| • See Table of dramatic weight loss effects in laboratory animals exposed to fluoride and/or fluorinated pesticides.
use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially
significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of
adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate
such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative
risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in
animal species are assumed to represent potential effects
in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.
- Fungicide - CAS No. 124495-18-7
** 040 - 181140 "XDE-795:
Two-Year Dietary Chronic Toxicity/Oncogenicity Study in Fischer
344 Rats-Final Report," (Redmond, J.M.,
Quast, J.F., Bond, D.M., Ormand, J.R.; The Toxicology Research
Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences Ð The Dow
Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory ID#: DR-0325-7474-007;
6/29/95). XDE-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline;
97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Fischer 344 rats at 0, 5, 20 or
80 mg/kg/day for 1 Ð 2 years. XDE-795 was administered for 2 years
to 50/sex/dose for chronic/oncogenicity assessment. A satellite
group (15/sex/dose) was sacrificed at 12 months (10/sex/dose for
interim assessment of chronic toxicity; 5/sex/dose to assess neurotoxicity).
NOEL = 20 mg/kg (Females at 80 mg/kg had increased perineal soiling
(satellite & main group). Both sexes had decreased
bodyweights and bodyweight gains at 80 mg/kg throughout
-- 034 - 181176 "XDE-795: One Year Chronic Dietary Toxicity
Study in Beagle Dogs," (Cosse, P.F.,
Stebbins, K.E., Redmond, J.M., Ormand, J.R.; The Toxicology Research
Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences Ð The Dow
Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory ID#: DR-0325-7474-011;
4/21/95). XDE-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline;
97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Beagle dogs (4/sex/dose) at 0,
5, 20 or 200 mg/kg/day for 1year. NOEL = 20 mg/kg (A male at 200
mg/kg was killed moribund, due to a severe
weight decrease (2 kg), decreased
hemoglobin and RBC counts. Both
sexes had significantly decreased
body weights and food consumption at 200 mg/kg. The report
stated it was due to unpalatability of diet at the high dose,
which persisted throughout the majority of the study...
-- ** 035 - 181177 "XDE-795: Potential Tumorigenic Effects
in Prolonged Dietary Administration to CD-1 Mice," (Bellringer,
M.E.; J.R.; Huntingdon Research Centre,
Ltd., Cambridgeshire, UK; HRC Project ID#: DWC/657; 6/5/95).
XR-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline; 97.4% pure)
was fed in diet to Crl:CD-1 (ICR)BR mice (50/sex/dose) at 0, 20,
80 and 250 mg/kg/day for 80 weeks. NOEL = 80 mg/kg (There was
a significantly decreased bodyweight gain
in both sexes at 250 mg/kg (primarily females). The effect was
intermittent in males throughout the study. Relative (to bodyweight)
liver and kidney weights were significantly increased in females
at 250 mg/kg.) There were no histological (neoplastic or
non-neoplastic) effects due to treatment. No adverse effects.
Acceptable. M. Silva, 8/24/01
-- ** 039 Ð 181139 "XDE-795: Two-Generation Dietary Reproduction
Study in Sprague-Dawley Rats," (Liberacki,
A.B., Breslin, W.J., Zwinker, G.M., Johnson, K.A., Freshour, N.L.;
The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences,
The Dow Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory
ID#Õs: DR-0325- 7474-013 [P1, F0, W1, FB, WB, P2, F2 & W4]; 5/23/95).
XDE-795 (97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Sprague-Dawley rats (30/sex/dose)
at 0, 5, 20 and 100 mg/kg/day, 7 days/week for 2 generations.
Systemic NOEL = 20 mg/kg (Kidney pathology
was observed in P1 and P2 females at 100 mg/kg. Males showed liver,
kidney and epididymal histopathology at 100 mg/kg in P1 and P2
adults.) Reproductive NOEL = 100 mg/kg/day (There were no treatment-related
reproductive effects in either sex.) Pup NOEL = 20 mg/kg/ (F1a
& F1b pups showed decreased bodyweights
at 21 days of lactation and this was considered to be due to excessive
dose and decreased food consumption.) No adverse effect. Acceptable.
M. Silva, 8/9/01
-- Rangefinding Study: 037 Ð 181136 "XDE-795: Oral Gavage
Teratology Probe Study in New Zealand White Rabbits,"
(Zablotny, C.L., Yano, B.L., Breslin, W.J.; The Toxicology Research
Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences, The Dow
Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory Project #: DR-0325-7474-014;
11/29/93). XDE-795 (96.2% pure) was administered by oral
gavage to time-mated New Zealand white rabbits (7/dose) at 0 (0.5%
METHOCEL A4M), 100, 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg/day, days 7-19 of
gestation. Due to extreme maternal toxicity, treatment was discontinued
at 600 and 1000 mg/kg from gestation day 15. Effects included
decreased fecal output, weight loss,
extreme decrease in food consumption. Maternal NOEL = 100 mg/kg
(There were increased clinical observations, as well as decreased
body weight, body weight gain and food consumption at >
300 mg/kg. Liver weights were significantly
increased at 300 mg/kg.) Developmental NOEL > 300 mg/kg (There
were no treatment-related effects at 100 or 300 mg/kg.) No adverse
effect. These data are supplemental. M. Silva, 8/29/01
-- Definitive Study: ** 038 Ð 181138 "XDE-795: Oral Gavage
Teratology Study in New Zealand White Rabbits,"(Zablotny,
C.L., Yano, B.L., Breslin, W.J.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory,
Health and Environmental Sciences, The Dow
Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory Project #: DR-0325-7474-015;
2/17/94). XDE-795 (96.2% pure) was administered by oral
gavage to time-mated New Zealand white rabbits (18/dose) at 0
(0.5% METHOCEL A4M), 20, 80 and 200 mg/kg/day, days 7-19 of gestation.
Maternal NOEL = 80 mg/kg (There were increased clinical observations
and abortions, as well as decreased body
weight, body weight gain and
food consumption at 200 mg/kg.) Developmental NOEL > 200 mg/kg
(There were no treatment-related effects at any dose.) No adverse
effect. Acceptable. M. Silva, 8/9/01
-- 030; 181170; "XR-795: Four Week Dietary Toxicity Study
in Fischer 344 Rats" (Szabo, J.R. and
Davis, N.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas Lake Jackson
Research Center, The Dow Chemical Company,
Freeport, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID TXT: DR-0325-7474-002,
10/12/92). XR-795 (TSN100003, DECO-36-106, purity = 97.6%)
was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated diet only),
250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to 5 Fischer
344 rats per sex per dose for 4 weeks. No clinical signs were
observed. A treatment-related decrease in
mean body weight at all dose levels in both sexes was observed.
Treatment-related increases in mean relative
liver (in both sexes at all dose levels) and in mean relative
kidney (in males at all dose levels and in females at 500 and
1000 mg/kg/day) weights and a treatment-related decrease in mean
relative testes weight at 1000 mg/kg/day were observed. Macroscopic
examination revealed bilateral testicular atrophy in 3/5 animals
at 1000 mg/kg/day. Microscopic examination revealed a moderate
to severe decrease in spermatogenesis in 4/5 animals at 1000 mg/kg/day.
Possible adverse effect indicated: testicular atrophy with a decrease
in spermatogenesis. NOEL (M/F) < 250 mg/kg/day (based on
body weight and mean relative organ
weight data). Supplemental (only 5 animals per sex per dose were
used and the animals were only dosed for 4 weeks). (Corlett, 8/27/01)
-- (Corlett, 8/27/01) 030; 181171; "XR-795: Palatability
and Toxicity Probe Study in Beagle Dogs" (Szabo,
J.R. and Rachunek, B.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas
Lake Jackson Research Center, The Dow Chemical
Company, Freeport, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID: DR-0325-7474-001,
2/28/92). XR-795 (TSN100008, Lot # DECO-36-111, purity
= 98.8%) was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated
diet only), 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to
1 beagle dog per sex per dose for 30 days. No clinical signs were
observed. A treatment-related decrease in
body weight gain or outright body weight loss at all dose levels
in males and at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day in females was observed.
A treatment-related decrease in feed consumption in males at all
dose levels and in females at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day was observed.
Macroscopic examination revealed a small/atrophic thymus in both
the male and the female at 1000 mg/kg/day and small/atrophic testes
in the male at 1000 mg/kg/day. Microscopic examination revealed
vacuolation of midzonal and centrilobular hepatocytes at 500 and
1000 mg/kg/day in both sexes and thymic lymphoid depletion in
the male and female at 1000 mg/kg/day. No adverse effects. NOEL
(M) < 100 mg/kg/day, NOEL (F) = 100 mg/kg/day (based on
body weight and feed consumption data). Supplemental (only
1 animal per sex per dose was used and the animals were only dosed
for 30 days). (Corlett, 8/28/01)
-- 030; 181172; "XDE-795: Four-Week Dietary Toxicity Study
in Beagle Dogs" (Szabo, J.R. and Davis,
N.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas Lake Jackson Research
Center, The Dow Chemical Company,
Midland, MI, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID: DR-0325-7474-008,
2/19/93). XDE-795 (TSN100010, Lot # DECO-104-116, purity
= 99.0%) was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated
diet only) or 250 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to 2 beagle dogs
per sex per dose for 4 weeks. No clinical signs were observed.
Treatment-related decreases in mean body
weight and in mean feed consumption
were observed in both males and females. Microscopic examination
revealed treatment-related vacuolation of midzonal and centrilobular
hepatocytes in both males and females. No adverse effects.
NOEL (M/F) < 250 mg/kg/day (based on body
weight and feed consumption data and microscopic findings).
Supplemental (only 2 animals per sex per dose were used, only
1 treatment level was used, and the animals were only dosed for
4 weeks). (Corlett, 8/29/01)
Ref: October 4, 2001. SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGY
DATA QUINOXYFEN (XDE-795 & XR-795). California EPA, Department
of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.
bifluoride - Insecticide, Former US EPA
List 3 Inert -
Effects of Overexposure.
Inhalation of dust or mist may cause severe mucous membrane irritation,
burns and, with prolonged or repeated exposure, may
cause fluorosis. Eye and skin exposure causes irritation
and burns. Product may be absorbed through the skin and
produce signs of fluorosis such as
weight loss, brittleness of bones,
anemia, weakness and stiffness of joints. Ingestion is
harmful due to acid burns and fluoride poisoning. Internal bleeding
may develop. Effects may not be immediately apparent, especially
with dilute solutions.
Material Safety Data Sheet for Sodium bifluoride. Rev. March 29,
1996. Chemtech Products, Inc., St. Louis MO 63131
CHRONIC EXPOSURE o
Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extreme irritants
to any part of the body that they contact. The main route of exposure
to hydrogen fluoride is inhalation, followed by dermal contact
for acute exposure and ingestion for chronic exposure. Symptoms
of the chronic effects of hydrofluoric acid include weight
loss, malaise, anemia, leukopenia,
discoloration of teeth, and osteosclerosis.
Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SODIUM HYDROGEN DIFLUORIDE CASRN:
known as Sodium monofluoroacetate or Compound
1080) - Insecticide, Rodenticide -
CAS No. 62-74-8
Abstract: 1080 has
been used in New Zealand to control vertebrate pests since 1954,
and although a large historical database exists, little is known
about the developmental toxicity of this pesticide. This investigation
was intended to evaluate the developmental toxicity and teratogenic
potential of 1080 in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral intubation.
A pilot study was performed to help select doses for the subsequent
study and consisted of groups of 5 time-mated females. Animals
received 1080 at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg/day
from Days 6 to 17 of gestation. A 60% mortality rate and reductions
in maternal body weight and body weight gain as well as decreased
litter size and increased resorptions were observed at
1.0 mg/kg/day. Consequently, the doses selected for the main study
were 0.1, 0.33 and 0.75 mg/kg/day. Groups of 26 time-mated females
received 1080 from Days 6 to 17 of gestation. On Day 20 of gestation,
litters were delivered via laparohysterectomy. The results of
this study have not been fully evaluated, but visceral and skeletal
evaluation results will be presented. Significant
reductions in maternal body weight, body weight gain and
food consumption were noted at 0.75 mg/kg/day. No changes in litter
size or resorptions were observed, but fetal
body weight was significantly reduced at 0.75 mg/kg/day.
No external fetal abnormalities were noted. Available data indicate
that 1080 is maternally toxic at 0.75 mg/kg/day and higher. Embryolethality
was noted at 1.0 mg/kg/day, but not at 0.75 mg/kg/day. At this
stage, there is no evidence of developmental toxicity. Reductions
in fetal body weight at 0.75 mg/kg/day are probably linked
to maternal toxicity rather than a direct effect on the fetus.
Ref: Turck PA et al. (1998). Assessment
of the developmental toxicity of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080)
in rats. Toxicologist 1998 Mar;42(1-S):258-9.
(Sodium Hexafluorosilicate) - Insecticiide,
Wood Preservative, EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 16893-85-9
Human Data. Chronic exposure
to sodium hexafluorosilicate dust at levels above the eight-hour
TWA can result in severe
calcification of the ribs, pelvis, and spinal column ligaments;
effects on the enzyme system; pulmonary fibrosis; stiffness;
irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes;
weight loss; anorexia; anemia; cachexia;
wasting; and dental effects. Long-term or repeated exposure
to the skin can result in skin rash. A probable oral lethal dose
of 50-500 mg/kg, classified as very toxic, has been reported for
a 150-pound (70-kg) person receiving between 1 teaspoon and 1
ounce of sodium hexafluorosilicate. Cases of sodium hexafluorosilicate
ingestion reported symptoms such as acute respiratory failure,
ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, hypocalcemia, facial
numbness, diarrhea, tachycardia, enlarged liver, and cramps of
the palms, feet, and legs.
---- [Note from FAN: see Case
definition of AIDS as cachexia is cited.]
Ref: Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9]
and Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Review of Toxicological
Literature. October 2001. Prepared for Scott Masten, Ph.D. National
Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Box 12233 Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 Contract No. N01-ES-65402.
Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. (Principal Investigator) Bonnie
L. Carson, M.S. (Co-Principal Investigator) Integrated Laboratory
Systems P.O. Box 13501 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
- CAS No. 122836-35-5
-- A developmental
toxicity study in rats resulted in a maternal (systemic) LOEL
of 50.0 mg/kg/day based upon increased relative spleen weight
and splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. The maternal (systemic)
NOEL is 25.00 mg/kg/day. The developmental (fetal) LOEL is 25.0
mg/kg/day based upon 1) decreased mean fetal
weight and 2) retardation in skeletal development as evidenced
by an increased number of litters with any variation and by decreased
numbers of caudal vertebral and metacarpal ossification sites.
The developmental (fetal) NOEL is 10.0 mg/kg/day. Evidence of
treatment-related developmental toxicity consisted of decreased
fetal viability, decreased fetal body weight,
and increased incidence of fetal alterations, comprised, for the
most part, of skeletal malformations and variations. A supplementary
prenatal oral developmental toxicity study in rats confirmed the
maternal and fetal findings of the previously conducted study
and did not alter the study conclusions.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Sulfentrazone
Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued:
February 27, l997.
-- 90-Day oral toxicity
rodents (mice) - [870.3100] NOAEL
= 60 mg/kg/day for males and 79.8 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL
= 108.4 mg/ kg/day for males and 143.6 mg/kg/ day for females
based on decreased body weights, body weight
gains, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and severity
of splenic micropathology (increased incidence and severity of
-- 90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs)
- [870.3150] NOAEL = 28 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 57 mg/kg/ day for males
and 73 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased
body weights (7-10%) and body weight gains during first
5 weeks of study; decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell
volume, mean cell hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentration,
and increased absolute liver weights and alkaline phosphatase
levels, and microscopic changes in the liver and spleen (pigmented
sinusoidal microphages in the liver, swollen centrilobular hepatocytes
and pigmented reticuloendotheli al cells in the spleen)
-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rats)
- [870.3800] Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/day for males
and 16 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for males and
40 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased
maternal body weight/body weight gain during
gestation in both generation (P and F1) and reduced
premating body weight gain in second generation (F1) males
Reproductive NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/ day for males and 16 mg/kg/day
for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for males and 40 mg/kg/day for
females based on increased duration of gestation in females and
degeneration and/ or atrophy of the germinal epithelium of the
testes and oligospermia and intratubular degenerated seminal material
in the epididymis of F1 males Offspring NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/ day
for males and 16 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for
males and 40 mg/kg/day for females based on reduced prenatal viability
(fetal and litter), reduced litter size, increased number of stillborn
pups, reduced pup and litter postnatal survival and decreased
pup body weights throughout lactation
-- Reproduction and fertility effects (rat).
Nonguideline - [870.3800] Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 20 mg/kg/day
LOAEL = 51 mg/kg/ day (F1 females) based on decrease
in pre-mating body weight gain (10%) Offspring and Reproductive
NOAEL = 16 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 40 mg/kg/ day based on reduced
gestation day 20 fetal weights; decreased
postnatal day 0, 4 and 7 pup weights; decreased pup survival;
delayed vaginal patency; reduced epididymal, prostate, and testicular
weights Additional information supports the conclusions reached
in the 2- generation reproduction study in rats
-- Combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity rats
- [870.4300] NOAEL = 40 mg/kg/day for males and 36.4 mg/kg/day
in females LOAEL = 82.2 mg/kg/ day for males and 67 mg/kg/day
for females based on dose-related decreased
body weights (11 and 19%), body weight gains (13 and 26%), food
consumption (13 and 19%), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume,
and mean cell hemoglobin. Increased nucleated red blood cells
and reticulocytes in bone of females at 124.7 mg/kg/ day. No evidence
-- Subchronic neurotoxicity screening battery - [870.6200]. NOAEL
= 30 mg/kg/day for males and 37 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL =
150 mg/kg/ day for males and 180 mg/kg/day for females based on
increased incidence of clinical signs; decreased
body weight, body weight gains, and food consumption in
females; and increased motor activity in females. At 5,000 ppm,
included increased mortality; decreased
body weights, and body weight gains in males; decreased
hindlimb grip strength and increased tail flick latency in males
at week 8; distended bladders with red fluid and enlarged spleen.
No evidence of neuropathology at 2,500 and 5,000 ppm.
Federal Register: September 24, 2003. Sulfentrazone; Pesticide
Tolerances. Final Rule.
insecticide - CAS No. 2699-79-8
In subchronic (90-day) inhalation studies in rats, dogs,
rabbits and mice, the brain was the major
target organ. Malacia and/or vacuolation
were observed in the white matter of the brain in all four species.
The portions of the brain most often affected were the caudate-putamen
nucleus in the basal ganglia, the white fiber tracts in the internal
and external capsules, and the globus pallidus of the cerebrum.
In dogs and rabbits, clinical signs of neurotoxicity (including
tremors, tetany, incoordination, convulsions and/or hind limb
paralysis) were also observed. Inflammation of the nasal passages
and histiocytosis of the lungs were observed in rats and rabbits;
but not in dogs, in which species inflammation of the upper respiratory
tract was more prominent in the 2-week study. In rats, kidney
damage was also observed. In mice, follicular cell hypertrophy
was noted in the thyroid gland. Decreased
body weights and body weight gains were
also observed in rats, dogs and mice.
chronic (1-2 year) inhalation studies
in rats, dogs and mice, target organs were the same as in the
90-day studies. In rats, severe kidney damage caused renal failure
and mortalities in many animals. Additional gross and histopathological
lesions in numerous organs and tissues were considered to be secondary
to the primary effect on the kidneys. Other treatment-related
effects in rats included effects in the brain (vacuolation of
the cerebrum and thalamus/hypothalamus) and respiratory tract
(reactive hyperplasia and inflammation of the respiratory epithelium
of the nasal turbinates, lung congestion, aggregates of alveolar
macrophages). In dogs and mice, increased mortalities, malacia
and/or vacuolation in the white matter in the brain, histopathology
in the lungs, and follicular cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland
were observed. Decreased body weights
and body weight gains were also noted in all three species.
-- In a developmental toxicity inhalation
study in rats, no developmental toxicity was observed in
the pups. Although no maternal toxicity was observed in this study
at the highest dose tested (225 ppm), significant
maternal toxicity (decreased body
weight, body weight gain and food consumption; increased
water consumption and kidney weights; and gross pathological changes
in the kidneys and liver) was observed in a previously conducted
range-finding study at a slightly higher dose level (300 ppm).
In a developmental toxicity inhalation study in rabbits, decreased
fetal body weights were observed in the pups. At the same
dose level, decreased body weight and body
weight gain were observed in the dams. In a 2-generation
reproduction inhalation study in rats, vacuolation of the white
matter in the brain, pathology in the lungs (pale, gray foci;
increased alveolar macrophages) and decreased
body weights were observed in the parental animals. Decreased
pup body weights in the F1 and F2 generations were observed
in the offspring. No effects on reproductive parameters were noted
in this study. No quantitative or qualitative evidence of increased
susceptibility of fetuses or pups was observed in the developmental
toxicity or reproduction studies on sulfuryl fluoride.
Federal Register: September 5, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 172). Sulfuryl
Fluoride; Proposed Pesticide Temporary Tolerances.
-- Two fatalities occurred
when the owners of a home re-entered after the dwelling had been
fumigated with 250 pounds of sulfuryl fluoride. The concentration
to which the occupants were exposed was not determined. The man
died within 24 hr, and the woman expired 6 days after exposure.
Signs of intoxication included severe dyspnea
[abnormal breathing], cough, generalized seizure, cardiopulmonary
arrest (in the male), and weakness, anorexia,
nausea, repeated vomiting, and hypoxemia
[subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood, short of anoxia]; ventricular
fibrillation and diffuse pulmonary infiltration were also
reported in the female. [American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and
Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati,
OH: ACGIH, 1991.1471]
-- Groups of 35 to 36 pregnant Fischer 344 rats and 28 to 29 pregnant
New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 0, 25, 75, or 225 ppm
of sulfuryl fluoride vapor via inhalation for 6 hr/day on days
6 to 15 and 6 to 18 of gestation, respectively. Among rats, maternal
water consumption was increased in the 225 ppm exposure group
(p < 0.05), but there were no indications of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity,
or teratogenicity in any of the exposed groups. Among rabbits,
maternal weight loss during the exposure
period (days 6 to 18) was observed in the 225 ppm group. Decr
fetal body wt, considered secondary to maternal
weight loss, were also observed at 225 ppm. However, no
evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed among
rabbits in any exposure group. For both species a low incidence
of malformations were seen scattered among all exposure groups,
with no indication of any treatment related effects. In preliminary
studies, exposure of pregnant rats and rabbits to 30, 100, or
300 ppm sulfuryl fluoride produced significantly
decr maternal wt gain in both rats and rabbits exposed
to 300 ppm. Increased absolute kidney wt (rats) and decr liver
wt (rabbits) were also observed at this exposure level. No adverse
effects were observed at either 30 or 100 ppm in either species.
Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SULFURYL FLUORIDE CASRN: 2699-79-8.
- Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 102851-06-9
-- In a 2-generation
rat study with racemic fluvalinate reproduction
was subnormal in all groups, including controls. At dietary
doses of 100 ppm and 500 ppm body weights
were reduced. At 500 ppm, the offspring showed reduced
viability, survival and growth rates
and parent animals showed skin lesions and reduced
body weight gains. Beginning with the low dose (20 ppm),
a dose dependent impairment of spermatogenesis was observed in
males of the F0 generation.
-- A 2-generation reproductin toxicity study in rats with tsau
fluvalinate showed parental and developmental effects in the mid
and high dose group. 2 of 4 males of the F1-generation from the
mediam dose group failing to mate had atrophic seminiferous tubules
in both testes and spermatozoa were partly absent from the epididymides.
Litter and mean pup weights of the F2 generation
of the mediam dose group were lower between
days 8 and 21. Incidence of fur loss and scabbing was a marginally
increased among adults. F1 and F2 pups of the highest dose group
had tremors, mainly arond lactation day 14, indicating toxic effects
of tau fluvalinate excreted in rat milk. As toenails of all animals
were clipped prior to treatment and later at weekly intervals
a final NOEL can not be derived. No adverse substance related
effects were observed at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day.
Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/021-REV1/95. Committee for Veterinary
Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the Evaluation of
(PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene) - EPA List 3 Inert -
CAS No. 9002-84-0
Toxic effects following inhalation exposure
to polytetrafluoroethylene (9002-84-0) (PTFE) pyrolysis products
were determined in rats. Greenacres-Flora-rats
were exposed to PTFE pyrolysis products containing hydrolyzable
fluoride equal to 50 parts per million of carbonyl fluoride (353-50-4)
for 1 hour daily for 5 days. On day 1 and 5 of the exposure period,
and 3, 7, and 18 days postexposure urine samples were collected
and examined for fluoride excretion and glucose, protein, and
ketones. On each of those days, a test animal was killed, and
kidney and lung tissues were tested for succinic-dehydrogenase
activity. Weight changes and mortality during the course of the
experiment were also noted. During the 5 exposure days and shortly
afterwards, mortality reached 22 percent, although the total exposure
dose was less than half the median lethal dose for one exposure.
Daily urinary fluoride excretion jumped to 14 times normal on
the first exposure day and remained at 4 times normal by the eighteenth
postexposure day. By
the fifth exposure day, body weights dropped 30 percent,
urine glucose, protein, and ketones were abnormal, and succinic-dehydrogenase
activity dropped to near zero in the kidney and had more than
doubled in the lung;
by the eighteenth post exposure day, these values had returned
to normal. The authors conclude that carbonyl fluoride generated
during the pyrolysis of PTFE hydrolyzes in body fluids and produces
fluoride toxicity. The cumulative effect of repeated exposures
is much more toxic than a single equivalent exposure. If death
does not result, the metabolic inhibition due to fluoride poisoning
is completely reversible.
Biochemical Changes Associated with Toxic Exposures to Polytetrafluoroethylene
Pyrolysis Products by Scheel LD, McMillan L, Phipps FC. American
Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, pages
- Insecticide - CAS No. 79538-32-2
Reproductive and developmental
toxicity. In a rat developmental study, [[Page 50363]] delayed
ossification was noted in the highest dose group (5 mg/kg/day),
along with significant maternal toxicity
(decreased body weight (bwt)). The developmental no observed
effect level (NOEL) for this study was established at 3 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register: September 25, 1997
[Page 50337-50367]. Notice of Filing of Pesticide Petitions.
Tembotrione - Herbicide - CAS No. 335104-84-2
• There was evidence of increased susceptibility following in utero and postnatal exposure in the developmental and 2-generation studies. Fetal effects were increased skeletal variations including delayed ossification and decreased fetal body weight and increased number of runts. These effects were observed at the lowest dose tested (25 mg/kg/day) and at a dose lower than that which caused marginal maternal toxicity (125 mg/kg/day, decreased body-weight gains and food consumption)... (page 16)
• In a developmental toxicity study (MRID 46695647), AE0172747 (95.0% w/w; Batch# PFI 0195) in 0.5% methylcellulose 400 was administered via gavage at a dose volume of 10 mL/kg to 25 Sprague Dawley rats/dose group at dose levels of 0, 25, 125, or 500 mg/kg/day from gestation days (GD) 6-20. On GD 21, all dams were euthanized, and the uterus was removed via cesarean section and its contents examined. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, anomalies, and variations. Maternal body-weight gains were decreased (p<=0.05) by 52-92% >=25 mg/kg/day during GD 6-8, and continued to be decreased (p<=0.05) by 28-32% at >=125 mg/kg/day during GD 8-
10. Body-weight gains for the overall (GD 0-21) study were decreased (not significant) by 9% at >=125 25 mg/kg/day; and these decreases were still evident when corrected for gravid uterine weight (decr.11-13%). Food consumption was decreased (p<=0.05) by 8-16% in the 125 and 500 mg/kg/day dams during GD 6-12 and remained decreased (decr.11%; p<=0.01) at 500 mg/kg/day during GD 12-14. Because the decrease in body-weight gain in the 25 mg/kg/day group was transient and did not affect overall body-weight gains, it was not considered adverse. Although not adverse to the dams, this initial decrease in weight gain may have contributed to the decreased (decr.3%; p<=0.01) fetal body weights at this dose. The maternal LOAEL is 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased body-weight gains and food consumption. The maternal NOAEL is 25 mg/kg/day.
-- At >=25 mg/kg/day, fetal body weights were dose-dependently decreased (p<=0.01) by 3-16% and a dose-related increase in the number of runts (fetuses weighing less than 4.0 g) was observed compared to controls.
Reference: Tembotrione. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Field Corn, Sweet Corn and Popcorn. USEPA. September 7, 2007.
• In a developmental toxicity study (MRIDs 46695703, 46695701, and 46695702), AE0172747 (95.0% w/w; Batch# PFI 0195) in 0.5% methylcellulose 400 was administered via gavage at a dose volume of 4 mL/kg to 25 New Zealand White rabbits/dose group at dose levels of 0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg bw/day from gestation days (GD) 6-28. On GD 29, all surviving does were euthanized, and the uterus was removed via cesarean section and its contents examined. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, anomalies, and variations. At 100 mg/kg bw/day, between GD 15 and 22, five pregnant females were either found dead or were euthanized in extremis or following abortion. Of these five animals, one (#530) was found dead on GD 15; three (#529, 526, and 522) were euthanized in extremis on GD 16, 17, 22; and another (# 517) aborted and was euthanized on GD 21. Marked reductions in food consumption, body-weight loss (between -0.17 and -0.55 kg), and one or more occasions of few or no feces were observed in all five of these does prior to death.. At 10 mg/kg bw/day, one female (# 499) showed a marked reduction in food consumption, body- weight loss of -0.20 kg, and one or more occasions of few or no feces prior to abortion on GD 23. Absolute and relative (to body weight) food consumption were decreased (p≤0.05) by 17% in the 10 mg/kg bw/day group at the beginning of treatment from GD 6-8. At 1 mg/kg bw/day, one female (#475) was killed in extremis on GD 21 following: a marked reduction in food consumption; body-weight loss of -0.35 kg; one or more occasions of few or no feces; and one occasion (GD 19) of no urine.
The maternal LOAEL is 100 mg/kg bw/day based on mortality, clinical signs of toxicity (i.e., few or no feces), abortion and decreased body weight and food consumption.
The maternal NOAEL is 10 mg/kg bw/day (page 65-66).
-- The developmental LOAEL is 10 mg/kg bw/day based on decreased or delayed growth and/or development of the skeleton and increased incidences of other skeletal variations
-- The developmental NOAEL is 1 mg/kg bw/day.
Reference: Tembotrione. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Field Corn, Sweet Corn and Popcorn. USEPA. September 7, 2007.
-Fungicide - CAS No. 112281-77-3
Reproduction Study Rats received
0, 10, 70 or 490 ppm of tetraconazole in the diet for two generations.
F0 and F1 females at 490 ppm had reduced food consumption, and
lower body weights during premating
and gestation, as did F1 males of this group. Increased mortality
(due to dystocia) and higher liver, kidney
and ovary weights were seen in adults of both generations at 490
ppm. Mating performance and pregnancy rate for both F0
and F1 generations were not affected. A prolonged
gestation period was associated with dystocia, and total
litter loss in some F0 and F1 females at 70 and 490 ppm. Increased
post-implantation loss and/or fetal deaths and consequently reduced
litter size at birth, and lower pup
weight gain during lactation were observed in F1 and F2
pups at 490 ppm. Offspring at 70 and 490 ppm had a slight
retardation of growth and sexual maturation
(delayed vaginal opening and balanopreputial cleavage).
Increased liver weights were seen in F1 and F2 pups at 490 ppm
as well as female pups at 70 ppm at weaning. No external
and internal abnormalities were found for both F1 and F2 pups.
The NOEL was 10 ppm (0.4 mg/kg bw/day) for reproduction and postnatal
toxicity. (page 5-6)
• Developmental Studies Pregnant
rats received 0, 5, 22.5 or 100 mg/kg bw/day of tetraconazole
by gavage on gestation days 6-15. Post-dosing salivation was noted
in dams at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg bw/day. Increased water consumption
at 100 mg/kg bw/day, and decreased food
consumption and body weight gain at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg
bw/day were observed. Liver and kidney weights
were increased in dams at 100 mg/kg bw/day. There were no treatment-related
effects on embryo/fetal loss, litter size and sex ratio of pups.
Variable fetal weights within each
group at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg bw/day might be associated with variation
in degrees of skeletal ossification. Incidences of hydronephrosis
and hydroureter at 100 mg/kg bw/day were increased. The number
of fetuses with supernumerary rib(s) was higher, and ossification
in skeletons tended to be advanced at 100 mg/kg bw/day.
The NOEL was 5 mg/kg bw/day for maternal toxicity, and was 22.5
mg/kg bw/day for fetal development.
-- Pregnant rabbits received 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg bw/day of tetraconazole
in a preliminary study, and 0, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg bw/day in the
main study, by gavage on gestation days 6-18. Rabbits at 80 mg/kg
bw/day showed minimal to nil food intake, body
weight loss and deteriorated condition,
and were sacrificed on day 7 of dosing showing increased early
fetal loss. At 40 mg/kg bw/day, reduced food intake, body
weight loss, lower fecal output and
during the dosing period, and increased
liver and kidney weight were observed at necropsy. Abortion, death,
post-implantation loss, and reduced
fetal weight were seen in this group. Food consumption
and body weight gain of dams were lower at 30 mg/kg bw/day.
Incidences of malformation, anomalies and skeletal variants were
low in all groups. The NOEL was 15 mg/kg bw/day for maternal
toxicity, and was 30 mg/kg bw/day for fetal growth/development.
2005 - Evaluation of Tetraconazole in the product Domark 40ME
Fungicide. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.
-- Reproductive and
developmental toxicity. A developmental toxicity study with rats
given oral gavage doses of 5, 22.5, and 100 mg/kg/day from days
6 through 15 of gestation resulted in a NOAEL for
maternal toxicity of 5 mg/kg/day based upon bwt reduction,
reduced food intake and post-dose salivation at the two higher
doses, as compared with zero-dose controls. The developmental
NOAEL was 22.5 mg/kg/day. Among the highest
dose group there was evidence of minimal increase in the incidence
of supernumerary ribs among the fetuses.
-- A chronic feeding/carcinogenicity study was conducted with
tetraconazole in Crl:CD-l (ICR)BR mice at dietary levels of 10,
90, 800, and 1,250 ppm for 80 weeks. Treatment-related non-neoplastic
changes were also seen at 1,250 ppm in the
lungs, kidneys, testes, epididymides, ovaries
and bone, particularly the cranium;
a compression of the brain was noted in a number of mice reflecting
the extent of cranial
bone changes and an increased thymic involution was seen in male
mice that died on test. The 1,250 ppm dietary level for tetraconazole,
because of the substantial bwt gain changes
and increased mortality (more in males), appeared to be
above the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). At 800 ppm, there were
increases in non neoplastic changes in lungs, kidneys, testes,
epididymides, ovaries and bone. In addition, there was substantial
reduction in weight gain as compared with zero-dose control
animals, but the mortality
rate was unaffected. Eight hundred ppm appeared to be a reasonable
estimate of the MTD for mouse.
Ref: Federal Register: October 14, 1999.
Notice of Filing Pesticide Petitions to Establish a Tolerance
for Certain Pesticide Chemicals in or on Food. PP 9F5066, 9F6023,
(HFC-134a) - Propellant, US
EPA List 4B Inert - CAS No. 811-97-2
-- In a developmental
toxicity study, Lu and Staples (1981)
exposed pregnant CD rats to HFC-134a at 30,000, 100,000, or 300,000
ppm for 6 h/d from days 6 to 15 of gestation. Following exposure
of dams at 300,000 ppm, there was a significant
reduction in fetal weight and significant
increases in several skeletal variations. At 300,000 ppm, signs
of maternal toxicity included reduced food consumption,
reduced body weight gain, lack of
response to noise stimuli, severe tremors,
and uncoordinated movements. Dams exposed at 100,000 ppm
showed reduced response to noise stimuli and uncoordinated movements.
No terata or evidence for developmental toxicity were observed
following exposure of dams at 30,000 or 100,000 ppm.
-- -- Hodge et al. (1979) exposed
groups of 29 or 30 pregnant Wistar-derived rats to HFC-134a at
0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 ppm for 6 h/d on days 6 to 15 of gestation.
Abnormal clinical signs were observed in the animals, but there
was no effect on maternal body weights. At 50,000 ppm, there was
no evidence of terata, but fetal body weight
was significantly reduced, and skeletal
ossification was significantly delayed. There were no effects
on any parameter at 10,000 ppm.
-- -- Groups of 28 pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were exposed
at 0, 2,500, 10,000, or 40,000 ppm for 6 h/d on days 7 through
19 of pregnancy (Collins et al. 1995; Wickramaratne
1989 a,b). Doe were weighed during the study and sacrificed
on day 29 of gestation... In the mid- and high-dose exposure groups,
doe had reduced body weight gains
compared with the control group; lower weight gains were partially
associated with decreased food consumption. With the exception
of a significantly increased incidence of
unossified seventh-lumbar transverse process in fetuses in the
10,000- and 40,000-ppm groups, all other parameters were
similar among control and treatment groups. This effect was also
observed in the control group and was not considered treatment
related. Therefore, there was no adverse developmental or teratogenic
effect associated with exposure to FC-134a.
-- ... Fetotoxicity was ovserved in rats when dams were exposed
at 50,000 ppm (Hodge et al. 1979).
Slight maternal toxicity in rabbits, as indicated by
lower body weight gains compared with the control group,
were noted at 10,000 and 50,000 ppm (Collins
et al. 1995). There was a slight
delay in physical development of F1 rats following exposure
of F0 females at 64,400 ppm (Alexander et
-- Alexander DJ, Libretto SE, Adams MJ,
Hughes EW, Bannerman M. 1996. HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane):
effects of inhalation exposure upon reproductive performance,
development and maturation of rats. Human Exp Toxicol 15:508-517.
-- Collins MA, Rusch GM, Sato F, Hext PM,
Millischer RJ. 1995. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane: repeat exposure
inhalation toxicity in the rat, developmental toxicity in the
rabbit, and genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Fundam
Appl Toxicol 25:271-280.
-- Hodge MCE, Kilmartin M, Riley RA, Weight
TM, Wilson J. 1979. Arcton 134a: teratogenicity study in the rat.
ICI Report no. CTL/P/417. Central
Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, U.K.
Lu M, Staples R. 1981. 1,1,1,2-tetrafkyirietgabe
(FC-134a): embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenicity study by inhalation
in the rat. Report No. 317-81. Haskell Laboratory,
-- Wickramaratne GA. 1989a. HCF-134a: Teratogenicity
inhalation study in the rabbit. ICI Report
No. CTL/P/2504. Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield,
Cheshire UK (Unpublished).
-- Wickramaratne GA. 1989b. HCF-134a: Embryotoxicity inhalation
study in the rabbit. ICI Report No.
CTL/P/2380. Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield,
Cheshire, UK. (Unpublished).
Ref: National Research Council. 2002. Acute
Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. Volume
2. Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. Committee
on Toxicology, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology,
Division of Earth and Life Studies. National Academy Press, Washington
DC. Available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution
Ave, NW, Box 285, Washington DC 20055. ISBN 0-309-08511-X. Online
Lampricide, Piscicide - CAS No. 88-30-2
In a second 90-day
feeding study in rats (MRID 00112727), groups of weanling SD rats
(10/sex/group) were fed diets containing TFM (90%) at concentrations
of 500, 900, 1620, 2916, or 5248 ppm for 90 days. The control
groups (20/sex) received the untreated diet. The
results showed that body weights of the 2916 and 5248 ppm groups
were consistently decreased (10-13%) in males from week 3 to the
end of the study. The decrease was statistically significant
Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) 3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol
and Niclosamide. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides And
Toxic Substances (7508C). Report No. EPA 738-R-99-007. November
The sensitivity of mudpuppies, frog tadpoles, and adult frogs
to use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in the Great
Lakes has been noted on many occasions. TFM has been used annually
since 1958 for the control of sea lampreys throughout the Great
Lakes. Amphibians regularly have been found dead in creeks immediately
after TFM treatment (Gilderhus and Johnson 1980, Matson 1990).
Laboratory tests have confirmed that species native to the Great
Lakes Basin, such as the grey tree frog, northern leopard frog,
and bullfrog, are sensitive to levels of TFM used for sea lamprey
control (Chandler and Marking 1975). Mudpuppy
population size decreased by a minimum of 29 per cent after a
spray event in the Grand River of Ohio (Matson 1990)...
Conservation Priorities for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Canada.
Sept 2000 report published by World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian
Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network. Prepared by David
Seburn and Carolyn Seburn.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 117718-60-2
-- 90-day Oral (Dog):
NOEL (systemic) =10 ppm. (0.2 mg/kg/day(m); 0.3 mg/kg/day(f)),
based on decreased body weight gain
and increased SGPT
[serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase] levels at 3 and
6 m/kg/day for males and females, respectively and above; decreased
total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio,
increased AP, hepatocytic hypertrophy, oval cell proliferation
and increased hepatocytic fatty content at 35 mg/kg/day and above;
and decreased calcium concentration which is thought to be related
to hypoalbuminemia, decreased cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations,
slightly increased GGT and SGPT, follicular hyperplasia of thyroid,
increased colloid content in follicles and increased relative
thyroid weight at 175 mg/kg/day.
-- A developmental toxicity study in rats at 0, 10, 100 and 250
mg/kg/day with a maternal toxicity NOEL of 100 mg/kg/day. The
effect were increased liver
weight, increased salivation, significantly
decreased body weight gain and decreased food consumption.
The developmental NOEL was also 100 mg/kg/day. The effects at
the high dose were increased incidence of
unossified sternebrae and 7th cervical rib variation. No development
effects were observed below the maternally toxic doses.
-- A two year rat carcinogenicity study at doses of 0, 0.04, 4.4,
44.2 or 136.4 mg/kg/day (Males) 0, 0.06, 0.6, 5.6, 56.3 or 177.1
mg/kg/day (female) with a NOEL of 4.4 mg/kg/day. The effects were
protruding eyes, evidence of mild anemia,
increased GGT and cholesterol, increased absolute and relative
liver, kidney and thyroid weights and significant increase in
microscopic lesions in the liver (hypertrophy and vacuolar changes),
kidney (nephropathy) and thyroid (hypertrophy and hyperplasia);
decreased mean body weight and body weight
gain and food consumption.
A statistically significant increase in
thyroid follicular cell adenomas/cystadenomas were observed in
males at 44.2 and 136.4 mg/kg/day. A nonsignificant increase
in renal tubular adenomas in high-dose females was considered
to be equivocal.
-- a. Thiazopyr was administered through the diet at 0 and 150
mg/kg/day rats to determine the subchronic effect on hormone level
and other biochemical endpoints. Animals were assayed at 7, 14,
28, 56 or 90 days. Significant decreases
in body weight gain were observed at 90 days. Early
in the study the treated rats showed increases in TSH (ranging
from 133 to 200% of controls) and decreases in T4 (ranging from
43% to 76% of controls). In addition there were increases in liver
and thyroid weights and increases in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
Reverse T3 was increased at 28 days, and T3 was either not affected
or increased. There were indications of increases in hepatic UDPGT
activity and significant increases in T4 UDPGT activity. Hepatic
5'-monodeiodinase activity was either not affected or decreased.
The effects observed in this study were supportive of the theory
that thiazopyr may induce thyroid tumors through a disruption
in the thyroid-pituitary hormonal feedback mechanisms.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Thiazopyr
Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued:
February 20, l997.
- Fungicide - CAS No. 731-27-1
-- 90-Day oral toxicity
rodents (rat). NOAEL = 20.1 milligram/kilogram/ day (mg/kg/day)
male (M) LOAEL = 108 mg/kg/ day, based on changes
in clinical blood chemistry associated with the liver and thyroid
(M) NOAEL = 131 mg/kg/day female (F) LOAEL = 736.1
mg/kg/ day, based on changes in clinical blood chemistry associated
with the liver and thyroid and decreased
body weights (F)
-- 90-Day oral toxicity
(dog). NOAEL = 23.1/25 mg/kg/
day (F/M) LOAEL = 67.2/69.4 (F/ M) mg/kg/day, based on decreased
body weight gains and changes in liver structure and function
in both sexes
-- Prenatal developmental in rodents (rat). Maternal NOAEL = not
determined LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased
body weight gains and food consumption.
-- Prenatal developmental in rodents (rat). Maternal NOAEL = 100
mg/kg/day LOAEL = 300 mg/kg/ day, based on dose- related decreased
body weight gains during the dosing interval. Developmental
NOAEL > 1,000 mg/kg/day (HDT) LOAEL = not identified
-- Prenatal developmental in nonrodents (rabbit). Maternal NOAEL
= 25 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 70 mg/kg/day, based on evidence of hepatotoxicity
(increased glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and triglyceride levels
and gross and microscopic liver pathology) and decreased
food consumption and equivocal decreases in body weight gain.
Developmental NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day LOAEL= 70 mg/kg/day, based
on increased malformations (arthrogryposis
of front extremities and small orbital cavity/folded retina) and
variations (floating rib and accelerated ossification).
-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rat). Parental/systemic
NOAEL = 7.9-10.5 mg/ kg/day LOAEL = 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based
on decreased body weights, body weight
gains, and liver weights in the P females Reproductive
NOAEL = 7.9-10.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based
on reduced litter size Offspring NOAEL = 7.9- 10.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL
= 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased
pup weights, increased pup deaths and related pup viability
-- 2-Generation reproduction and effects (rat). Parental/Systemic
NOAEL = 20.1-26.3 mg/ fertility kg/day LOAEL = 83.4-109.5 mg/
kg/day, based on decreased body weights
and body weight gains Reproductive NOAEL = 83.4 - 109.5
mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 335.6-492.4 mg/kg/day, based on decreased mean
litter size Offspring NOAEL = 20.1-26.3 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 83.4-109.5
mg/ kg/day, based on decreased pup weights
-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rat). Parental/Systemic
NOAEL = 75 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 375 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased
body weights and body weight gains for both generations
Reproductive NOAEL > 375 mg/kg/day (HDT) LOAEL not established
Offspring NOAEL = 75 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 375 mg/kg/ day, based on
decreased survival and reduced body weights
-- Chronic toxicity (dog).
NOAEL = 12.5 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 62.5 mg/kg/
day (M), based on decreased body weight
Federal Register: September 25, 2002. Tolylfluanid; Pesticide
Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register.
- Insecticide - CAS
Developmental studies in both the rat and
rabbit provided no evidence of teratogenicity when transfluthrin
was administered at 125 and 150 mg kg d respectively. One death
occurred at 125 mg kg d in the rat study and 2 deaths (1 each
at 50 and 150 mg kg d) occurred in the rabbit study. NOELs of
15 and 15 mg kg d were established for maternal toxicity in the
rat and rabbit respectively. These were based
tremors at 55 mg kg d in the rat and mortality (following severe
tremors) at 50 mg kg d in the rabbit. In a dietary multi-generation
reproductive toxicity study in the rat there was no evidence of
teratogenicity, foetotoxicity or maternal reproductive toxicity
in rats administered transfluthrin at doses up to 191 mg kg d.
NOELS of 62-191 and 9-38 mg kg d were established for maternal
reproductive and parental toxicity respectively. The NOEl for
parental toxicity was based on the following observations at 1000
ppm: - decreased body weight and
body weight gain, increased absolute and
relative liver and kidney weights, increased relative kidney weight,
decreased hepatic triglyceride content, increased incidence of
tubular pigmentation, tubular casts and pelvic calcinosis.
Ref: Evaluation on: Transfluthrin Use as
a Public Hygiene Insecticide. September 1997. Prepared by: the
UK Health and Safety Executive, Biocides & Pesticides Assessment
Unit, Magdalen House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20
3QZ. Available from: Department for Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool,
3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX. UK. Also at http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/165_confirm-box.htm
This was transcribed from the copy available on the web. While
one can easily read this report on the web, the report is inaccessible,
or locked, to any attempt to copy it. Any errors are mine. EC.
- Fungicide - CAS No. 141517-21-7
-- Subchronic toxicity.
In subchronic studies, several mortality related changes were
reported for the top dose in dogs (500 mg/kg) and rats (800 mg/kg).
At these dose levels, excessive toxicity has resulted in body
weight loss and mortality with the associated and non-specific
changes in several organs (such as atrophy in the thymus, pancreas,
bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen) which are not considered
specific target organs for the test compound. In the dog, specific
effects were limited to hepatocellular hypertrophy
at 150 mg/kg and hyperplasia of the epithelium of the gall bladder
at 500 mg/kg. Target organ effects in the rat were noted as hepatocellular
hypertrophy (200 mg/kg) and the related liver weight increase
(50 mg/kg). In the mouse, target organ effects included single
cell necrosis (300 mg/kg) and hypertrophy (1,050 mg/ kg) in the
liver and extramedullary hematopoiesis (300 mg/ kg) and hemosiderosis
in the spleen (1,050 mg/kg). In general, definitive target organ
toxicity, mostly in the liver, was seen at high feeding levels
of over 100 mg/kg for an extended treatment period. At the lowest
observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no serious toxicity was
observed other than mostly non-specific effects including a
reduction in body weight and food consumption
or liver hypertrophy.
-- Chronic toxicity. The liver appears
to be the major primary target organ based on the chronic studies
conducted in mice, rats, and dogs. It was identified as a target
organ in both the mouse and the dog studies with trifloxystrobin.
However, no liver effect was seen
in the chronic rat study which produced the lowest NOAEL of 2.5
mg/kg based on reduced body weight gain
and food consumption seen
at higher dose levels.
Ref: Federal Register. November 14, 2001.
Trifloxysulfuron-sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 199119-58-9
90-Day oral toxicity
in nonrodents (dogs). NOAEL: 19.8/19.6
mg/kg/day (M/F) LOAEL: 164.2/167.3 mg/kg/day (M/F):
M = decreased
body weight gain (20%),
slight hematological effects, clinical chemistry changes suggesting
hepatotoxicity, decreased thymus weight, thymic atrophy, increased
glycogen in liver, hemorrhage in mesenteric lymph nodes;
F = decreased body weight gain (44%),
anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis in liver/ spleen and
myeloidhyperplasia in bone marrow, clinical chemistry changes
suggesting hepatotoxicity, decrease thymus
weight, thymic atrophy and hyaline tubular change in kidney.
Federal Register: September 17, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 180)]
Rules and Regulations. Trifloxysulfuron; Pesticide Tolerance.
-- In the rat teratology
study, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day caused maternal toxicity consisting
of reduced body weight and food consumption.
Developmental toxicity was secondary to maternal toxicity and
consisted of slightly reduced fetal body
weights and an increase in minor
skeletal anomalies and variations. The
NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity were both 30 mg/kg/day...
-- Chronic toxicity. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium technical was not
oncogenic in rats or mice. In a 12-month feeding study in dogs
fed diets containing trifloxysulfuron-sodium that resulted in
average (sexes combined) daily test substance intakes of 0, 1.67,
6.71, 15.0, 48.2 or 122 mg/kg/day, all animals survived... The
body weight gain was decreased by 16% in
males at 122 mg/kg/ day. The 33% decrease at 48.2 mg/kg/day
was mainly due to one male that gained significantly less weight
than the other animals of this group. There
was a tendency for a decrease in the erythrocyte count, hemoglobin
concentration and hematocrit for both sexes at 122 mg/kg/day at
the end of treatment, and for males throughout the treatment period.
In female dogs treated with 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day, the
mean absolute and relative liver weights were increased, and a
tendency for an increase in relative liver weight was noted for
males at the same dose levels. The maximum tolerance dose (MTD)
was achieved at 122 mg/kg/day based on the decrease
in the body weight gain in males at 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day.
Administration of trifloxysulfuron-sodium
to dogs for 12 months caused a tendency for decrease in red blood
cell parameters in both sexes at 122 mg/kg/day. There was neither
histopathological nor functional evidence for compound
related neurotoxicity. Based on the effects at 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day,
the NOAEL was established at 15.0 mg/kg/day
for males and 14.9 mg/kg/day for females.
-- In a 90-day subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats,
trifloxysulfuron-sodium was not neurotoxic when administered in
the diet for 13 weeks at concentrations resulting in average daily
test substance intakes of 0, 112, 472, or 967 mg/kg/day for males
or 0, 134, 553 or 1,128 mg/kg/day for females... Based
on body weight effects, the NOAEL was established
at 112 mg/kg/day for male rats and 553 mg/kg/day
for female rats.
Ref: Federal Register: March 21, 2003. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium;
Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance
for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.
- Fungicide - CAS No. 68694-11-1
-- Reproduction and
fertility effects (rat): ... Parental/Systemic: LOAEL = 21 mg/kg/
day based on decreased body weight and overall
body weight gain, increased relative liver
weights, and increased mortality in females.
Ref: Federal Register:
June 12, 2002. Triflumizole; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8
• Long term toxicity (Annex IIA, point 5.5).
Target/critical effect. Body weight reduction,
anemia, liver & kidney
effects (mouse, rat). (page 46).
toxicity (Annex IIA, point 5.6). Reproduction
target / critical effect. Decreased
maternal growth, anaemia, uterine atrophy and decreased
offspring growth and survival from 40,750,8 mg/kg bw/day
(rat). (page 46)
Ref: March 14, 2005.
Food Safety Authority: Conclusion
regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of
the active substance trifluralin. EFSA Scientific Report (2005)
-- 146 117267, "A Chronic
Toxicity Study of Trifluralin (Compound 036352) Administered Orally
to Beagle Dogs for 1 Year", (E.R.
Adams, N.R. Bernhard & W.H. Jordan, Lilly Research Laboratories,
Lab. Project ID D07190, 8/6/92).
Trifluralin (purity 99.86%) was administered (once/day) to Beagle
dogs (4/sex/dose) in gelatin capsules at 0 (empty gelatin capsule),
0.75, 2.4 or 40 mg/kg for one year. NOEL = 2.4 mg/kg (Body
weights were decreased in females at 40 mg/kg. Several
effects were observed in hematology and clinical biochemistry
parameters in both sexes at 40 mg/kg. Liver weights were increased
in both sexes at 40 mg/kg and heart and adrenal weights were decreased
in females at 40 mg/kg. Kidney and liver histopathology (pigment
deposition) was observed in both sexes at 40 mg/kg.) No adverse
effect. ACCEPTABLE. (Kishiyama & Silva, 11/21/95).
-- ** 089 036915 "A Teratology Study (I) of Trifluralin (EL-152,
Compound 36352) Administered Orally to Dutch Belted
Rabbits." (Lilly Research Labs., 10/31/84,
Study B02283 and Study BO1784) Trifluralin (96.7% pure), lot 00554AP2;
0, 100, 225, 500, or 800; oral gavage, days 6 - 18; 20/group;
maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg (maternal death and abortions), developmental
toxicity NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased fetal
weight); Complete and ACCEPTABLE WITH 036916. No adverse
developmental toxicity reported. JAP, 11/18/85. EPA one-liner:
Maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg (abortions and anorexia),
fetotoxic NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased percentage of live fetuses
- cardiomegally and wavy ribs at 500 mg/kg/day);
Core grade = Supplementary
-- 089 036916 "A Teratology Study (II) of Trifluralin (EL-125,
Compound 36352) Administered to Dutch Belted
Rabbits." (Lilly Research Lab.s, 12/6/85,
Study B01784) Trifluralin (96.7%) given by oral gavage at 0, 100,
225, 500 mg/kg; 25/group; no adverse effects reported; maternal
NOEL = 100 mg/kg (death, abortions, decreased
body weight gain, food consumption); developmental
toxicity NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased fetal
weight, increased resorptions); complete and ACCEPTABLE
WITH 089 036915. JAP, 10/31/85. EPA one-liner: Maternal NOEL =
100 mg/kg/day, fetotoxic NOEL = 225 mg/kg/day; Core grade = Minimum.
-- 089 036914 "A Teratology Study of Trifluralin (EL-152, Compound
36352) Administered Orally to Charles River CD Rats."
(Lilly Research Laboratories, 10/22/84,
Study RO8484) Trifluralin (96.7% pure), lot 00554AP2; given by
oral gavage at 0, 100, 225, 475 or 1000 mg/kg, 25 rats/group;
NOEL( maternal toxicity) = 225 mg/kg/day (decreased
body weight and food consumption); NOEL (developmental
toxicity) = 475 mg/kg/day (decreased fetal
weight); ACCEPTABLE. No adverse developmental toxicity
reported. JAP, 12/6/85. EPA one-liner: Teratogenic NOEL > 100
mg/kg/day, maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg/day (decreased body weight
and lowered food consumption); fetotoxic NOEL = 475 mg/kg/day
(decreased mean fetal weight); Core
grade = Minimum.
-- 099, 100, 101 50750, 50751, 50752 "A One-year Two-generation
Reproduction Study in CD Rats Maintained
on Diets Containing Trifluralin." (Lilly Research Labs, 8/86,
R06384 and R13984) Trifluralin technical, 96.45%, lot 554AP2,
initial nitrosamine content at 0.33 ppm with 99.43% off contents
identified; fed in the diet at 0, 0.02, 0.63 or 0.2% (equivalent
to TWAÕs of 15, 47 and 148 mg/kg/day); 25/sex/group; 2 litters
per generation; parental NOEL = 0.063% (decreased
body weight gain), reproductive NOEL > 0.2%; no adverse
reproductive effect reported; ACCEPTABLE. JG, 5/14/87.
SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGY DATA TRIFLURALIN. California EPA, Department
of Pesticides, Medical Toxicology Branch. Revised as of 11/29/95.
- Herbicide - CAS No. 126535-15-7
-- TERATOLOGY, RAT. 51974-030; 119842;
"Teratogenic Study of DPX-66037-24
in Rats" (Author: C.A. Mebus; E.I. du Pont de Nemours
& Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 525-91, 11/1/91);
DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 30, 120, 350, 1000
mg/kg/day oral gavage; 25 Crl: CD BR female rats/dose; observations-
maternal effects; five animals died due to dosing injuries; significant
decreases in maternal weight changes and feed consumption were
observed; fetal effects; significantly increased average
number of malformed fetuses were observed, the majority of fetal
malformations occurred in one fetus, when individual end points
of developmental evaluation criteria were grouped a significant
increase was noted in the 350 and 1000 mg/kg dose groups primarily
due to retarded renal development and partial ossification of
skulls, sternebra or vertebra; no adverse effect; Maternal NOEL
= 120 mg/kg (based on decreased maternal weight gain and feed
consumption), Developmental NOEL = 120number of malformed fetuses,
retarded fetal development)
-- TERATOLOGY, RABBIT. 51974-031;
119843; "Teratogenic Study of DPX-66037-24
in Rabbits" (Author: S.M. Murray; E.I. du Pont de
Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 575-91,
10/28/91); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl);
0, 15, 90, 270, 800 mg/kg/day oral gavage; 20 Hra:(NZW)SPF female
rabbits/dose; observations- maternally toxic at doses of 90 mg/kg
and greater, significant increased dose-related
mortalities and spontaneous abortions occurred at levels
of 270 and 800 mg/kg, during the dosing period the highest two
dose groups showed clinical signs of reduced fecal output, reduced
fecal size or diarrhea; significant decreases
in maternal weight changes and feed consumption were also
observed; histopathological changes were noted primarily in the
800 mg/kg group and included gastric mucosal ulcerations and digestive
tract gaseous distension; death losses at
800 mg/kg were extreme and data from remaining dams were markedly
different therefore these data were excluded from statistical
analysis; no physiological or developmental fetal effects were
observed at any dose level; no adverse effect; Maternal NOEL =
15 mg/kg (based on animal death, abortions,
decreased maternal weight gain and food consumption), =
800 mg/kg (based on no adverse affects).
-- 51974-058; 127247; "Combined Chronic
Toxicity/Oncogenicity Study with DPX-66037-24 Two-Year
Feeding Study in Rats" (Author: L.B. Biegel; E.I.
du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE; Project No.
HLR 3-93; 5/6/93); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% triflusulfuron-methyl);
0, 10, 100, 750, 1,500 ppm (averaged intake (M) 0, 0.406, 4.49,
30.6, 64.5 and (F) 0, 0.546, 5.47, 41.5, 87.7 mg/kg/day, respectively)in
diets; 62 rats/sex/dose; observations- statistically
significant decreased body weights and body weight gains of rats
in the 1,500 ppm group; in females fed 750 and 1500 ppm
a decreased incidence of mammary masses was noted when compared
to controls, in the highest dosed females statistically significant
increases of sciatic nerve myelin/axon degeneration occurred,
the 1500 ppm males had no increased incidence of this lesion but
showed increased lesion severity; males in 750 and 1500 ppm groups
had decreased erythrocyte counts and mean serum triglyceride concentrations;
high dosed males showed decreased serum calcium concentrations,
an increase in the absolute and relative testes weight and statistically
significant increases of both Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas;
NOEL(M)= 100 ppm (based on decreased erythrocyte counts, decreased
body weights, decreased body weight gain, increased severity of
sciatic nerve lesions, Leydig cell hyperplasia and Leydig cell
adenomas); NOEL(F)= 750 ppm (based on decreased body weight and
increased incidence of sciatic nerve degeneration); Possible Adverse
Effect: Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas; Acceptable. (Miller,
-- REPRODUCTION, RAT ** 51974-057;
126843; "Reproductive and Fertility
Effects with DPX-66037-24 Multigeneration Reproduction Study in
Rats" (Author: M. E. Hurtt; E.I. du Pont de Nemours
& Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 231-92, 4/20/93);
DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 10, 100, 750, 1,500
ppm dietary; 30 Crl: CD BR rats/dose both P1 and F1; observations-
no dose related mortalities were observed, statistically significant
lower body weights and body weight gains were observed in P1 (two
highest doses) and F1 (1500 ppm) males, body weight effects were
accompanied by statistically significant decreases in food consumption
(1500 ppm group), in female P1 rats statistically
significant lower mean body weight gains were noted (750,
1500 ppm groups) during premating, statistically
significant lower mean body weights during gestation and lactation
(two highest groups) were also observed, statistically significant
decreases in overall food consumption was present in F1 female
rats during premating (750, 1500 ppm groups), no additional
statistically significant differences were found in other adult
parameters; compound related decreases in mean F1 and F2 pup weights
(highest two dose groups) were observed but were not statistically
significant, there were no significant differences in any other
clinical observations in the F1 and F2 pups; generally gross necropsy
and histomorphologic findings of adults and offspring were few
and were not considered treatment related; Adult and Developmental
NOEL = 100 ppm of a.i. (based on decreased body weight, body weight
gain, food efficiency and decreased pup weights); Acceptable (Miller,
-- Subchronic Neurotoxicity, Rat **51974-099;
147828; "Subchronic Neurotoxicity Study
of DPX-66037-24 (Triflusulfuron methyl) Administered Orally
via the Diet to Crl:CDBR VAF/Plus Rats" J.A. Foss; E.I. du
Pont de Nemours & Company, Newark, DE; Project No. DuPont
HLO 127-93; 9/29/94; DPX-66037-24 (95.6%, Triflusulfuron-methyl);
male doses (consumed mean doses [mg/kg/day] range) 0, 100 (4.4-9.7),
750 (72.1-32.8), 1500 (143.1-66.5), 3000 (272.1-133.8) ppm in
diets, female doses (consumed mean doses [mg/kg/day] range) 0,
100 (5.5-9.7), 750 (67.7-40.0), 1500 (136.2-79.0), 3000 (258.3-163.4)
ppm in diets ; 11 rats/sex/dose; observations-No specific evidence
of behavioral or histological neurotoxicity at any level. The
750 ppm and higher dietary concentrations
significantly reduced body weight gains and feed consumption values
and the two highest concentrations significantly reduced the average
body weights in females. The 3000 ppm concentration significantly
reduced body weight gains and showed a trend to reduce average
body weights and feed consumption values in male rats. NOEL(F)=
100 ppm (based on decreased body weight gain); NOEL(M)= 1500 ppm
(based on decreased body weight gain); No adverse effects.
-- Rabbit 21-Day Repeated Dosing Dermal
Toxicity Study 51974-093; 147897; Subacute Dermal Toxicity;
822; Rabbit; "Repeated Dose Dermal Toxicity: 21-Day Study
with DPX-66037-24 (Triflusulfuron Methyl) in Rabbits"; S.A.
MacKenzie; E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Haskell Lab. for Tox.
and Ind. Med., Newark, DE; Laboratory Report No. HRL 552-93; 9/27/93
; Triflusulfuron Methyl (DPX-66037-24, 95.6% purity); 0, 50, 300,
1000 mg/kg applied dermally 6 hrs/day for 21 days ; 822; 5 New
Zealand White rabbits/sex/dose; observations- There were no test
article related mortalities or clinical signs of systemic toxicity.
Slight or mild erythema was observed in animals of all groups
(including controls). Mild skin trauma was noted in a few animals
but was not considered compound-related. Microscopic skin lesions
observed in both treated and control groups included, minimal
to mild inflamation and acanthosis. Lesions were attributed to
testing procedure. Statistically significant
differences in mean body weight gain were observed over a few
intervals in female rabbits but did not exibit a dose-response
and were not considered compound related. No other compound
related changes were noted any other parameter including body
weight or body weight gain, food consumption, hematology or clinical
chemistry analysis. Systemic and Dermal NOEL(M/F)= NOAEL(M/F)=1000
mg/kg b.w. (based on no effects at HDT).
-- Dog Subchronic Dietary Toxicity Study
51974-029; 119838; "A Subchronic (3-month)
Toxicity Study of DPX-66037-24 in the Dog Via Dietary Administration"
(Author: J.E. Atkinson; Bio/dynamics, Inc., East Millstone, NJ,
Project No. 91-3653, 12/20/91); DPX-66037-24(95.6% triflusulfuron-methyl);
0, 100, 4,000 and 8,000 ppm (averaged intake (M) 3.9, 146.1, 267.6
and (F) 3.7, 159.9 and 250.7 mg/kg/day) in diets; 4 Beagle dogs/sex/dose;
observations- two high dose females were
sacrificed in extremis showing marked body weight loss with
low food consumption and frank anemia, other high dose animals
exhibited little to no weight gain with food consumption slightly
decreased in the early weeks of the study; decreased erythrocyte
count and associated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were noted
at 1 1/2 and 3 months with a compensatory elevated reticulocyte
count; hepatotoxcity was demonstrated by elevated levels of serum
aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline
phosphatase and elevated liver weights and microscopic evidence
of bile stasis in the 4,000 and 8,000 ppm groups;
in mid and high dose males testicular atrophy and decreased testicular
weights were characterized by aspermatogenesis, decreased seminiferous
tubule thickness and germinal epithelial cytoplasmic vacuolation;
sternal and femoral bone marrow hypercellularity was seen in high
dose animals; NOEL(M/F)= 100 ppm (based on microscopic findings
in the liver and testes); Possible Adverse Effect: testicular
Reference: Nov 18, 2005 - Summary of Toxicology Data. California
Environmntal Protection Agency. Department of Pesticide Regulation.
Medical Toxicology Branch.
fluoride - Antifoulant,
Algaecide, Herbicide - CAS No. 379-52-2
An acute dust inhalation
toxicity study using albino rats as experimental animals was performed
for the compound triphenyltin-fluoride. The acute dust inhalation
median lethal concentration of the test compound is 0.29 milligrams
per liter of air based on a four hour exposure period. Untoward
behavioral reactions exhibited by the animals included gasping,
bloody nasal discharge, bloody ocular discharge, and weakness.
Body weight gains of the survivors of the
14 day observation period were less than normal. Gross
pathologic observation revealed mild to
severe focal discoloration of the lungs in all test animals.
Ref: Elliott CB (1972). Acute Dust Inhalation
Toxicity Study with Triphenyltin Fluoride in Albino Rats. M and
T Chemicals, Inc. (Unpublished report submitted to NIOSH), Rahway,
N. J., IBT No. N1632, 14 pages, 1 reference.