Fludioxonil
CAS No. 131341-86-1
 
 

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ACTIVITY: Fungicide (pyrrole)

NOTE: Chlorfenapyr is also classified as a Pyrrole

CAS Name: 4-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile

Structure:

Adverse Effects:

Body Weight Decrease
Cancer: "currently unclassifiable" - statistically significant trend for malignant LYMPHOMAS in female mice; statistically significant increases in LIVER tumors in female rats

Cholesterol
Endocrine: Ovary
Endocrine: Thymus
Genotoxic
Kidney
Liver
Spleen

Environmental Effects:

Fludioxonil is classed as 'very persistent' in soil

Relatively high aquatic toxicity to fish, aquatic invertebrates and aquatic plants

Regulatory Information
(only comprehensive for the US)
US EPA Registered: Yes 
US EPA PC Code: 071503 
California Chemical Code 5027 
US Tolerances: CFR 180.516
FDA LMS Code: B23
US EPA Permit Date
and Registrant:
1996, Ciba Geigy 
Registered use in
(includes only a limited list of countries)

Australia,Canada,Japan, US
EU (all except Austria)
 
Japan's Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) Apricot, Barley, Beans (dry), Broad beans, Buckwheat, Cherry, Corn, Cucumber, Eggplant, Grape, Lettuce, Nectarine, Onion, Other Legumes/ pulses, Peach, Peanuts (dry), Peas, Plum, Potato, Rice, Rye, Soybeans (dry), Strawberry, Tomato, Wheat 
US Maximum Residue Levels permitted in food commodities US - permitted in or on 948 food commodities.
Maximum Residue Levels permitted in food commodities
(includes only a limited list of countries) 

Australia: 
Grape

Canada:
Too many to list - see list as reported on July 19, 2005

UK Import Tolerances: click here
Strawberry: 2 ppm (as of 2003)
Table & wine grapes: 2 ppm (as of 2003)
Plum, Cherry, Peach: 1 ppm (as of 2005)
Kiwi fruit: 10 ppm
(as of 2005)

Other Information
Molecular Formula: C12H6 F2 N2O2   
Entry Year: 1995 
Inventing Company: 1996, Ciba Geigy 
Manufacturers: Syngenta (Novartis) 
Other Names:

CGA 173506
Fludioxonyl
 

Manufacture site:

SWITZERLAND: formerly: Novartis, Werk Schweizerhalle, Pratteln

As of April 2003

SWITZERLAND:
Syngenta Crop Protection Schwiezerhalle AG Werk Schweizerhalle Rheinfelderstrasse CH-4133 Pratteln

Of special interest:
PAN Data 

• new - Fludioxonil: Material Safety Data Sheets and Labels

2006. Switch 62.5 WG fungicide product containing fludioxonil: Regulatory Note. REG 2006-08. Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency.
July 19, 2005 - Canada. Reduced-Risk Update. Report: RR2005-02. Canada Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA).
See excerpted list of fluorinated pesticides.
December 1, 2004 - Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (1371 — Fludioxonil). Canada Gazette Part II. Vol. 138, No. 24, pages 1775 - 1777.
http://canadagazette.gc.ca/partII/2004/20041201/pdf/g2-13824.pdf
1995 - Evaluation of Fludioxonil. UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX. March 1995. Note: this pdf document is large with no search engine Available at:
http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/PSD_PDFs/Evaluations/126_fludioxonil.pdf
April 29, 2000. UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs in the online report, "Design of a Tax or Charge Scheme for Pesticides." Annex C3: Overview of Pesticide Industry 
April 2002 - Beer in the UK: 23 organofluorine pesticides approved for use on malting barley.
Published by the British Beer and Pubs Association and Brewing Research International.
 
March 14, 2002 - Findings above the maximum concentration in lettuce grown in EU countries:
An oak leaf lettuce exceeded the tolerance values for the fungicides fludioxonil and cyprodinil and was also the subject of a complaint for this reason.
Clear residues of
fludioxonil and cyprodinil were detected in an organic endive lettuce. Both pesticides are not allowed in organic farming.
Ref: Report No. 6, Joint campaign for Basel city (specialist laboratory) and Basel country (Switzerland).
http://www.kantonslabor-bs.ch/files/75/E_PesticideResidues.pdf
 
Fungicide products - partial list
September 19, 2001 - Schedule No. 1255. Canada. Food and Drug Regulations.- Maximum Residue Limits on potatoes, mustard, rapeseed, (canola). This amendment will also establish MRLs in fat, kidney, liver and meat of cattle, goats, hogs, horses and sheep; and milk to cover residues in food derived from animals fed with crops treated with fludioxonil. 
1999 - Levels of Fludioxonil Allowed in Wine (by country) - The Australian Wine Research Institute  
One of 8 fluorinated pesticides used to cultivate grapes in Australia. 
April 22, 2003 - Registration of Syngenta's SCHOLAR FUNGICIDE in New York State 
April 2000 - Food and Drug Administration Pesticide Residue Monitoring. - Table 3. Pesticides detectable by methods used in 1999 regulatory monitoring.
Abstracts
August 2001 - IR-4: New Products/Transitional Solution List - This list contains brief descriptions of numerous new pest control materials that have been introduced over the last several years. Additionally, it contains information on some "older" crop protection chemicals that are believed to have room for new uses. This List includes:Fludioxonil  

Fludioxonil ranked number 30 for "Most Widely used pesticides in the UK (by Area Treated)"

Rank Formulation Method Area treated (ha) Weight applied (kg ai)
30 Fludioxonil Seed Trmt 333,533 2,946

Ref: April 29, 2000. UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs in the online report, "Design of a Tax or Charge Scheme for Pesticides." Annex C3: Overview of Pesticide Industry
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/pesticides.ranks.uk.2000.htm


Table 1. Combinations of crops and pesticides that exceed the MRLs most frequently.
Ref: Report of Pesticide Residue Monitoring Results of the Netherlands for 2001. Concerning Directive 90/642/EEC, 86/362/EEC and Recommendation 2001/42/EU.
Product Pesticide number of samples % samples >MRL MRL main country of origin
Cucumber oxadixyl 53 7.5 0,05 * Spain
Grape fludioxonil 180 10,6 0,05 * Italy
Grape penconazole 180 6,1 0,02 * Italy
Grape pyrimethanil 180 9,4 0,05 * Italy, South Africa
Grape tebuconazole 180 2,2 0,05 * Italy
Pepper cypermethrin 54 7,4 0,5 * Thailand
Pepper methamidophos 54 16,7 0,01 * Thailand
Pineapple triadimefon 22 27,3 0,05 * Costa Rica
Pineapple triadimenol 22 22,7 0,1 * Costa Rica
* MRL at LOD

US Federal Register

•• Note: Due to length, the following is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.

Published Date Docket Identification Number Details
October 24, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0940

IR-4. Petition for New Tolerances. Pesticide Petition: PP 7E7234. Proposal for tolerances in or on food commodities

-- tomato - 0.4 ppm
-- tomatillo- 0.4 ppm
-- tomato, paste - 1.0 ppm
-- avocado - 0.45 ppm
-- black sapote - 0.45 ppm
-- canistel - 0.45 ppm
-- mamey sapote - 0.45 ppm
-- mango - 0.45 ppm
-- papaya - 0.45 ppm
-- sapodilla - 0.45 ppm
-- star apple - 0.45 ppm
-- herb, subgroup 19A, fresh - 13 ppm (currently 10 ppm)
-- herb, subgroup 19A, dried - 55 ppm (currently 65 ppm)
-- leaves of root and tuber vegetables - 40 ppm
-- •• root vegetables, except sugar beet subgroup - 0.5 ppm
-- lemon - 0.25 ppm
-- lime - 0.25 ppm
-- cucurbits - 0.6 ppm
-- ••• tuberous and corm vegetables, except potato subgroup - 4.0 ppm

• Subgroup 19a includes 42 commodities: angelica • balm • basil • borage • burnet • camomile • catnip • chervil dried • chive • chive, chinese • clary • coriander, leaf • costmary • culantro leaf • culantro leaf • culantro leaf • curry • dillweed • dillweed herbs, dried • herbs, fresh • horehound • hyssop • lavender • lemongrass • lovage leaf • marigold • marjoram • nasturtium • parsley dried • pennyroyal • rosemary • rue • sage • savory, summer • savory, winter • sweet bay • tansy • tarragon • thyme • wintergreen • woodruff • wormwood
•• This subgroup (1B) includes 19 commodities: beet, garden • burdock, edible • carrot • carrot culls • celeriac • chervil, turnip rooted • chicory root • ginseng • horseradish • parsley, turnip rooted • parsnip • radish • radish, oriental • rutabaga • salsify • salsify, black • salsify, spanish • skirret • turnip
••• This subgroup (1D) includes 16 commodities: arracacha • arrowroot • artichoke, chinese • artichoke, jerusalem • canna, edible • cassava • chayote root • chufa • dasheen • ginger • leren • sweet potato • tanier • turmeric • yam bean • yam, true

Syngenta has developed and validated analytical methodology for enforcement purposes. This method (Syngenta Crop Protection Method AG-597B) has passed an Agency petition method validation for several commodities, and is currently the enforcement method for fludioxonil.

October 24, 2007 EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0940

IR-4. Amendment to Existing Tolerances. Pesticide Petition: PP 7E7234. Upon approval of request of new tolerances (see above), this proposal requests an amendment of tolerances in 40 CFR 180.516 by removing the established tolerances for residues of the fungicide fludioxonil in or on the food commodities

-- herb, subgroup 19A, fresh at 10 ppm
-- herb, subgroup 19A, dried at 65 ppm
-- carrot at 0.75 ppm
-- turnip, greens at 10 ppm

May 18, 2005 OPP-2005-0095

IR-4. Pesticide tolerance for pomegranate (post-harvest) at 5 ppm. FINAL RULE.
In the Federal Register of March 17, 2004, EPA issued a notice announcing the filing of a pesticide petition (PP 3E6803) by IR-4, 681 US Highway #1 South, North Brunswick, NJ 08902-3390. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.516 be amended by establishing a tolerance for residues of the fungicide fludioxonil in or on pomegranate at 2.0 parts per million (ppm). This petition has subsequently been amended to propose pomegranate (post-harvest) at 5.0 ppm. That notice included a summary of the petition prepared by Syngenta Crop Protection, the registrant. There were no comments received in response to the notice of filing.

Commodity PPM
Final Rule
PPM
Proposed March 17, 2004
Pomegranate (post-harvest) 5.0 2.0
Nov 10, 2004 OPP-2004-0232

Pesticide Emergency Exemption.
California - EPA authorized the use of fludioxonil on pomegranates to control gray mold; August 1, 2004 to December 15, 2004. Contact: (Andrew Ertman)

Sept 29, 2004 OPP-2004-0321

IR-4. Pesticide Tolerances. FINAL RULE. The nature of the toxic effects caused by fludioxonil as well as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) from the toxicity studies reviewed are discussed in the Federal Register of December 29, 2000. In the Federal Register of March 17, 2004, EPA issued a notice announcing the filing of pesticide petitions (PP 3E6551, 3E6639, 3E6701, 3E6742, and 3E6803) by IR-4. That notice included a summary of the petitions prepared by Syngenta Crop Protection, Incorporated, the registrant. Subsequently, PP 3E6803 has been amended to delete citrus, dried pulp at 20 ppm, and pomegranate at 2.0 ppm. In addition, ``citrus, oil'' at 500 ppm, and ``yam'' at 8.0 ppm has been translated to ``grapefruit, oil'' at 500 ppm, and ``yam, true'' at 8.0, respectively.

Commodity Parts per million
Bean, dry 0.4
Bean, succulent 0.4

Citrus, crop group 10

This group includes:
calamondin • citron, citrus • citrus • citrus hybrids • citrus hybrids, dried pulp • citrus hybrids, juice • citrus hybrids, oil • citrus, dried pulp • citrus, juice • citrus, meal • citrus, molasses • citrus, oil • fruit • fruit, citrus • fruit, citrus, dried pulp • fruit, citrus, except mandarin • fruit, citrus, postharvest • grapefruit • grapefruit, dried pulp • grapefruit, juice • grapefruit, oil • kumquat • lemon • lemon, dried pulp • lemon, juice • lemon, oil • lime • lime, dried pulp • lime, juice • lime, oil • mandarin, satsuma • orange, sour • orange, sour, dried pulp • orange, sour, juice • orange, sour, oil • orange, sweet • orange, sweet, dried pulp • orange, sweet, juice • orange, sweet, oil • pummelo • tangelo • tangerine

10

Fruit, pome, group 11

This group includes:
apple • apple, dried pomace • apple, juice • apple, wet pomace • crabapple • fruit, pome • loquat • mayhaw • pear • pear, oriental quince

5.0
Grapefruit, oil 500
Kiwifruit 20

Leafy greens subgroup 4A, except spinach

This group includes:
amaranth, grain • arugula • chervil • chrysanthemum, edible leaved • chrysanthemum, garland • corn salad • cress, garden • cress, upland • dandelion • dock • endive • lettuce • lettuce, head • lettuce, leaf • orach • parsley • purslane, garden • purslane, winter • radicchio • spinach • spinach, chinese • spinach, new zealand • spinach, vine • tampala

30

Melon subgroup 9A

This group includes:
cantaloupe • citron melon • melon • melon, citron • muskmelon • watermelon

0.03
Yam, true 8.0

•• Note: Due to length, the above is a partial list. Click here to see full list of FR entries.

 
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