Adverse Effects
Dithiopyr
CAS No. 97886-45-8

 
 

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Activity: Herbicide (pyridine)
Structure:

Adverse Effects:
Body Weight Decrease
Endocrine: Adrenal
Endocrine: Ovary
Endocrine: Testicular
Endocrine: Thymus
Endocrine: Thyroid
Endocrine: Uterus
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Spleen

Environmental

Rationale for US EPA to add Dithiopyr to the Toxic Release Inventory

In a 2-generation rat reproduction study, decreased body weight, diffuse hepatocellular swelling, and ``white spots'' on the livers were observed in the offspring of rats administered greater than or equal to 16.4 mg/kg/day. The NOEL values were 1.7 mg/kg/day. In a 13-week rat feeding study, the LOEL of 6.62 mg/kg/day produced diffuse hepatocellular swelling. The NOEL was 0.662 mg/kg/day. In a 13-week dog feeding study, increased alkaline phosphatase, discolored livers, and cholestasis was observed at 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. In addition, at 30 mg/kg/day, increased serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, increased liver and kidney weights, and decreased cholesterol and albumin were observed. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing dithiopyr on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available hepatic and renal toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.


Body Weight Decrease (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

In a 2-generation rat reproduction study, decreased body weight, diffuse hepatocellular swelling, and ``white spots'' on the livers were observed in the offspring of rats administered greater than or equal to 16.4 mg/kg/day...
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Endocrine: Adrenal (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Rats. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female F-344 rats for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm.. Other findings included [no concentrations listed] multiple organ weight effects, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, adrenal cortical hypertrophy, and pulmonary foam cell aggregation. The subchronic NOEL in rats is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1988)
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... [No concentrations listed for the following effects:]-- Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female CD-1 mice for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm... Other findings included [no concentrations listed]: multiple organ weight effects, adrenal cortical hypertrophy and ovarian atrophy. The subchronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- Eighteen-month Feeding Study in Mice. In an oncogenicity study, dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 70 male and 70 female CD-1 mice for 78 weeks at concentrations of 0, 3, 30 and 300 ppm... Other findings included [no concentrations listed]: increased adrenal weights, adrenal cortical swelling, spleen enlargement and increased splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. The chronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 3 ppm (equivalent to a daily intake of 0.31 mg/kg b.w. in males and 0.37 mg/kg b.w. in females). (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY STUDIES 1. Two-generation Reproduction Study in Rats 主ithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 24 male and 24 female S-D rats over 2 consecutive generations at concentrations of 0, 25, 250 and 2500 ppm... Other findings included [no concentrations listed]: increased kidney weight, focal renal tubular atrophy, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, and adrenal cortical hypertrophy... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Endocrine: Ovary (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... [No concentrations listed for the following effects:]-- Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female CD-1 mice for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm... Other findings included [no concentrations listed]: multiple organ weight effects, adrenal cortical hypertrophy and ovarian atrophy. The subchronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Endocrine: Testicular (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... [No concentrations listed for the following effects:]-- Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

• Note: Seminal vesicles - glands that help produce semen.

Endocrine: Thymus (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... [No concentrations listed for the following effects:]-- Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Endocrine: Thyroid (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Rats. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female F-344 rats for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm.. Other findings included [no concentrations listed] multiple organ weight effects, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, adrenal cortical hypertrophy, and pulmonary foam cell aggregation. The subchronic NOEL in rats is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1988)
-- REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY STUDIES 1. Two-generation Reproduction Study in Rats 主ithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 24 male and 24 female S-D rats over 2 consecutive generations at concentrations of 0, 25, 250 and 2500 ppm... Other findings included [no concentrations listed]: increased kidney weight, focal renal tubular atrophy, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, and adrenal cortical hypertrophy... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Endocrine: Uterus (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... [No concentrations listed for the following effects:]-- Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Kidney (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

... In a 13-week dog feeding study, increased alkaline phosphatase, discolored livers, and cholestasis was observed at 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. In addition, at 30 mg/kg/day, increased serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, increased liver and kidney weights, and decreased cholesterol and albumin were observed. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing dithiopyr on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available hepatic and renal toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Rats. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm. Decreased body weight and food consumption, as well as clinical signs of toxicity were observed at the higher dose levels. Liver enlargement and discoloration, thymic atrophy, emaciation, and increased liver, kidney and thyroid/parathyroid weights were noted on gross postmortem examination. Due to an elevation in liver and kidney weights at the low dose level, the no observable effect level (NOEL) is considered to be less than 300 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1986)
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Mice Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female CD-1 mice for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm... Postmortem examination revealed primarily liver and kidney toxicity. Elevated plasma AP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen and cholesterol levels were indicative of cholestasis and liver toxicity. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a significant increase in liver weight, hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation and necrosis, dissociation of hepatocellular cords, and bile duct proliferation. Increased kidney weights, decreased urine protein and specific gravity, and acidophilia of proximal tubular cells were indicative of mild renal toxicity... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- CHRONIC TOXICITY AND ONCOGENICITY STUDIES. Twenty-four-month Feeding Study in Rats 付n a combined chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study, dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 90 male and 90 female F-344 rats for 104 weeks at concentrations of 0, 3, 10, 100 and 300 ppm... Postmortem examination provided evidence of liver and kidney toxicity. There were no statistically significant or biologically significant increases in neoplastic lesions.
-- Twelve-month Oral Study in Dogs 主ithiopyr was administered orally via gelatin capsule to groups of 6 male and 6 female beagle dogs for 52 weeks at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 5 and 25 mg/kg/day... Postmortem examination revealed liver toxicity and cholestasis. Specific findings included : increased AP levels in plasma, liver enlargement and discoloration, the presence of black sandy materials in the gallbladder, hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis, pseudo-bile duct formation, bile duct proliferation, and increased mucoidal secretion in the gallbladder. Brown pigment deposition was also found in the bile canaliculi, Kupffer cells and the kidneys. The chronic NOEL in dogs is considered to be 0.5 mg/kg/day. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY STUDIES 1. Two-generation Reproduction Study in Rats 主ithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 24 male and 24 female S-D rats over 2 consecutive generations at concentrations of 0, 25, 250 and 2500 ppm... Postmortem examination of parental animals revealed primarily liver toxicity, consisting of organ enlargement and discoloration, hepatocellular swelling and necrosis, and bile stasis. Other findings included : increased kidney weight, focal renal tubular atrophy, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, and adrenal cortical hypertrophy... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993)

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Liver (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

... In a 13-week dog feeding study, increased alkaline phosphatase, discolored livers, and cholestasis was observed at 10 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was 1 mg/kg/day. In addition, at 30 mg/kg/day, increased serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, increased liver and kidney weights, and decreased cholesterol and albumin were observed. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing dithiopyr on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available hepatic and renal toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Mice Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female CD-1 mice for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm. Mortality, decreased body weight gain, reduced feed efficiency, and mild anemia were observed at the higher dose level. By study termination many high dose animals appeared jaundiced, emaciated and had distended abdomens. Postmortem examination revealed primarily liver and kidney toxicity. Elevated plasma AP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea nitrogen and cholesterol levels were indicative of cholestasis and liver toxicity. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a significant increase in liver weight, hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation and necrosis, dissociation of hepatocellular cords, and bile duct proliferation... The subchronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- Two-week Oral Study in Dogs 主ithiopyr was administered orally via gelatin capsule to 1 male and 1 female beagle dog for 2 weeks at dose levels of 0, 10, 30, 60, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. Emesis and decreased body weight were observed at the higher dose levels. Biochemical and histopathological evidence of liver toxicity, manifest as increased AP, AST, and g-GT levels in plasma, along with hepatocellular swelling, pigment deposition, and focal necrosis, were apparent on postmortem examination. The NOEL is considered to be 10 mg/kg/day. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1988)
-- Thirteen-week Oral Study in Dogs 主ithiopyr was administered orally via gelatin capsule to groups of 6 male and 6 female beagle dogs for 13 weeks at dose levels of 0, 1, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day. Postmortem examination revealed liver toxicity and moderate to severe cholestasis at the higher dose levels. Specific findings included : increased liver weights, increased AP, AST and g-GT levels in plasma, along with liver swelling, distended gallbladders with sandy stones, pigment deposition in bile canaliculi and Kupffer cells, and mononuclear cell infiltration of the liver. The subchronic NOEL in dogs is considered to be 1 mg/kg/day. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1988)
-- Eighteen-month Feeding Study in Mice 付n an oncogenicity study, dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 70 male and 70 female CD-1 mice for 78 weeks at concentrations of 0, 3, 30 and 300 ppm... Postmortem examination revealed primarily liver toxicity. There were no statistically significant or biologically significant increases in neoplastic lesions. Liver enlargement and discoloration, hepatocellular swelling, bile duct proliferation, and pigment deposition in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and the bile canaliculi were indicative of mild liver toxicity and cholestasis... The chronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 3 ppm (equivalent to a daily intake of 0.31 mg/kg b.w. in males and 0.37 mg/kg b.w. in females). (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- Twelve-month Oral Study in Dogs 主ithiopyr was administered orally via gelatin capsule to groups of 6 male and 6 female beagle dogs for 52 weeks at dose levels of 0, 0.5, 5 and 25 mg/kg/day... Postmortem examination revealed liver toxicity and cholestasis. Specific findings included : increased AP levels in plasma, liver enlargement and discoloration, the presence of black sandy materials in the gallbladder, hepatocellular necrosis and fibrosis, pseudo-bile duct formation, bile duct proliferation, and increased mucoidal secretion in the gallbladder. Brown pigment deposition was also found in the bile canaliculi, Kupffer cells and the kidneys. The chronic NOEL in dogs is considered to be 0.5 mg/kg/day. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
-- REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY STUDIES 1. Two-generation Reproduction Study in Rats 主ithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 24 male and 24 female S-D rats over 2 consecutive generations at concentrations of 0, 25, 250 and 2500 ppm... Postmortem examination of parental animals revealed primarily liver toxicity, consisting of organ enlargement and discoloration, hepatocellular swelling and necrosis, and bile stasis. Other findings included : increased kidney weight, focal renal tubular atrophy, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, and adrenal cortical hypertrophy. Postmortem examination of the offspring revealed liver enlargement and the appearance of white spots at the periphery of the liver lobes. These findings were accompanied by histopathological evidence of hepatocellular swelling and localized areas of hepatocellular necrosis, fibrosis and mineralization. The white liver spots are considered a reversible lesion due to their declining incidence with increasing animal age and their complete absence in adults... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural GroUp, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993) -

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Lung (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Thirteen-week Feeding Study in Rats. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 12 male and 12 female F-344 rats for 13 weeks at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 and 5000 ppm.. Other findings included [no concentrations listed] multiple organ weight effects, thyroid follicular hypertrophy, adrenal cortical hypertrophy, and pulmonary foam cell aggregation. The subchronic NOEL in rats is considered to be 10 ppm. (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1988)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr. Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993). Also available at

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Spleen (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

The following results were presented by a Monsanto scientist.
-- Four-week Feeding Study in Mice. Dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 6 male and 6 female CD-1 mice for 4 weeks at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 ppm... Liver enlargement and discoloration, adrenal enlargement, and atrophy of the thymus, spleen, seminal vesicles, ovaries and uterus were noted on gross post-mortem examination... (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1987)

-- Eighteen-month Feeding Study in Mice 付n an oncogenicity study, dithiopyr was administered via the diet to groups of 70 male and 70 female CD-1 mice for 78 weeks at concentrations of 0, 3, 30 and 300 ppm... Other findings included : increased adrenal weights, adrenal cortical swelling, spleen enlargement and increased splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. The chronic NOEL in mice is considered to be 3 ppm (equivalent to a daily intake of 0.31 mg/kg b.w. in males and 0.37 mg/kg b.w. in females). (The Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 1989)
Ref: Summary of Toxicology Studies With Dithiopyr Dennis P. WARD. Toxicology Department, The Agricultural Grop, A Unit of Monsanto Company (Received February 20, 1993)

http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/pssj2/tec_info/dithiopy.pdf

Environmental (click on for all fluorinated pesticides)

Ref: Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Dithiopyr on All Taxa Groups. PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC33292
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Number of Studies Avg Species Rating Outlier Result for Organism Group?

Fish

Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus 2,160 - 1 Moderately Toxic  
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 470.0 - 1 Highly Toxic  
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 460.0 - 1 Highly Toxic  

 
Zooplankton

Opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia 580.0 - 1 Highly Toxic  

 

 
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