPs) – including insecticides,
fungicides and herbicides – are to be withdrawn from the market
by 25 July 2003 as part of the European Commission’s new approach
to the evaluation of active substances in plant protection products.
This aims to improve safeguards to ensure that all such products
in use are safe for the environment and human health. Users,
wholesalers and retailers of plant protection products will
need to be aware of whether the products they use or sell are
likely to be withdrawn, so as to prevent them being left with
stocks of unusable material. Those concerned should contact
their national authority to check the authorisation status for
any particular product. The Regulation (n° 2076/2002 of 20 November
2002), with the list of the 320 substances, has now been published
in the Offical Journal. Ref: MIDDAY EXPRESS. News from the Press
and Communication Service's midday briefing.
2002 - Flumequine
(Extension to all food producing species). Summary Report
(4). Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European
Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Producs.
of Quinolones in Food Animals and Potential Impact on Human
Health. Report of a WHO Meeting Geneva,
Switzerland. 2-5 June 1998. WHO/EMC/ZDI/98.10
Food Additive Series 39. Toxicological evaluation of certain
veterinary drug residues in food.
1996 - Flumequine.
Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/104/96-FINAL.
Study performed by EMEA, London UK for the European Agency for
the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation
Unit. Also available at http://www.emea.eu.int/pdfs/vet/mrls/010496en.pdf
of maximum residue levels
Commission: Not allowed to be used as an active ingredient
after July 25, 2003.
Flumequine's production and use as an antibiotic(1) and
antibiotic feed-additive on fish farms(2)
may result in its release to the environment through various
waste streams(SRC). [(1) Budavari S, ed; The Merck Index.
13th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc. p.
732 (2001) (2) Halling-Sorensen B et al; Chemosphere 36:
-- Authorized or allowed for use in
aquaculture (2 day withdrawal time in France). ...
Registered or approved for use in aquatic or fishery situations
in Japan (20 mg/kg per day) [Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology. 4th ed. Volumes 1: New York, NY. John
Wiley and Sons, 1991-Present.,p. V3 (1992) 618]
Hazardous Substance Data Bank for Flumequine. Available
of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and
flumequine in fish.
Authors: STEFFENAK I HORMAZABAL V YNDESTAD M
Author Address: Dep. Food Hygiene, Norw. Coll. Vet. Med.,
P.O. Box 8146-Dep., N-0033 Oslo 1, Norway.
Source: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA; 35 (3). 1994.
Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT:
BIOL ABS. The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones
oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon
containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was
boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle,
skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish
was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed.
Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures
reached when cooking the fish. However,
fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated
during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from
reservoirs in the fish.