Adverse Effects
Hexafluoropropene, polymer with tetrafluoroethylene
CAS No. 25067-11-2
 
 

Return to Index Page

Activity: US EPA List 3 Inert

The following are references for this substance. They are from Toxline at Toxnet - which you may want to check for updates.

Year of Publication: 1989

THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF INHALED TEFLON PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS IS DIMINISHED IN 1 AND 5-MINUTE AGED FUMES

Authors: WARHEIT DB, SEIDEL WC, HARTSKY MA

Source: ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION AND THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY, CINCINNATI, OHIO, USA, MAY 14-17, 1989. AM REV RESPIR DIS; 139 (4 PART 2). 1989. A388.

Abstract: BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM ABSTRACT RAT TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE HEXAFLUOROPROPYLENE ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE BETA GLUCURONIDASE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE PROTEIN ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME

CAS No:
25067-11-2

Source: CHEM RES TOXICOL; 3 (1). 1990. 2-7.

An ESR study of the particles produced in the pyrolysis of perfluoro polymers.

Authors: PRYOR WA, NUGGEHALLI SK, SCHERER K V JR, CHURCH DF

Author Address: Biodynamics Inst., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, La. 70803.

CAS Nos.:
35822-90-3
25067-11-2

9002-84-0

Source: EXP MOL PATHOL; 52 (3). 1990. 309-329.

Attenuation of perfluoro polymer fume pulmonary toxicity: Effect of filters, combustion method, and aerosol age.

Authors: WARHEIT DB, SEIDEL WC, CARAKOSTAS MC, HARTSKY MA

Author Address: Haskell Lab. Toxicol. Indus. Med., E.I. DuPont Nemours Co. Inc., P.O. Box 50, Elkton Rd., Newark, DE 19714.

CAS No.: 25067-11-2

Source: FUNDAM APPL TOXICOL; 17 (2). 1991. 254-269.

Pulmonary response to perfluoropolymer fume and particles generated under various exposure conditions.

Authors: LEE KP, SEIDEL WC

Author Address: Central Research Development, DuPont Co., Haskell Lab. Toxicol. Industrial Med., Elkton Rd., P.O. Box 50, Newark, Del. 19714.

CAS Nos.
25067-11-2
9002-84-0

Source: WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH; 70 (4). 1998. 721-745.

HAZARDOUS WASTE STORAGE DISPOSAL REMEDIATION AND CLOSURE

Authors: MILLANO EF

Note: several CAS Nos. listed, but 25067-11-2 is listed first.

Source: Chemical Research in Toxicology, Vol. 3, No. 1, pages 2-7, 39 references, 1990

An Electron Spin Resonance Study of the Particles Produced in the Pyrolysis of Perfluoro Polymers

Authors: Pryor WA, Nuggehalli SK, Scherer KV Jr, Church DF

Keywords:
DCN-202497
Polymers
Polymer fumes
Airborne particles
Pyrolysis products
Oxidative processes
Free radical generation
Free radicals
Polymer fume fever

CAS No:
25067-11-2

The effects listed below are for Tetrafluoroethylene:

Adverse Effects
Cancer: multiple organs
Kidney
Liver

Tetrafluoroethylene Uses:
This compound is used primarily as a monomer, comonomer and termonomer for polytetrafluoroethylene resins (which are used in mold coatings, electrical insulation, filter cloths, electrical tapes, gaskets and Teflon products). This chemical is also used as a propellant for food product aerosols.

Ref: US National Toxicology Program. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem1/Radian116-14-3.html


Tetrafluoroethylene
10th Report on Carcinogens.
Published 2002 by US National Institutes for Health. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s170tfe.pdf

EXPOSURE. The primary route of exposure to TFE is inhalation.TFE has been reported to be present, along with several other low-molecular weight halogenated compounds, in volcanic emissions (Gribble 1994). Environmental exposure may occur due to releases of TFE through various waste streams; these releases may occur during its production and use in the production of fluoropolymers, nitroso rubbers, and low molecular mass compounds and intermediates (HSDB 2001).

Potential occupational exposure to TFE may occur with workers involved in the production of polymers and copolymers of products containing the chemical. The National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES), conducted by NIOSH between 1981 to 1983, listed a total of 14,963 employees, including 325 females, potentially exposed to TFE in 870 facilities (NIOSH 1990). The National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS), conducted between 1972 to 1974, estimated that 5,326 workers were potentially occupationally exposed to the chemical in 622 facilities. Of the total, 224 employees were in 28 plants reporting under industrial classification for the manufacture of chemicals and allied products (SIC Code 28), and 365 workers were in 99 plants reporting under industrial classification for manufacture of rubber and plastics products (SIC Code 30)(NIOSH 1976).

REGULATIONS. EPA regulates TFE under the Clean Air Act (CAA). It considers the compound a regulated flammable substance and designates a threshold quantity of 10,000 lb for accidental release prevention. It has placed TFE in its list of toxic and reactive highly hazardous chemicals that have a potential for a catastrophic event at or above a designated threshold quantity (TQ); for TFE, the TQ is 5,000 lb.

FDA approves TFE polymers and copolymers for food-related uses.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends a threshold limit value (TLV)of 2 ppm (8.2 mg/m 3 ). OSHA regulates the compound under the Hazard Communication Standard and as a chemical hazard in laboratories. Regulations are summarized in Volume II, Table 170.


Cancer
(click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Tetrafluoroethylene was first listed in the 9th edition of the US National Institute of Health's Report on Carcinogens (2000) as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen." The report states the listing is based on findings from laboratory animal studies of tetrafluoroethylene in which cancer was observed in multiple organs of multiple species following long-term inhalation exposures.
Ref: NIH Fact Sheet on the "Report on Carcinogens" - 9th edition. May 15, 2000.

http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/may2000/niehs-15.htm

CARCINOGENICITY. Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of malignant tumor formation at multiple sites in multiple species of experimental animals (NTP 1997). When administered by inhalation to F344 rats,TFE induced renal tubule neoplasms, hepatocellular neoplasms, liver hemangiosarcoma,and mononuclear cell leukemia. When administered by inhalation to B6C3F1 mice,TFE induced liver hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, hepatocellular neoplasms, and histiocytic sarcomas.
No adequate human studies of the relationship between exposure to TFE and human cancer have been reported (IARC 1999).
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION RELEVANT TO CARCINOGENESIS OR POSSIBLE MECHANISMS OF CARCINOGENESIS
In prokaryotic systems, TFE was negative for the induction of gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium with and without S9 activation.In mammalian systems in vitro ,TFE was also negative for the induction of gene mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells (HSDB 2001). No increases in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes were observed in peripheral blood samples obtained from TFE-exposed mice (NTP 1997).
The frequency of H-ras codon 61 mutations observed in TFE-induced hepatocellular neoplasms (15%) was significantly less than the corresponding frequency (56 to 59%) in spontaneous liver neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice, suggesting that TFE induces liver neoplasms via a ras -independent pathway (NTP 1997).
The kidney-specific toxicity and carcinogenicity of TFE is most likely related to the selective uptake and subsequent processing of TFE-glutathione conjugates by renal -lyase (Miller and Surh 1994, Anders et al .1988). In rats,a TFE cysteine conjugate is bioactivated in the kidney to a difluorothionacetyl fluoride, the putative reactive metabolite for TFE-induced nephrotoxicity (NTP 1997).
No data were available that would suggest that the mechanisms thought to account for tumor induction by TFE in experimental animals would not also operate in humans.
Ref:
Tetrafluoroethylene, 10th Report on Carcinogens. Published 2002 by US National Institutes for Health.
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s170tfe.pdf

Animal carcinogenicity data
Tetrafluoroethylene was tested for carcinogenicity in one study in mice and one study in rats by inhalation... In rats of both sexes, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and kidney tubule cell adenomas.
Other relevant data
Tetrafluoroethylene is metabolized by hepatic glutathione S-transferase and the resulting cysteine conjugate is further metabolized by renal b-lyase. This pathway results in the formation of a reactive thiol that causes kidney toxicity in rats.
Evaluation
There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of tetrafluoroethylene.
Overall evaluation
Tetrafluoroethylene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
Ref: International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC):
http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/vol71/048-tetrafluo.htm

Kidney (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Animal carcinogenicity data
Tetrafluoroethylene was tested for carcinogenicity in one study in mice and one study in rats by inhalation. In both sexes of mice, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas, histiocytic sarcomas and haemangiosarcomas in the liver. In rats of both sexes, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and kidney tubule cell adenomas.
Evaluation
There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of tetrafluoroethylene.
Overall evaluation
Tetrafluoroethylene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
Ref: International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC):
http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/vol71/048-tetrafluo.html

Tetrafluoroethylene: The kidney-specific toxicity and carcinogenicity of TFE is most likely related to the selective uptake and subsequent processing of TFE-glutathione conjugates by renal -lyase (Miller and Surh 1994, Anders et al .1988). In rats,a TFE cysteine conjugate is bioactivated in the kidney to a difluorothionacetyl fluoride, the putative reactive metabolite for TFE-induced nephrotoxicity (NTP 1997).
Ref: Tetrafluoroethylene, 10th Report on Carcinogens. Published 2002 by US National Institutes for Health.
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/roc/tenth/profiles/s170tfe.pdf

Liver (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Animal carcinogenicity data
Tetrafluoroethylene was tested for carcinogenicity in one study in mice and one study in rats by inhalation. In both sexes of mice, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas, histiocytic sarcomas and haemangiosarcomas in the liver. In rats of both sexes, it increased the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and kidney tubule cell adenomas.
Evaluation
There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of tetrafluoroethylene.
Overall evaluation
Tetrafluoroethylene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
Ref: International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC):
http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/monographs/vol71/048-tetrafluo.html

 
Fluoride Action Network | Pesticide Project | 315-379-9200 | pesticides@fluoridealert.org