Adverse Effects
Trichlorofluoromethane (Freon 11)
CAS No. 75-69-4
 
 

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Activity: Propellant, Fumigant, Insecticide, US EPA List 2 Inert (Halogenated organic)
Structure:

Adverse Effects:
Bone
Brain
CNS
Endocrine: Breast
Heart
Leukemia
Lung

Environmental

Trichlorofluoromethane (Freon®-11) - One of the principal greenhouse gases, a gas with absorption bands in the infrared portion of the spectrum. There is extensive evidence showing that a class of synthetic compounds, the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are responsible for the destruction of the ozone layer. CFCs are molecules that contain one or more atoms of both chlorine and fluorine. In September of l992, the ozone hole over Antarctica was the largest ever recorded and was almost THREE times as large as the area of the U.S. Because CFCs are so unreactive, they do not break down when released into the air in the troposphere where they are spilled. In time, air currents and diffusion carry them into the stratosphere, where, under the influence of UV radiation, they release chlorine radicals that initiate the destruction of ozone. Data collected by NASA have shown conclusively, that there is an inverse relationship between ozone concentration and the chlorine monoxide radical in the stratosphere; ClO is formed by chlorine atom attack on O3. CFCs are very useful inert, nontoxic, nonflammable compounds that had been used for years as coolants and as spray can propellants for aerosol forms of hair sprays and deodorants. They had been unsurpassed as solvents for cleaning electronic microcircuits. Commercially, the most important CFCs are the halogenated methanes, Freon-11 (trichlorofluoromethane) and Freon-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). Over 50% of asthma inhalers contain chlorofluorocarbns as the solvent and gaseous propellent. These CFCs have relatively recently been prohibited in all products except in those medicinal inhaler dispensers for asthmatics and a few other limited exceptions. In Finland alone there are over a million medicinal dispensers that disperse freons into the atmosphere. This is equal to the freon concentration of the cooling devices in approximately l00,000 refrigerators.
[Buell and Girard, Chemistry, Prentice-Hall, Inc., l994.]
Ref: http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/Glossary/tuvwz.html


• Body Burden: 7 of 8 samples of mother's milk from 4 urban sites in US positive for trichlorfluoromethane(1). It was detected in 4 of 8 samples of respired air at a range of 0.007 to 0.041 ug/hr, positive subjects having been previously occupationally exposed (laboratory technicians)(2). [(1) Pellizzari ED et al; Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28: 322-8 (1982) (2) Conkle JP; Arch Environ Health 30: 290-5 (1975)]

• ... TWO CASES OF PHOSGENE POISONING FROM DISINTEGRATION OF FC 11 PROPELLANT AT AN OPEN FLAME IN AN ENCLOSURE /REPORTED/. [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1981-1982. 3075]

• A SPECIAL CLASS OF CHEMICALS SUBJECT TO ABUSE BY INHALATION ARE THE FLUOROHYDROCARBONS, SUCH AS ... TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE ... THE "SNIFFING" OF SUCH AEROSOL SPRAYS IS HAZARDOUS PRACTICE. ... 110 "SUDDEN SNIFFING DEATHS" /HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED/ ... IN EACH CASE THE VICTIM SPRAYED THE AEROSOL INTO A PLASTIC BAG, INHALED THE CONTENTS, BECAME EXCITED, RAN 90 M OR SO, COLLAPSED, & DIED. NECROPSY FINDINGS WERE LARGELY NEGATIVE. [Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 910]

Fluorocarbon vapors are 4 to 5 times heavier than air. Thus high concn tend to accumulate in low-lying areas, resulting in hazard of inhalation of concentrated vapors, which may be fatal. /Fluorocarbons/ [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1195]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm


Accidental Death:

A 4-yr-old boy, playing with an antiperspirant deodorant in the bathtub, inhaled the propellants, 50.5% trichloromonofluoromethane (fluorocarbon 11) and 43% dichlorodifluoromethane (fluorocarbon 12), became deeply unconscious with no spontaneous respiration, and no cerebral activity, and died 5 days later.
Ref:
Accidental death of child playing with deodorant aerosol ; Lancet; VOL 1 ISS Apr 8 1978; Letter by IG Jefferson.


Freon 11. Standards for Inhalation Exposure A. Occupational Exposure Limits (NIOSH, 1997; ACGIH, 1994).

1. Ceiling Limit (C) (not to be exceeded at any time):

1,000 ppm (5,600 mg/m 3 )

2. Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL or ST):

Not established.

3. 8-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA):

1,000 ppm (5,600 mg/m 3 )

4. 10-Hour Time Weighted Average (TWA):

Not established.

5. Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health (IDLH):

2,000 ppm (11,240 mg/m 3 )

Freon 11. Acute Reference Exposure Levels (1-hour exposure) (OEHHA, 1999)

1. Level protective against mild adverse effects:

Not established

2. Level protective against severe adverse effects:

Not established

3. Level protective against mild adverse effects:

Not established

Freon 11. Chronic Reference Exposure Level (multiple years) (OEHHA, 2002A)

Level protective of adverse health effects:

Not established.

Freon 11. Chronic Reference Concentration (lifetime exposure) (IRIS, 2003)

Level protective of adverse health effects:

Not established.

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised). Released November 7, 2003) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.


Bone (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Aerosol sprays containing fluorocarbon propellants are another source of solvent intoxication. Prolonged exposure or daily use may result in damage to several organ systems. Clinical problems include cardiac arrhythmias, bone marrow depression, cerebral degeneration, and damage to liver, kidney, & peripheral nerves. Death occasionally has been attributed to inhalant abuse, probably via the mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias, especially accompanying exercise or upper airway obstruction. /fluorocarbon propellants/ [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996. 575]
-- MUSCULOSKELETAL 0.2.15.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE - Rhabdomyolysis has been reported in a worker susceptible to malignant hyperthermia after exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons and also following intentional freon inhalation. Compartment syndrome is a rare complication of severe exposure.
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

• Definition
Rhabdomyolysis
- The destruction of skeletal muscle cells. Often the result of electrical injury, alcoholism, injury (or laying in one position for an extended period of time), drug side effects or toxins.

Brain (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Chronic effects ... Chronic Effects Chronic use of Freon 11 has been linked to diseases of the mucous membranes, lungs, and central nervous system (Hazardtext, 2003B). In the occupational setting, chronic fluorocarbon exposure has been associated with a syndrome of impaired psychomotor speed, impaired memory and learning, and emotional instability (Reprotext, 2003). Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis (NIOSH, 2001E; NIOSH, 2001D).
Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

-- An estimated BCF of 49 was calculated for trichlorofluoromethane(SRC), using a log Kow of 2.53(1) and a regression-derived equation(2). According to a classification scheme(3), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is moderate. The levels of trichlorofluoromethane in three species of mollusks and five species of fish are only slightly enriched (usually 2-25 times on a dry weight basis) over the seawater levels(4). The usual order of enrichment was found to be brain > liver > gill > muscle(4). [(1) Hansch C et al; Exploring QSAR. Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. ACS Prof Ref Book. Heller SR, consult. ed., Washington, DC: Amer Chem Soc p. 3 (1995) (2) Meylan WM et al; Environ Toxicol Chem 18: 664-72 (1999) (3) Franke C et al; Chemosphere 29: 1501-14 (1994) (4) Dickson AG, Riley JP; Mar Pollut Bull 7: 167-9 (1976)]
-- There is a significant accumulation of propellant in the brain, liver and lung compared to blood levels, signifying a tissue distribution of propellant similar to that of chloroform. /Fluorocarbons/ [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1203]
-- Aerosol sprays containing fluorocarbon propellants are another source of solvent intoxication. Prolonged exposure or daily use may result in damage to several organ systems. Clinical problems include cardiac arrhythmias, bone marrow depression, cerebral degeneration, and damage to liver, kidney, & peripheral nerves. Death occasionally has been attributed to inhalant abuse, probably via the mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias, especially accompanying exercise or upper airway obstruction. /fluorocarbon propellants/ [Hardman, J.G., L.E. Limbird, P.B. Molinoff, R.W. Ruddon, A.G. Goodman (eds.). Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996. 575]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

CNS (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- MAY BE /CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANT/ ... IN HIGH CONCN. [Budavari, S. (ed.). The Merck Index - Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 1989. 1517]
-- Workers ... /involved in a spill of/ large volume of CFC-11 were exposed to high concentrations and developed /CNS depressant/ effects. In one case, unconsciousness occurred, and in another, potentiation of the endogenous adrenaline effect and tachycardia. [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.93 (1990)]
-- Freons are toxic to humans by several mechanisms. Inhaled fluorocarbons sensitized the myocardium to catecholamines, frequently resulting in lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Because they are gases heavier than air, fluorocarbons can displace atmospheric oxygen, thus resulting in asphyxiation. These compounds also have a central nervous system (CNS) anesthetic effect analogous to a structurally similar general anesthetic, halothane. Pressurized refrigerant or liquid fluorocarbons with a low boiling point have a cyrogenic effect on exposed tissues, causing frostbite, laryngeal or pulmonary edema, and gastrointestinal perforation. Certain fluorocarbons degrade at high temperatures into toxic products of chlorine, hydrofluoric acid, or phosgene gases. /Freons/ [Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1281]
-- Non-occupational exposure and accidental or abusive inhalation of aerosols /due to Fluorocarbon propellants/ have also been documented, the main symptoms being CNS depression and cardiovascular reactions. Cardiac arrhythmia, possibly aggravated by elevated levels of catecholamines due to stress or by moderate hypercapnia, is suggested as the cause of these adverse response, which may lead to death. /Aerosols/ [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.20 (1990)]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

-- Health Hazards - General. ...At high concentrations, Freon vapor may cause pulmonary edema and neurological problems such as central nervous system depression, dizziness, headache, drowsiness, tremors, seizures, confusion, in-coordination, loss of consciousness, and paralysis (Hazardtext, 2003B; Dupont, 1996A; OSHA, 1998; NIOSH, 2003C).
-- Chronic effects ... Chronic Effects Chronic use of Freon 11 has been linked to diseases of the mucous membranes, lungs, and central nervous system (Hazardtext, 2003B). In the occupational setting, chronic fluorocarbon exposure has been associated with a syndrome of impaired psychomotor speed, impaired memory and learning, and emotional instability (Reprotext, 2003). Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis (NIOSH, 2001E; NIOSH, 2001D).
-- Predisposing Conditions. Individuals with pre-existing diseases of the central nervous or cardiovascular system may have increased susceptibility to the effects of Freons (Dupont, 1996A; OSHA, 1998; Dupont, 1996B; Dupont, 1996D). Persons exposed to epinephrine or other sympathomimetic amines, e.g., bronchodilators and nasal decongestants (e.g., Sudafed •), might be at increased risk for the cardiotoxic effects of Freons (Reprotext, 2003).
-- Special Concerns for Children. Children may inhale relatively larger doses of Freon because, relative to their body weight, they have a greater lung surface area and larger minute volume than adults. Since Freon has a high vapor density, children could also receive high doses due to their short stature and the higher levels of Freon vapor that may be present near the ground when Freon is spilled.

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Endocrine: Breast (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

/was/ tested by inhalation on Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss mice. The animals were exposed for 4 hr a day, 5 days a week; rats were exposed for 104 weeks, and mice were exposed for 78 weeks. Animals were observed until spontaneous death. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to rats caused no carcinogenic effects. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to mice caused increased numbers of total tumors in females which was dose related, mammary tumors in females at 5000 ppm, lung adenomas and leukemias in females, both dose related.
Ref: Maltoni C et al; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 534: 261-82 (1988)
Website: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

Heart (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Populations at Special Risk: Employees /with cardiovascular disease are/ at increased risk. [Mackison, F. W., R. S. Stricoff, and L. J. Partridge, Jr. (eds.). NIOSH/OSHA - Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS(NIOSH) PublicationNo. 81-123 (3 VOLS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Jan. 1981.]
-- There are isolated reports of poisoning from exposure to refrigerants and solvents, and some studies showing a higher incidence of coronary heart disease among hospital personnel are required to establish causal relationship between fluorine containing organic compounds, and cardiovascular and bronchopulmonary diseases among exposed workers. The high incidence of cancer among hospital personnel repeatedly exposed to fluorine-containing general anesthetics raises a fundamental need to examine other chlorofluorocarbon-exposed workers for similar effects. /Fluorocarbons/ [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1209]
-- Clinical pathologists exposed to fluorocarbons in the preparation of frozen tissue sections have been seen to develop coronary heart disease. /Fluorocarbons/ [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1209]
-- Fluorocarbon propellants are anesthetic and cardiotoxic. ... Aerosol propellants produce hallucinogenic effects, and, rarely, contact dermatitis. /Fluorocarbon propellants/ [Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988. 528]
-- Deaths resulting from cardiovascular collapse after arrhythmias have been reported after inhalation of Freons 11 and 12. [Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988. 528]
-- The toxicity of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had been considered to be low; it is absorbed via the lungs and undergoes little subsequent biotransformation. In the United States when sudden unexplained deaths of aerosol "sniffers" were reported they were considered to be possibly due to cardiac arrhythmias induced by the CFC propellants. /CFCs/ [Rom, W.N. (ed.). Environmental and Occupational Medicine. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1992. 1299]
-- Ten subjects /were exposed/ to CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-114, two mixtures of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and a mixture of CFC-12 and CFC-114 (breathing concentrations between 16 and 150 g/cu m) for 15, 45, or 60 seconds, and found significant acute reduction of ventilatory lung capacity (FEV50, FEF25) on exposure to each chlorofluorocarbon, as well as bradycardia and increased variability in heart rate in seven subjects, negative T-waves in two subjects (one was exposed to CFC-11 and CFC-12), and atrioventricular block in 1 subject (CFC-114). Mixtures exerted stronger respiratory effects than individual chlorofluorocarbon at the same level of exposure. [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.90 (1990)]
-- Propellant /fluorocarbon/ gases were generated from commercial aerosol units and applied to the from distance of 50 cm for periods of 15 to 60 sec. At a measured concn of 95,000 mg/cu m (1700 ppm), there was a biphasic change in ventilation capacity, the first reduction occurring within a few minutes after exposure, and second delayed until 13 to 30 min after exposure, and second delayed until 13 to 30 min after exposure. Most subjects developed bradycardia, and inversion of the T-wave. /Propellant gases/ [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1201]
-- Freon 11, inhaled at 5% concentration, sensitizes the myocardium to epinephrine. A 6% concentration results in apnea and areflexia. A 10% concentration produces cardiac arrhythmias. Deaths resulting from cardiovascular collapse after arrhythmias have been reported after inhalation of /Freon 11/ ... . [Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988. 528]
-- Non-occupational exposure and accidental or abusive inhalation of aerosols /due to Fluorocarbon propellants/ have also been documented, the main symptoms being CNS depression and cardiovascular reactions. Cardiac arrhythmia, possibly aggravated by elevated levels of catecholamines due to stress or by moderate hypercapnia, is suggested as the cause of these adverse response, which may lead to death. /Aerosols/ [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.20 (1990)]
-- A SPECIAL CLASS OF CHEMICALS SUBJECT TO ABUSE BY INHALATION ARE THE FLUOROHYDROCARBONS ... THE "SNIFFING" OF SUCH AEROSOL SPRAYS IS HAZARDOUS PRACTICE. ... 110 "SUDDEN SNIFFING DEATHS" /HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED/ ... IN EACH CASE THE VICTIM SPRAYED THE AEROSOL INTO A PLASTIC BAG, INHALED THE CONTENTS, BECAME EXCITED, RAN 90 M OR SO, COLLAPSED, & DIED. NECROPSY FINDINGS WERE LARGELY NEGATIVE ... ALTHOUGH AMOUNT OF PROPELLANT ABSORBED INTO BLOOD FROM USE OF HAIRSPRAY, COSMETIC, HOUSEHOLD, & MEDICATED AEROSOLS MUST VARY WITH CIRCUMSTANCES, PHYSICIAN IS ADVISED TO COUNSEL ... PATIENT ON POTENTIAL DANGERS, PARTICULARLY FROM THEIR USE IN POORLY VENTILATED CONFINED AREAS. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT PATIENTS WITH CARDIAC OR RESPIRATORY DISORDERS MAY PROVE ESPECIALLY SUSCEPTIBLE. /FLUOROHYDROCARBONS/ [Goodman, L.S., and A. Gilman. (eds.) The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975. 910]
-- -- Freons are toxic to humans by several mechanisms. Inhaled fluorocarbons sensitized the myocardium to catecholamines, frequently resulting in lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Because they are gases heavier than air, fluorocarbons can displace atmospheric oxygen, thus resulting in asphyxiation. These compounds also have a central nervous system (CNS) anesthetic effect analogous to a structurally similar general anesthetic, halothane. Pressurized refrigerant or liquid fluorocarbons with a low boiling point have a cyrogenic effect on exposed tissues, causing frostbite, laryngeal or pulmonary edema, and gastrointestinal perforation. Certain fluorocarbons degrade at high temperatures into toxic products of chlorine, hydrofluoric acid, or phosgene gases. /Freons/ [Haddad, L.M., Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co., 1990. 1281]
-- ... Workers who spilled a large volume of CFC-11 were exposed to high concentrations & developed signs of narcosis. One of the workers became unconscious, & another experienced tachycardia. [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I,II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991. 1621]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

-- Health Hazards - General ... Inhalation of high concentrations may also result in temporary alteration of the heart’s electrical activity by increasing the sensitivity of the heart to the arrhythmogenic action of epinephrine, causing irregular pulse, palpitations, or inadequate circulation (Dupont, 1996A; Dupont, 1996F; OSHA, 1998; Reprotext, 2003). Deliberate inhalation (“sniffing”) may cause death without warning (Dupont, 1996A; Dupont, 1996F; OSHA, 1998).
-- Acute Effects ... Inhalation of high concentrations (~5,000 ppm) is associated with the development of arrhythmias and sudden death due to myocardial sensitization to endogenous catecholamines (e.g., epinephrine).
-- Predisposing Conditions. Individuals with pre-existing diseases of the central nervous or cardiovascular system may have increased susceptibility to the effects of Freons (Dupont, 1996A; OSHA, 1998; Dupont, 1996B; Dupont, 1996D). Persons exposed to epinephrine or other sympathomimetic amines, e.g., bronchodilators and nasal decongestants (e.g., Sudafed •), might be at increased risk for the cardiotoxic effects of Freons (Reprotext, 2003).
-- Special Concerns for Children. Children may inhale relatively larger doses of Freon because, relative to their body weight, they have a greater lung surface area and larger minute volume than adults. Since Freon has a high vapor density, children could also receive high doses due to their short stature and the higher levels of Freon vapor that may be present near the ground when Freon is spilled.
Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Abstract: Ten subjects were exposed to the propellants freon 11, freon 12, freon 114, to two mixtures of freon 11 and 12 and to a mixture of freon 12 and 114. The length of exposure was 15, 45 or 60 seconds. Maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEF) curves and ECG were recorded before, and intermittently up to 1 hour after, exposure. Breathing level concentrations of propellants during exposure were determined by gas chromatography. All freons induced biphasic reduction of ventilatory capacity on inhalation. The first fall occurred within a few minutes of exposure while the second was delayed 13-30 minutes after exposure. The effects of mixtures were greater than those of individual freons. The relative fall in MEF 75% was more pronounced than that in MEF 50%. No clear-cut pathological changes in ECG were found. Nevertheless, most subjects developed variations in heart rate exceeding those noted before exposure. In a few cases inversion of the T wave, and in one case atrioventricular block, were observed.
Ref: Valic F et al. (1977). Effects of fluorocarbon propellants on respiratory flow and ECG. Br J Ind Med May;34(2):130-6.

Abstract: When respiratory alterations associated with the inhalation of aerosol propellants were eliminated, it was demonstrated that a ten-minute exposure to trichloromonofluoromethane (Freon 11) at concentrations below 15% never caused death. Rarely, at a concentration of exactly 15% minimal sinus slowing occurred (change less than 10% the base line rate). At concentrations between 15% and 17%, nine animals survived while seven succumbed. Ranges between 17.5% and 21% resulted in seven survivors of 19 animals, while no animal survived a ten-minute exposure to a concentration in excess of 21%. The mode of death was most commonly and ultimate asystole. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) greater than 95% were necessary to produce death in ten minutes, and severe oxygen deficit was evident.
Ref: Flowers NC et al. (1975). Concentrations of fluoroalkanes associated with cardiac conduction system toxicity. Arch Environ Health Jul;30(7):353-60.

• Definition: asystole - Cessation of electrical activity of the heart - a necessary transitional stage between ventricular fibrillation and the establishment of a viable rhythm.

Leukemia (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Trichlorofluoromethane ... /was/ tested by inhalation on Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss mice. The animals were exposed for 4 hr a day, 5 days a week; rats were exposed for 104 weeks, and mice were exposed for 78 weeks. Animals were observed until spontaneous death. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to rats caused no carcinogenic effects. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to mice caused increased numbers of total tumors in females which was dose related, mammary tumors in females at 5000 ppm, lung adenomas and leukemias in females, both dose related. [Maltoni C et al; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 534: 261-82 (1988)]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

Lung (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

-- Chronic effects ... Chronic Effects Chronic use of Freon 11 has been linked to diseases of the mucous membranes, lungs, and central nervous system (Hazardtext, 2003B). In the occupational setting, chronic fluorocarbon exposure has been associated with a syndrome of impaired psychomotor speed, impaired memory and learning, and emotional instability (Reprotext, 2003). Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis (NIOSH, 2001E; NIOSH, 2001D).
-- Special Concerns for Children. Children may inhale relatively larger doses of Freon because, relative to their body weight, they have a greater lung surface area and larger minute volume than adults. Since Freon has a high vapor density, children could also receive high doses due to their short stature and the higher levels of Freon vapor that may be present near the ground when Freon is spilled.
Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

-- Ten subjects /were exposed/ to CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-114, two mixtures of CFC-11 and CFC-12, and a mixture of CFC-12 and CFC-114 (breathing concentrations between 16 and 150 g/cu m) for 15, 45, or 60 seconds, and found significant acute reduction of ventilatory lung capacity (FEV50, FEF25) on exposure to each chlorofluorocarbon, as well as bradycardia and increased variability in heart rate in seven subjects, negative T-waves in two subjects (one was exposed to CFC-11 and CFC-12), and atrioventricular block in 1 subject (CFC-114). Mixtures exerted stronger respiratory effects than individual chlorofluorocarbon at the same level of exposure. [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.90 (1990)]
-- ... BRADYCARDIA IS THE USUAL RESPONSE IN HUMAN SUBJECTS INHALING 10% OF CFC 11. ... IT IS REASONABLE TO SUGGEST THAT BRADYCARDIA IN MAN ORIGINATES FROM IRRITATION OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT, & THAT CARDIAC EFFECTS CAN BE INITIATED PRIOR TO ABSORPTION OF CFC 11 IN THE LUNGS. [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1182]
-- Twelve guinea pigs divided into 4 groups of 3 each were exposed for 5 min, 30 min, 1 hr, & 2 hr, respectively. Exposure of 2.5% for 30 min caused occasional tremors & the rate of respiration became irregular. Exposure to 10% for 1 hr resulted in coma. The guinea pigs exposed to this concn for 2 hr were sacrificed 8 days later. Whereas their lungs were found to contain mottled areas of congestion, other organs showed no pathological changes. ... Exposure to a concn of 20% for 1 hr was lethal. [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994. 1180]
-- Trichlorofluoromethane ... /was/ tested by inhalation on Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss mice. The animals were exposed for 4 hr a day, 5 days a week; rats were exposed for 104 weeks, and mice were exposed for 78 weeks. Animals were observed until spontaneous death. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to rats caused no carcinogenic effects. Trichlorofluoromethane exposure to mice caused increased numbers of total tumors in females which was dose related, mammary tumors in females at 5000 ppm, lung adenomas and leukemias in females, both dose related. [Maltoni C et al; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 534: 261-82 (1988)]
-- A 15-year old boy found dead with a plastic bag and a 9 oz aerosol can of a spray on coating for frying pans lying adjacent to him. ... CFC 11 ... used as propellants were detected in the tissues removed at the autopsy: CFC (ul/100g): blood 0.86, kidney 1.65, brain 1.33, liver 0.83, stomach contents 5.78. ... Death of a teenager due to inhalation of fluorocarbon CFC-containing aerosols ... /noted/ distribution of fluorocarbons: CFC 11 (mg/100 g): blood 3.2, brain 6.1, liver 4.5, lung 3.2, kidney 2.5, trachea 2.1, and bile 0.6. [Clayton, G.D., F.E. Clayton (eds.) Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volumes 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F: Toxicology. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1993-1994.,p. 1202-3]
-- Absorption of fluorocarbons is much lower after oral ingestion (35-48 times) than after inhalation. ... The lung generally has the highest fluorocarbon concentrations on autopsy. /Fluorocarbons/ [Ellenhorn, M.J. and D.G. Barceloux. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1988. 884]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

Environmental (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

US EPA: Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 45 years
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods.html

Many gases emitted as a result of industrial and agricultural activities can accumulate in the earth's atmosphere and ultimately contribute to alterations in the vertical distribution and concentrations of stratospheric ozone. Among the most important are those trace gases that have long residence times in the atmosphere. This allows accumulation in the troposphere and a gradual upward migration of the gases into the stratosphere where they contribute to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric and chemical processes involved are extremely complex. Trace gases of particular concern include certain long lived chlorofluorocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113. Since the transport of these gases to the stratosphere is slow, their residence times there are long, and the removal processes are slow, any effect on stratospheric ozone already seen is probably the result of anthropogenic emissions of these gases several decades ago. Those gases already in the atmosphere will continue to exert stratospheric ozone depletion effects well into the next century. /Chlorofluorocarbons/ [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.47 (1990)]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

Environmental Contamination Concerns
A. Surface Water Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process with estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and a model lake being four hours and five days, respectively. Hydrolysis is not expected to occur. Bioconcentration in organisms is low to moderate; BCF (Bioconcentration factor: the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism to that in surrounding water) is from 11-86. Biodegradation, adsorption to sediment, and abiotic degradation are insignificant. Large volumes of Freon may sink to the bottom and gradually bubble up to the surface if the water is not too cold (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B).
B. Groundwater In general, Freons that are spilled onto soil have the potential to leach into groundwater, because they do not bind well to soil (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Fully halogenated hydrocarbons such as Freons 11, 12, and 113 are very resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are likely to be persistent contaminants if they reach groundwater.
D. Soil
If Freon is spilled onto soil, a portion may evaporate from the surface and the remainder will leach downward into the soil. Mobility through the soil is expected to be moderate based on estimated Koc values. Freon does not bind well to soil, and leaching to groundwater is possible (Hazardtext, Preliminary Remediation Goals for Residential Soil (U.S. EPA, 2002, Region IX):
Freon 11 - 390 mg/kg
Freon 12 - 94 mg/kg
Freon 113 - 5600 mg/kg
E. Air
Once released to air, Freon exists solely as a gas. In the atmosphere, fully halogenated Freons diffuse to the troposphere, where they are very stable and can be transported great distances. Wet deposition may result in some loss, but re-volatilization into the atmosphere is likely. The only degradation process is diffusion to the stratosphere, where photolytic destruction of Freons results in depletion of stratospheric ozone, thereby increasing the amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earth’s surface (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Preliminary Remediation Goals for Ambient Air (U.S. EPA, 2002, Region IX):
Freon 11 - 0.73 mg/m 3
Freon 12 - 0.21 mg/m 3
Freon 113 - 31 mg/m 3

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

 
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