Environmental - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides

beginning with
A-E F-G H-P • Q-Z
 
 

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Quinoxyfen - Fungicide - CAS No. 124495-18-7

Examination and possible vote on a draft Commission Decision making it possible for Member States to extend provisional authorisations granted for the new active substances carfentrazone, cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop-butyl, ethoxysulfuron, famoxadone, flazasulfuron, flufenacet, flumioxazine, flurtamone, fosthiazate, isoxaflutole, metalaxyl-M, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, quinoxyfen, Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus and sulfosulfuron (SANCO/3963/2001 rev 6).

... Sweden supports a decision of non-inclusion of quinoxyfen in Annex I to Directive 91/414/EEC. The possible environmental impact of quinoxyfen cannot be shown to be acceptable with sufficient security. This is due to the high persistence, high potential for bioaccumulation and indicated potential for long-range transport. Substances like quinoxyfen may accumulate in various environmental compartments, including biota, and the effects of such accumulation are unpredictable. The Swedish opinion is that whatever the final results of the additional, ongoing study on organic matter breakdown may be, those results cannot be sufficient to demonstrate an acceptable impact.
Ref: SHORT REPORT OF THE MEETING OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON PLANT HEALTH HELD ON 7 DECEMBER 2001 IN BRUXELLES. SCPH 5/01. European Commission.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/quinoxyfen.eu.dec.7.2001.pdf

Silafluofen - Insecticide - CAS No. 105024-66-6

Classified as a "severe marine pollutant".
Ref: Transport Canada. APPENDIX 1 MARINE POLLUTANTS. Online March 24, 2003.

http://www.tc.gc.ca/acts-regulations/general/t/tdg/regulations/tdg001/part_2.htm

Sodium Fluoride - Wood Preservative, US EPA List 4B Inert  - CAS No. 7681-49-4

Effects of Fluoride on Fish Passage. The upstream migration of adult spring chinook salmon in the Columbia River has been subject to unusually long delays at John Day Dam. During the spring migration period, average passage times for radio-tagged salmonids at John Day Dam were 158 and 156 hours in 1979 and 1980, respectively. In contrast, average passage time at Bonneville Dam was less than 48 hours and at The Dalles Dam it was less than 24 hours. In addition, passage times for salmonids in the fall of 1982 were twice as long at John Day Dam as they were at The Dalles and McNary Dams. The delay of nearly 1 week at John Day Dam appeared to contribute to increased mortality and may have affected the spawning success of migrating adult salmonids.

...In 1982, preliminary studies conducted by CZES Division personnel assessed the distributions of many pollutants near John Day Dam. The results of this investigation suggested that the fish-passage delays might be related to contaminants discharged at an aluminum smelter outfall located on the Washington shore 1.6 km upstream from John Day Dam. In particular, high concentrations of fluoride in the vicinity of John Day Dam (0.3-0.5 mg/L in 1982) prompted investigators to focus sampling and research efforts on this contaminant.

In 1983 and 1984, behavior tests were conducted in which over 600 returning salmonids (chinook, coho, and chum, O. keta, salmon) were captured and tested with different concentrations of fluoride in a two-choice flume located in the spawning channel of Big Beef Creek, Washington. The conclusion from these experiments was that the behavior of upstream-migrating adult salmon would be adversely affected by fluoride concentrations of about 0.5 mg/L and that concentrations of 0.2 mg F/L were at or below the threshold for fluoride sensitivity of chinook and coho salmon.

Beginning in 1983 and continuing through 1986, fluoride discharges from the aluminum plant were greatly reduced. This was initially due to modifications in the plant's pollution-discharge system. However, it was also during this period that the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE) took an active interest in the results of the CZES Division's water quality and behavior tests. The WDOE lowered significantly the discharge limitations for a number of contaminants, including fluoride, in the aluminum plant's wastewater discharge permit. With the reduction in fluoride discharged from the aluminum plant, there was a corresponding drop in fluoride concentrations in the river near the outfall and John Day Dam. Concurrently, fish passage delays and interdam losses of adult salmon decreased to acceptable levels.
Ref: April 1993.
NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-7. Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS. 1980-89. Edited by Douglas B. Dey. National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle WA 98112

[Earthworms]. The impact of four fluorides (NaF, KF, FCH2COONa [Sodium fluoroacetate] and CaF2) in sublethal concentrations on the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated (model experiments) in relation to its growth, maturity (clitellum-development) and fertility (number of cocoons and number of hatchlings). Fluoride-accumulation was determined at the end of the 22 weeks' test period. In higher concentrations NaF, KF and FCH2COONa reduced growth of E. fetida significantly. CaF2 had no effect. The maturity was delayed through higher concentrations of NaF and KF in the substrate. In the case of CaF2, most worms had a fully developed clitellum. Most cocoons were found in the experiments with FCH2COONa. Small concentrations of NaF, KF an FCH2COONa obviously raised cocoon-numbers, whereas higher concentrations of NaF and KF reduced it. Only NaF reduced the number of hatchlings per cocoon significantly. At the end of the test, all worms from the variants with NaF, KF and CaF2 had a significantly higher fluoride [abstract truncated]
Ref: Influence of different fluorides in sublethal concentrations on growth, fertility and fluoride-accumulation of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). [Earthworm]; by VOGEL J, OTTOW J CG. PEDOBIOLOGIA; 36 (2). 1992. 121-128. [From Toxline at Toxnet].

Sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) - Insecticide, Rodenticide - CAS No. 62-74-8

Measured oral LD 50 values of fluoroacetate in the house sparrow, redwinged blackbird, starling and golden eagle are 3.0, 4.22, 2.37, and 1.25 to 5 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, measured acute toxicity data for mammalian wildlife include an oral LD50 of 0.22 to 0.44 mg/kg for mule deer, an oral LD50 of 1.41 mg/kg for male ferrets, and an oral LD 50 of 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg for bears. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing sodium fluoroacetate on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the environmental toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPPT. Support Document for the Health and Ecological Toxicity Review of TRI Expansion Chemicals. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Sodium fluoroacetate (1080), (also known as sodium monofluoroacetate), is a fluorinated carboxylic acid ester with high to very high toxicity to birds and mammals.
Ref: Australia. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals. Reconsideration of products containing Sodium fluoroacete (1080) and their labels. Background to the Review and Scope Document.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/1080.australia.july.2002.pdf

Sulfentrazone - Herbicide - CAS No. 122836-35-5

Phototoxic Pesticide. Light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides (LDPHs). US EPA identified the organofluorine herbicides Acifluorfen, Azafenidin, Carfentrazone-ethyl, Flumiclorac-penty, Flumioxazin, Fluthiacet-methyl, Fomesafen, Lactofen, Oxadiargyl, Oxadiazon, Oxyfluorfen, Sulfentrazone, Thidiazimin as phototoxic pesticides that act by inhibiting protoporphyringen oxidase in the heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. [10 out of the 13 pesticides that EPA identified are organofluorines].
SEE
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/PHOTOTOXICITY.PAGE.htm
Ref: December 11, 2001 - US EPA. Revised Environmental Fate and Effects Division Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Oxyfluorfen Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (also at: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/oxyfluorfen/oxyefedchap.pdf ).

Persistent in Soil. Enviornmental Fate: A typical half-life for sulfentrazone in soils is 541 days... Sulfentrazone's potential to leach to groundwater is high; surface runoff potential is high, and potential for loss on eroded soil is intermediate.
Ref: Sulfentrazone. Roadside Vegetation Management Herbicide Fact Sheet. Washington State Department of Transportation.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sulfentrazone.wa.state.facts.pdf

-- Environmental Characteristics. Acceptable information from environmental fate studies with respect to the persistence and mobility of sulfentrazone under laboratory and field conditions has been reviewed. Based on the current environmental fate data base, sulfentrazone has the following characteristics: 1) moderately soluble, 2) not susceptible to hydrolysis, 3) extremely susceptible to direct photolysis in water, 4) very stable to photolysis on soil, 5) aerobic half-life of 1.5 years, 6) anaerobic half-life of 9 years, 7) very high mobility in soil (average Koc = 43, Kd < 1), and 8) low volatility from soils and water. With these properties, it appears that sulfentrazone is highly mobile and persistent, and has a strong potential to leach into groundwater and move offsite to surface water.
-- Potential to Contaminate Groundwater. A groundwater exposure estimate for sulfentrazone was conducted based on findings from a prospective groundwater monitoring study in North Carolina. Although the study was incomplete, enough data were collected to confirm that sulfentrazone leaches substantially to groundwater in areas with sandy soils.
-- Aquatic. Sulfentrazone is practically non-toxic to the rainbow trout (LC50 ) greater 120 ppm) and slightly toxic to the bluegill sunfish (93.8 ppm). The results indicate that sulfentrazone is slightly toxic to fish on an acute basis. The chronic results indicate that sulfentrazone significantly affects young fish survival and growth at aquatic concentrations as low as 5.93 ppm. Sulfentrazone is slightly toxic to aquatic invertebrates on an acute basis. The results from data from chronic freshwater invertebrates indicate that survival of young daphnids is adversely affected at sulfentrazone concentrations as low as 0.51 ppm. The results from acute estuarine and marine animals study are incomplete but indicate that sulfentrazone is highly toxic to estuarine/marine organisms.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Sulfentrazone Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued: February 27, l997.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/sulfentrazone.pdf

Sulfluramid - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 4151-50-2

As a class, fluorinated organic compounds are resistant to photolysis. If released to soil, sulfluramid is expected to have no mobility based upon an estimated Koc of 3.5X10+6. Volatilization from moist soil surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon an estimated Henry's Law constant of 5.4 atm-cu m/mole. However, adsorption to soil is expected to attenuate volatilization. As a class, fluorinated organic compounds are resistant to microbial degradation. [Giesy JP, Kannan K; Environ Sci Technol 36: 147A-152A (2002)] If released into water, sulfluramid is expected to adsorb to suspended solids and sediment based upon the estimated Koc. Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process based upon this compound's estimated Henry's Law constant. However, volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be attenuated by adsorption to suspended solids and sediment in the water column. The estimated volatilization half-life from a model pond is 107 years if adsorption is considered. An estimated BCF of 500 suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high.
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SULFLURAMID CASRN: 4151-50-2.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sulfluramid.hsdb.oct.2003.htm

Ref: Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Sulfluramid on All Taxa Groups . PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34496
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Number of Studies Avg Species Rating
Fish
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 210.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas 5,054 4,866 2 Moderately Toxic

tau-Fluvalinate - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 102851-06-9

-- Considerable accumulation of tau fluvalinate was observed in wax. Depending on the location of the samples tau fluvalinate concentrations varied from 0.2 mg/kg - 5.5 mg/kg, with a maximum of 26.9 mg/kg in one wax sample collected from a frame positioned next to a strip.
-- Accumulation in wax is the result of the stability of tau fluvalinate in this matrix, its lipophilic character and the fact that wax is normally reused over several seasons. Monitoring of tau fluvalinate residues in honey and wax in Belgium in 1989-1992 revealed that residues in wax increased exponentially when the wax was reused over the years. Transfer of tau fluvalinate residues from wax to honey was shown to be negligible. However, the high tau fluvalinate residues in wax should be taken into consideratin in the evaluation of tau fluvalinate since contamination of honey with wax particles has to be expected (0.5 % content of water insoluble particles in honey is allowed).

Ref: Revised Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/021-REV1/95. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tau.fluvalinate.1995.review.pdf

-- Environmental hazards:
Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
-- Ecological Information:
Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
Ecotoxicity:
Fish: LC 50 > 0.024 mg/l, 96 hours (rainbow trout).
Algae: EC 50 = >100 mg/l (72 hours).
Daphnia: LC 50 = 0.011 mg/l (48 hours)
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Klartan. : Code no. R-10834.G. Makhteshim Agan (UK) Limited Unit 16, Thatcham Business Village, Colthrop Way, Thatcham Berkshire RG19 4LW.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tau.fluvalinate.msds.klarta.pdf

Teflon (PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene) - EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 9002-84-0

Due to length, see special section on
Teflon's Thermal Decompostion Products
Birds

Teflubenzuron - Insecticide - CAS No. 83121-18-0

TOXIC chemicals used on salmon farms could be killing off key elements of the marine food chain, according to a report leaked to a leading scientific magazine. "New Scientist" magazine has obtained a copy of a 178-page report which forms part of the ongoing £4 million study into the industry, which was launched by the UK government in 1999. In the leaked document it is alleged that chemicals such as cypermethrin, azamethiphos or teflubenzuron are damaging small crustaceans and other marine wildlife, which could be crucial to the survival of other species. These chemicals are often used by farmers to rid fish of sea lice.
- See also April 25, 2002 press release from Friends of the Earth, Scotland.
Ref:
Leaked Report Claims Toxins Are Hitting Marine Food Chain Fish Farming Today- Fish Farming Today. April 25, 2002

-- There is very little information available on the environmental fate and ecological effects of teflubenzuron in aquatic environments. The specific mode of action of teflubenzuron means it is highly toxic to aquatic crustacean invertebrates, but low in toxicity to fish, mammals and birds. As with emamectin benzoate, it is likely that the sediments will act as a sink for teflubenzuron and so sediment associated organisms are more likely to be affected by this chemical.
-- It is difficult to predict the ecological risk of teflubenzuron to the marine environment because of the current lack of information. Results from field studies referred to in SEPAÕs environmental risk assessment suggest that the use of teflubenzuron for sea lice control may present a moderate to high environmental risk. It seems unlikely that teflubenzuron will be widely used for sea lice control in Scotland, but if use does increase, investigation into the potential long-term impacts of this chemical on the marine environment is recommended.

Ref: REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AQUACULTURE. The Scottish Association for Marine Science and Napier University. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. 2002.
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/kd01/green/reia.pdf

Although teflubenzuron is relatively non-toxic to most marine species (e.g. fish, algae, shellfish), it is potentially highly toxic to any species which undergo moulting within their life cycle. This will therefore include some commercially important marine animals such as lobster, crab, shrimp and some zooplankton species.
--
Subsequent chemical analysis confirmed that measurable concentrations were generally not present in water after treatment and that levels in sediments were variable but followed the predicted dispersion model with measured levels of teflubenzuron extending initially to about 50m from cages in line with the main direction of current. In the study, teflubenzuron was found to persist longer than 6 months, which was longer than expected and hence additional studies were commissioned by Nutreco at the request of SEPA and VMD. The predicted half-life of teflubenzuron in sediment was from 8 to 92 days depending on sediment type (Myrvold, 1997) and it had been expected that 90% of teflubenzuron should have been degraded within 6 months. The indication of a potential for longer persistence is attributed to the site being a ieworst casels site already enriched and impacted by organic wastes with teflubenzuron being retained by binding with organic material (Trouw, 1999). The results from long-term site monitoring finally reported a half life of 104 to 123 days (Trouw, 1999). From this data, SEPA now intend to apply a half life of 115 days as a decay factor when undertaking site loading calculations for consent applications or reviews.
-- Chemical analysis of samples collected on-site of indigenous crustacea was also undertaken. It was concluded that there was a risk that sediment dwelling crustacea, such as edible crab (Cancer) and possibly Norwegian lobster (Nephrops), may accumulate teflubenzuron from contaminated sediment. However, it is known that depuration and loss of teflubenzuron does proceed following initial exposure and uptake (McHenery, 1997) and hence levels may be lost from such species before toxic effects occur (moulting).
--
The half-life of teflubenzuron in sediment suggests that there is a moderate risk of build up in sediment through repeat applications, although the risk of this is reduced where fewer applications are required by correct use of the product strategy.
Ref: Calicide (Teflubenzuron) - Authorisation for use as an in- feed sea lice treatment in marine cage salmon farms. Risk Assessment, EQS and Recommendations (As agreed at the Board Meeting held on 7 th July, 1998 and subsequently updated in July, 1999). Policy No. 29. SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY. Fish Farming Advisory Group.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/teflubenzuron.scotlandepa99.pdf

Tefluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 79538-32-2

Aquatic acute toxicity values for tefluthrin include a rainbow trout 96-hour LC 50 of 0.06 ppb, a bluegill 96-hour LC50 of 0.13 ppb, a sheepshead minnow 96-hour LC50 of 0.13 ppb, a daphnid 48-hour EC50 of 0.07 ppb, and a mysid 96-hour EC 50 of 0.053 ppb. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing teflurin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the available environmental toxicity data for this chemical.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Ref: Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Tefluthrin on All Taxa Groups. PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34532
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Number of Studies Avg Species Rating Outlier Result for Organism Group?

Fish

Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 4.47 4.34 2 Very Highly Toxic  
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 3.78 3.72 2 Very Highly Toxic  

Tetraconazole - Fungicide - CAS No. 112281-77-3

Threatened and Endangered Species Concern in the US.
-- The black-footed ferret is possibly collocated in a total of 13 counties in three states (MT, NE, and WY) based on EFED‘s LOCATES Database. There may be a potential for indirect adverse effects based on an endpoint of increased length of gestation. It is possible that the availability of prey for the black-footed ferret could be reduced. The black-footed ferret feed on prairie dogs and other small mammals that may chronically contain tetraconazole residues.
-- The US Fish and Wildlife Service is currently considering a petition to delist the Preble‘s mouse. This petition is based on the review of available information which indicates that the Preble's mouse is not a discrete taxonomic entity, does not meet the definition of a subspecies, and was listed in error. Risk refinements will not be necessary if this species is removed from the list. A final rule will be made in May 2005 (FR Vol. 70. No. 21. February 2, 2005).
Ref: April 2005. Pesticide Fact Sheet: Tetraconazole. US EPA.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tetraconazole.epa.2005.facts.pdf

-- Tetraconazole is considered moderately toxic to birds and highly toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae/aquatic plants and sediment dwelling organisms. Tetraconazole has been shown to be hazardous to bees, when they are exposed through oral or contact means. (page 21)
--
Persistent in water sediment. For the most part, sediments were anaerobic, and the majority of the radioactivity found was parent compound indicating very little metabolism of tetraconazole under anaerobic conditions. For the whole water/sediment systems, half-lives were calculated as 382 and 318 days for the pond and runoff system respectively demonstrating the persistence of tetraconazole in such systems. (page 18-19)
--
Persistent in soil. The other two field studies determined tetraconazole residues in soil samples obtained from field tests where tetraconazole was applied as a single dose. The tests were conducted over 1 year to 67 weeks and covered 5 soil types. Both these studies indicated very little movement of tetraconazole with no residues being detected below 10 cm. Degradation rates varied significantly between the soils and half lives ranged from 0.79 weeks (5.5 days) to 69 weeks (483 days). Despite rapid initial degradation in some of the soils, tetraconazole was clearly persistent as over the course of the studies, insufficient degradation occurred to allow a DT90 to be calculated (page 19). The main concern is with persistence and accumulation in soils and further work in this area is recommended with any future application involving an extension to higher rates and more frequent applications. (page 21)
--
Toxic to fish. Fish: Acute toxicity tests were performed on freshwater fish under static renewal or flow through conditions. On the basis of these results, tetraconazole is considered toxic to fish with 96 h LC50s ranging from >2.5-4.3 mg ac/L. Fathead minnow was tested for toxicity to their early life stages. This test established a 34 day NOEC of 1.09 ppm and a LOEC of 3.21 ppm. An acute toxicity study was performed on each of the metabolites SLM-2 and SLM-6 on rainbow trout. The results indicate that metabolite SLM-6 is practically non-toxic to fish whereas metabolite SLM-2 has a 96 h LC50 of 24 mg/L. (page 20)
--
Toxic to very toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Tetraconazole and formulated product were tested acutely on one freshwater invertebrate (Daphnia) under static conditions and one salt water species of mysid shrimp under static conditions. The 48 h EC/LC50 values derived for daphnia and mysid shrimp were 1.8-3.0 and 0.42 mg ac/L, respectively, indicating tetraconazole is toxic to very toxic to aquatic invertebrates. Daphnia were further tested chronically under static renewal conditions. The 21-d EC50 (reproduction) was estimated to be 0.73 mg/L. The NOEC (21-d) was determined to be 0.56 ppm. An acute toxicity study of each of the metabolites SLM-2 and SLM-6 indicates that SLM-6 is practically non-toxic to Daphnia while SLM-2 has an acute toxicity of 48 h LC50 of 68 mg/L. A 28 day chronic toxicity study was carried out on the larvae of the sediment dwelling organisms midge Chironomous riparius. A 28 day LC50 of 5.3 mg/L for the emergence and development rates indicates that tetraconazole is toxic to Chironomous riparius. (page 20)
--
Moderately toxic to earthworms. Four toxicity studies on earthworms indicate that tetraconazole was moderately toxic to earthworms with a 14 d LD50 of 71 mg/kg and a corresponding NOEC of 32 mg/kg. (page 20)
Ref: August 2005 - Evaluation of Tetraconazole in the product Domark 40ME Fungicide. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tetraconazole.2005.report.australia.pdf

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) - Propellant, US EPA List 4B Inert - CAS No. 811-97-2

The atmospheric lifetime of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been estimated to range from 12.5 to 24 years. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane may also undergo atmospheric removal by wet deposition processes; however, any removed is expected to rapidly re-volatilize to the atmosphere.
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for 1,1,1,2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE CASRN: 811-97-2.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroe.toxnet.htm

TFM (3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol) - Lampricide, Piscicide - CAS No. 88-30-2

Abstract: Toxicity testing with fish began early in this century, but standardized methods have been developed only within the last three decades. Standardized test procedures promote reproducibility of results; healthy fish properly handled and acclimated to test conditions are a given prerequisite. The principles of acute toxicity testing are important in the design of chronic tests for suspected carcinogens because certain factors influence the activity of chemicals or contaminants. The pH of test water is a critical factor in governing the uptake of chemicals by fish. Buffering is required so that uniform pH in waters of different hardnesses and different pHs in water of a given hardness are maintained. The importance of water quality control is graphically demonstrated by the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol; the toxicant is over 50 times more toxic in water at pH 6.5 than at pH 9.5. Results of laboratory tests on toxicity or carcinogenicity of single compounds in a clean environment represent an oversimplification of the real world because organisms are actually exposed to multiple chemicals or stresses. Because the environment is a complex interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that are extremely variable and dynamic, simulation of these systems in the laboratory is, at best, artificial; therefore, results developed must be considered to be predictive.
Ref: Marking LL (1984). Procedures for use of freshwater fishes in the development of reproducible toxicological information. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1984 May;65:195-9
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6749253&dopt=Abstract

-- TFM is chemically and biologically very stable. The compound possesses many of the chemical features known to impart persistence to organic compounds... TFM was converted to reduced-TFM with a half-life of less than one week under both aerobic and anaerobic aquatic metabolism conditions. It must be stressed that when reduced-TFM is reported as a reaction product, degradation has not occurred. TFM has just undergone a chemical reduction and under appropriate conditions, reduced-TFM may be re-oxidized to TFM... TFM is expected to remain in solution in the lake system and persist for long periods of time... TFM (C7 H4 F3 NO3 ; M.W. 207.11) is chemically and biologically very stable. An examination of its structure, i.e., aromatic, fluoro-containing, m-substituted phenol, shows that the compound possesses many of the chemical features known to impart persistence to organic compounds. Its pKa is 6.07 and the effect of pH on the toxicity appears to follow closely to the concentration of the lipid-soluble, free phenol form of TFM. This pH sensitivity is used to maximize effectiveness. As pH increases, toxicity, bioaccumulation, and adsorption to sediment decrease. Aqueous solubility of the sodium salt is 5 g/L.[P 24-25].
Ref: Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) 3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol and Niclosamide. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides And Toxic Substances (7508C). Report No. EPA 738-R-99-007. November 1999.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/PESTICIDES/TFM.Red.1999.pdf

Note from FAN: The use of TFM in the Great Lakes began at the end of the 1950's. Since that time there has been a dramatic shift from male to female sea lampreys. A confounding factor may be that TFM was found to be contaminated with dioxin in the early 1990s. It is unclear to me whether dioxin influenced this alteration, or TFM alone, or the combination of TFM and dioxin. [EC, Sept. 2003]

-- TFM treatments have been associated with induction of hepatic mixed function oxyganase activity and altered levels of circulating steroids in fish and induced hepatic vitellogenesis in primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (Hewitt et al. 1997). As such, TFM acts as an estradiol agonist and has a demonstrated endocrine disrupting effect...
-- Abundance of sea lamprey peaked in several Great Lakes before chemical control began. The sex ratio in these peak populations were predominately males (68-71%). Following a decade of lampricide treatments, populations of sea lampreys showed marked declines and the sex ratios in these populations shifted toward a predominance of females accounting for 72% of the population (Henrich, et al, 1979). This publication by Henrich concludes that lampricides reduced the populations of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes and contributed to the sequential shifting of the sex composition from a predominance of males to a predominance of females. There are no data to support that the endocrine mediated effect associated with TFM is related to the observed sex-ratio shifts among TFM-treated populations of sea lamprey [page 23].
Ref: November 1999 US EPA's Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for 3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol and Niclosamide)
.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/PESTICIDES/TFM.Red.1999.pdf

... The sensitivity of mudpuppies, frog tadpoles, and adult frogs to use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in the Great Lakes has been noted on many occasions. TFM has been used annually since 1958 for the control of sea lampreys throughout the Great Lakes. Amphibians regularly have been found dead in creeks immediately after TFM treatment (Gilderhus and Johnson 1980, Matson 1990). Laboratory tests have confirmed that species native to the Great Lakes Basin, such as the grey tree frog, northern leopard frog, and bullfrog, are sensitive to levels of TFM used for sea lamprey control (Chandler and Marking 1975). Mudpuppy population size decreased by a minimum of 29 per cent after a spray event in the Grand River of Ohio (Matson 1990)...
Ref: Conservation Priorities for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Canada. Sept 2000 report published by World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network. Prepared by David Seburn and Carolyn Seburn.

Abstract. Since 1958, 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used to control the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the USA-Canadian Great Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron and Ontario. A study was conducted to determine the degradability of TFM under laboratory conditions in aqueous (sediment-free) systems. No evidence of microbial degradation of TFM was found up to 80 days. TFM may persist for extended periods of time in the Great Lakes. On the basis of past and present levels of usage of TFM, it was estimated that the concentration of TFM in Lake Superior water could approach, if TFM were a completely conservative chemical, 0.015 mug/l. This concentration was considerably less than the concentrations found to be acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic life. The use of TFM as a sea lamprey larvicide did not represent a hazard to fish and other nontarget aquatic life in the Great Lakes.
Ref: THINGVOLD DA et al. (1981). Persistence of 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol in aquatic environments. ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL; 15 (11). 1335-1340.

Excerpts from Technical Report 7. April 2000. Animal Deformities or Reproduction Problems. Prepared for the Lake Erie LaMP Preliminary Beneficial Use Impairment Assessment. Keith A. Grasman, Lead Author. Co-Authors: Christine A. Bishop, William W. Bowerman, James P. Ludwig, Pamela A. Martin. http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/buia/lamp7.pdf

(page 13): The sensitivity of mudpuppies, frog tadpoles and adult frogs to TFM use in the Great Lakes has been noted (Gilderhus and Johnson, 1980). TFM is intended to control larval sea lamprey and has been used historically in 19 (8 in U.S./11 in Canada) of the 842 tributaries to Lake Erie for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control. Since 1995, TFM has been applied in Conneaut Creek and the Grand River in Ohio and Big Creek and Big Otter Creek in Ontario. Only four Lake Erie tributaries (Big Creek Ontario, and 3 U.S. tributaries) are currently scheduled for future regular treatments every 4 to 6 years.

When TFM is used, amphibians have regularly been found dead in creeks immediately after treatment in Lake Erie watersheds and elsewhere in the Great Lakes (Gilderhus and Johnson, 1980; Matson, 1990). Laboratory tests have confirmed that species native to the Great Lakes basin such as gray tree frog, leopard frog, and bullfrog are sensitive to field applied rates of TFM (Chandler and Marking, 1975). In the Grand River, Ohio, Matson (1990) found that in the year following TFM application (1997), mudpuppy population size decreased by a minimum of 29% in the segment treated. In 1999, the Grand River was treated with TFM and dead mudpuppies were found downstream of the application zone within twenty-fours hours.

Because TFM is not bioaccumulative and is only applied periodically in closely controlled and monitored conditions, the associated mudpuppy mortality is often perceived to be insignificant. However, mudpuppies do not become sexually mature until 4 to 6 years of age. Given the past and projected future schedule for TFM applications, there is the potential for the TFM applications to match periods when large numbers of mudpuppy are reaching an age when they can reproduce. In addition, TFM is generally applied in the spring when stream flows are higher. Therefore, TFM has the potential to kill a portion of the existing females before they lay their eggs in May and June. For these reasons, future study is needed to determine the significance of the mortality and the life stages most affected (see section 7.5).

(page 16) • There are conflicting opinions about the significance of non-target species sensitivity, particularly mudpuppy, to TFM (when used for sea lamprey eradication), and its implications for potential impairment. Therefore, the impact of TFM on amphibian populations needs to be assessed by monitoring populations of mudpuppies and other amphibians pre- and postapplication. From a reproductive standpoint, it is particularly important to determine if TFM has greater impacts on certain age classes and/or egg-bearing females.


Thiazopyr
- Herbicide - CAS No. 117718-60-2

Freshwater Fish: moderately toxic
-- Rainbow trout: LC50 = 3.4 mg/L
-- Bluegill Sunfish: LC50 = 3.5 mg/L
-- Aquatic Invertebrate: moderately toxic Daphnia magna: LC50 = 6.1 mg/L
-- Mollusc Shell Deposition: highly toxic Eastern Oyster: EC50 = 0.82 mg/L
-- Estuarine Invertebrate Acute Toxicity: Moderately toxic Mysid Shrimp:LC50 = 2.0 mg/L Fish Early Life Stage Toxicity Rainbow trout: NOEL = 0.55 mg/L MATC = 0.74 mg/L
-- Aquatic Invertebrate Life Cycle Toxicity Daphnia magna: NOEL = 0.11 mg/L MATC = 0.16 mg/L Aquatic Plant Growth and Reproduction Selenastrum capricornutun:EC50 = 0,043 mg/L NOEL = 0.018 mg/L
-- Thiazopyr had low toxicity to birds, mammals, honeybees, and earthworms. It was moderately toxic to freshwater and marine fish and Daphnia magna, with moderate to high toxicity to marine invertebrates. Thiazopyr was highly to very highly toxic to nontarget terrestrial and aquatic plants, algae and diatoms.
-- Photodegradation on soil: Thiazopyr degrades very slowly in soil, with an extrapolated half life of 1373 days.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Thiazopyr Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued: February 20, l997.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/thiazopyr.pdf

Thidiazimin - Herbicide - CAS No. 123249-43-4

Phototoxic Pesticide. Light-dependent peroxidizing herbicides (LDPHs). US EPA identified the organofluorine herbicides Acifluorfen, Azafenidin, Carfentrazone-ethyl, Flumiclorac-penty, Flumioxazin, Fluthiacet-methyl, Fomesafen, Lactofen, Oxadiargyl, Oxadiazon, Oxyfluorfen, Sulfentrazone, Thidiazimin as phototoxic pesticides that act by inhibiting protoporphyringen oxidase in the heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. [10 out of the 13 pesticides that EPA identified are organofluorines].
SEE http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/PHOTOTOXICITY.PAGE.htm
Ref: December 11, 2001 - US EPA. Revised Environmental Fate and Effects Division Preliminary Risk Assessment for the Oxyfluorfen Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document (also at: http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/reregistration/oxyfluorfen/oxyefedchap.pdf ).

Tolylfluanid - Fungicide - CAS No. 731-27-1

Water-sediment systems. In a study of hydrolysis, tolylfluanid was readily hydrolyzed into DMST [dimethylaminosulfotoluidine] under all conditions used (pH 4, 7 and 9; 20, 30 and 40°C). The half life of tolylfluanid was calculated to be 11.7 days at pH 4 and 29.1 hours at pH 7 at 22°C in respective sterile buffer solutions. Tolylfluanid was so unstable at pH 9 that no parent compound was left to be detected even in immediate analysis of the sample making the estimation of half life impossible. Another hydrolysis study demonstrated that tolylfluanid was hydrolyzed into DMST, fluoride ion, chloride ion, sulfur and carbon dioxide. DMST, on the other hand, was stable at pH 4, 7 and 9 up to 55°C in respective sterile buffer solutions. The half life of DMST was calculated to be > 1 year at 22°C at pH 4, 7 and 9. (page 262)
Ref: Pesticide residues in food - 2002. Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues. Rome, Italy. 16- 25 September 2002. ISBN 92-5-104858-4.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tolylfluanid.fao.2002.pdf

Transfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 118712-89-3

Environmental toxicity tests demonstrated that all products containing transfluthrin should be classified as 'Extremely dangerous to fish and other aquatic life', with a 48 h EC50 for Daphnia magna of 1.7 ug1 and a 96 h LC50 for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of 0.7 ug 1.
Ref: Evaluation on: Transfluthrin Use as a Public Hygiene Insecticide. September 1997. Prepared by: the UK Health and Safety Executive, Biocides & Pesticides Assessment Unit, Magdalen House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ. Available from: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX. UK. Also at

http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/165_confirm-box.htm

Note: This was transcribed from the copy available on the web. While one can easily read this report on the web, the report is inaccessible, or locked, to any attempt to copy it. Any errors are mine. EC.

Tributyltin fluoride - Antifoulant, Fungicide, Microbiocide - CAS No. 1983-10-4

Tributyltin fluoride: Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Tributyltin fluoride on All Taxa Groups.
Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?CAS_No=1983-10-4&Rec_Id=PC34614
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Avg Species Rating
Amphibians
Frog Rana temporaria
30.0
-
Very Highly Toxic
Crustaceans
Fiddler crab Uca pugilator
800.0
-
Highly Toxic
Fish
Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus
8.15
3.85
Very Highly Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus
7.35
3.65
Very Highly Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss
11.2
7.80
Very Highly Toxic

Shell thickening. Alzieu et al. (1982) reported that adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas) developed gel centres in the shell when they were exposed to TBT fluoride at a concentration of 0.2 µg/litre.
Ref: C Alziieu et al. (1982). Influence des peintures antisalissures ˆ base d'organostanniques sur la calcification de la coquille de l'huitre Crassostrea gigas. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pches Marit., 45: 101-116.
Ref: Tributyltin Compounds. Environmental Health Criteria 116. International Programme on Chemical Safety.

http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc116.htm

Aquatic acute toxicity values for tributyltin fluoride include a bleak fish 96-hour LC 50 of 2.3 ppb, an algae 72-hour EC50 of 9.3 ppb, and a Harpacticoid copepod 96-hour LC 50 of 0.8 ppb. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence for listing tributyltin fluoride on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the available environmental toxicity data.
Ref: USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US EPA in: Federal Register: January 12, 1994. Part IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed Rule.

Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11) - Insecticide, Fungicide, Propellant; EPA List 2 Inert - CAS No. 75-69-4

US EPA: Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 45 years
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods.html

Many gases emitted as a result of industrial and agricultural activities can accumulate in the earth's atmosphere and ultimately contribute to alterations in the vertical distribution and concentrations of stratospheric ozone. Among the most important are those trace gases that have long residence times in the atmosphere. This allows accumulation in the troposphere and a gradual upward migration of the gases into the stratosphere where they contribute to depletion of stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric and chemical processes involved are extremely complex. Trace gases of particular concern include certain long lived chlorofluorocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113. Since the transport of these gases to the stratosphere is slow, their residence times there are long, and the removal processes are slow, any effect on stratospheric ozone already seen is probably the result of anthropogenic emissions of these gases several decades ago. Those gases already in the atmosphere will continue to exert stratospheric ozone depletion effects well into the next century. /Chlorofluorocarbons/ [WHO; Environmental Health Criteria 113: Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbons p.47 (1990)]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Base for TRICHLOROFLUOROMETHANE.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trichlorofluorometha.TOXNET.htm

Environmental Contamination Concerns
A. Surface Water Volatilization from water surfaces is expected to be an important fate process with estimated volatilization half-lives for a model river and a model lake being four hours and five days, respectively. Hydrolysis is not expected to occur. Bioconcentration in organisms is low to moderate; BCF (Bioconcentration factor: the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism to that in surrounding water) is from 11-86. Biodegradation, adsorption to sediment, and abiotic degradation are insignificant. Large volumes of Freon may sink to the bottom and gradually bubble up to the surface if the water is not too cold (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B).
B. Groundwater In general, Freons that are spilled onto soil have the potential to leach into groundwater, because they do not bind well to soil (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Fully halogenated hydrocarbons such as Freons 11, 12, and 113 are very resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are likely to be persistent contaminants if they reach groundwater.
D. Soil
If Freon is spilled onto soil, a portion may evaporate from the surface and the remainder will leach downward into the soil. Mobility through the soil is expected to be moderate based on estimated Koc values. Freon does not bind well to soil, and leaching to groundwater is possible (Hazardtext, Preliminary Remediation Goals for Residential Soil (U.S. EPA, 2002, Region IX):
Freon 11 - 390 mg/kg
Freon 12 - 94 mg/kg
Freon 113 - 5600 mg/kg
E. Air
Once released to air, Freon exists solely as a gas. In the atmosphere, fully halogenated Freons diffuse to the troposphere, where they are very stable and can be transported great distances. Wet deposition may result in some loss, but re-volatilization into the atmosphere is likely. The only degradation process is diffusion to the stratosphere, where photolytic destruction of Freons results in depletion of stratospheric ozone, thereby increasing the amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earthÕs surface (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Preliminary Remediation Goals for Ambient Air (U.S. EPA, 2002, Region IX):
Freon 11 - 0.73 mg/m 3
Freon 12 - 0.21 mg/m 3
Freon 113 - 31 mg/m 3

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Trichlorotrifluoromethane (CFC 113) - Solvent, US EPA List 2 Inert - CAS No. 76-13-1

US EPA: Class 1 Ozone Depleting Substance. Lifetime of Global Warming Potential: 85 years
Ref: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ods.html

The stratospheric lifetime of this compound ranges between 63 and 122 years(5). As a result of this persistence in the atmosphere(5), this vapor-phase compound can be transported long distances and therefore, its concn should be fairly uniform throughout the globe away from known sources(SRC). [(1) Bidleman TF; Environ Sci Technol 22: 361-367 (1988) (2) Boublik T et al; The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances. 2nd Rev Ed, Amsterdam: Elsevier p. 74 (1984) (3) Horvath AL et al; J Phys Chem Ref Data 28: 395-507 (1999) (4) Dilling WL; pp. 154-97 in Environmental Risk Analysis for Chemicals. Conway RA, ed. NY, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co (1982) (5) Chou CC et al; J Phys Chem 82: 1-7 (1978)]
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for 1,1,2-TRICHLORO-1,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHANE CASRN: 76-13-1.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/trichlorotrifluorome.toxnet.htm

Environmental Contamination Concerns
A. Surface Water. Bioconcentration in organisms is low to moderate; BCF (Bioconcentration factor: the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism to that in surrounding water) is from 11-86.
B. Groundwater
. In general, Freons that are spilled onto soil have the potential to leach into groundwater, because they do not bind well to soil (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B). Fully halogenated hydrocarbons such as Freons 11, 12, and 113 are very resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are likely to be persistent contaminants if they reach groundwater.
D. Soil. If Freon is spilled onto soil, a portion may evaporate from the surface and the remainder will leach downward into the soil. Mobility through the soil is expected to be moderate based on estimated Koc values. Freon does not bind well to soil, and leaching to groundwater is possible (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001B).
E. Air. Once released to air, Freon exists solely as a gas. In the atmosphere, fully halogenated Freons diffuse to the troposphere, where they are very stable and can be transported great distances. Wet deposition may result in some loss, but re-volatilization into the atmosphere is likely. The only degradation process is diffusion to the stratosphere, where photolytic destruction of Freons results in depletion of stratospheric ozone, thereby increasing the amount of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the earthÕs surface (Hazardtext, 2003B; HSDB, 2001A; HSDB, 2001B).

Ref: September 24, 2003 (Revised). Released November 7, 2003) - FREON [11, 12, 113]. Technical Support Document: Toxicology. Clandestine Drug Labs/ Methamphetamine. Volume 1, Number 11. California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), Department of Toxic Substances Control.

Trifloxystrobin - Fungicide - CAS No. 141517-21-7

Freshwater Fish and Invertebrate Acute Toxicity
-- Rainbow trout 0.014 ppm (LC50) very
highly toxic;
-- Bluegill sunfish 0.054 ppm (LC50)
very highly toxic;
-- Water flea 0.025 ppm (LC50)
very highly toxic;
Estuarine/Marine Fish and Invertebrate Acute Toxicity Under Flow-through Condition LC50 or EC50 (ppb):
---- Sheepshead minnow 78 (ppb) very highly toxic; ---- Mysid shrimp 8.62 (ppb) very highly toxic;
---- Eastern oyster (shell deposition) 29.3 (ppb) very highly toxic
Ref: US EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet. Trifloxystrobin. Reason for Issuance: New Chemical Registration. Date Issued: September 20, 1999.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/trifloxystrobin.pdf

... Trifloxystrobin's major isomer, CGA-321113, forms at the average rate of 80% of the applied parent, is persistent, (half life is about 301 days), and soluble, 30.9 ppm and is also mobile. The major degradate minimum Koc is 49, the median Koc is 127 and is also stable to hydrolysis. The major degradate, CGA-321113 is persistent and mobile and has a potential to leach into groundwater. CGA-321113 has been found in the soil profile at the 36 inch depth.
Ref: Federal Register: May 22, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 99)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 35915-35924]. Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/trifloxystrobin.fr.may22.02.htm

-- Accumulation in water and/or sediment: Trifloxystrobin will not accumulate. CGA 321113 may accumulate in sediment (see DT50 above).
--
Remarks: Residue relevant for environmental monitoring in water: Surface water Š trifloxystrobin Groundwater Š trifloxystrobin. Member states may wish to monitor for NOA 413161 in vulnerable groundwater situations as it could approach the 10g/l drinking water limit for chlorinated aliphatic compounds compounds even though it is considered not relevant.

Ref: Review report for the active substance trifloxystrobin. Trifloxystrobin. SANCO/4339/2000-Final. 7 April 2003. Finalised in the [European Commission] Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health at its meeting on 15 April 2003 in view of the inclusion of trifloxystrobin in Annex I of Directive 91/414/EEC.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/trifloxystrobin.eu.april.03.pdf

Triflumizole - Fungicide - CAS No. 68694-11-1

Abstract: Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the contact honey bee toxicity of commercial and candidate neonicotinoid insecticides. The nitro-substituted compounds were the most toxic to the honey bee in our laboratory studies with LD50 values of 18 ng/bee for imidacloprid, 22 ng for clothianidin, 30 ng for thiamethoxam, 75 ng for dinotefuran and 138 ng for nitenpyram. The cyano-substituted neonicotinoids exhibited a much lower toxicity with LD50 values for acetamiprid and thiacloprid of 7.1 and 14.6 g/bee, respectively. Piperonyl butoxide, triflumizole and propiconazole increased honey bee toxicity of acetamiprid 6.0-, 244- and 105-fold and thiacloprid 154-, 1,141- and 559-fold, respectively, but had a minimal effect on imidacloprid (1.70, 1.85 and 1.52-fold, respectively). The acetamiprid metabolites, N-demethyl acetamiprid, 6-chloro-3-pyridylmethanol and 6-chloro-nicotinic acid when applied topically, produced no mortality at 50 g/bee. These results suggest that P450s are an important mechanism for acetamiprid and thiacloprid detoxification and their low toxicity to honey bees. When honey bees were placed in cages in forced contact with alfalfa treated with acetamiprid and the synergist, triflumizole, in combination at their maximum recommended application rates, no mortality was detected above that of the control.
Ref:
Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera; by Takao Iwasa, Naoki Motoyama, John T. Ambrose and R.M.R. Michael Roe. Crop Protection; Volume 23, Issue 5 , May 2004, Pages 371-378.

Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.
Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Triflumizole on All Taxa Groups.

http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34923
Fish      
Bleak Alburnus alburnus 400.0 Highly Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 36.0 Very Highly Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 445.0 Highly Toxic
Molluscs      
Snail Biomphalaria glabrata 10.0 Very Highly Toxic
Zooplankton
Harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes 8.00 Very Highly Toxic

Triflumuron - Insecticide - CAS No. 64628-44-0

Triflumuron is very toxic to aquatic organisms. Triflumuron is toxic to bees.
Triflumuron: Fish toxicity:
LC50 (96 hr) bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) > 20.8 µg/L
LC50 (96 h) rainbow trout (onchorhynchus mykiss) > 24.2 µg/L
Triflumuron: Daphnia toxicity:
EC50 (48 h) water flea (Daphnia magna) 1.6 µg/L
Triflumuron: Algal toxicity:
Growth rate: IC50 (72 h) green algae (Desmodesmus subspicatus) > 0.025 mg/L

Ref: August 9, 2004. Material Safety Data Sheet for Alsystin 250 Larvicide. Bayer CropScience.

-- Triflumuron is a toxic hazard to juvenile aquatic and terrestrial arthropods
-- Fish toxicity:
LC50: > 10 mg/L (96 h) rainbow trout
LC50: >100 mg/L (96 hours) golden orfe
Daphnia toxicity:
EC50: 0.23 mg/L (48 hours) daphnia magna.
-- Environmental fate, persistence and degradation:
Degradation of active constituent Š half life:
t l/2: 960 days at pH4 (22 0 C)
t l/2: 580 days at pH7 (22 0 C)
tl/2: 11 days at pH9 (22 0 C)
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Intrigue Termite Dust. Supplier: Bayer Environmental Science Š A Business Group of Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022 Address: 391 - 393 Tooronga Road, East Hawthorn Victoria 3123, Australia
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/triflumuron.msds.bayer.02.pdf

Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Triflumuron on Fish.
Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms.

http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34658&Taxa_Group=Fish
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Number of Studies Avg Species Rating
Fish
Western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis 10.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic

Trifluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8

Sheepshead minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus Laeepede, exposed to 5 5 to 31 /xg/1 of the herbicide trifluralin, throughout their first 28 days of life, developed a heretofore undescribed vertebral dysplasia. This dysplasia consisted of semisymmetrical hypertrophy of vertebrae (three to 20 times normal), characterized by foci of osteoblast and fibroblasts actively laying down bone and bone precursors. Effects of the abnormal vertebral development were dorsal vertebral growth into the neural canal, ventral compression of renal ducts, and longitudinal fusion of vertebrae. Fish, exposed for 51 days to 16-6 /ng/1 trifluralin and thereafter depurated for 41 days, showed no increase in vertebral dysplasia during depuration; however, residual spinal column damage was evident. Serum calcium concentrations were elevated in adult fish exposed for 4 days to 16-6 /xg/1 trifluralin. Fluorosis or mimicry of hypervitaminosis A are considered possible mechanisms for the osseous effect, but are not considered to be the only possible causes. The highly predictable nature of this disorder in experimental exposures strengthens the probability that young flsh may serve as experimental models for determining effects of chemicals on early vertebrate ontogeny, particularly in regard to skeletal development.
Excerpt: Trifluralin (2, 6 dinitro-N, N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) Benzamine) is a fluorine containing, pre-emergent herbicide widely used in the United States (Wiswesser 1976). Continuous laboratory exposure of early life stages of the sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus Laeepede to relatively low concentrations of trifluralin results in marked vertebral dysplasia...
Ref:
Vertebral dysplasia in young fish exposed to the herbicide trifluralin. By JA COUCH, JT WINSTEAD, DJ HANSEN and LR GOODMAN. Journal of Fish Diseases 1979, 2, 35-42.
Full report at: http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/trifluralin.1979.paper.pdf

• trifluralin has been added to the OSPAR (Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic) List of Chemicals for Priority action in 2002 because it is considered to be a PBT substance fulfilling the criteria for Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity (page 3).
• 5.2 RISK TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS. Selenastrum capricornutum is the most sensitive aquatic organism on an acute time-scale and fathead minnow is the most sensitive species on a chronic time-scale when tested with trifluralin and the lead formulation. Due to the difference in Annex VI trigger value, the risk assessment is driven by the endpoints for fish both on an acute as long term time-scale. The resulting acute TER-value at 1 m from a field (7.9) is below and hence breaches the Annex VI trigger value of 100 so the risk should be considered as high. The rapporteur Member State calculated the risk taking into account buffer zones. This resulted in a TER-value of 110 indicating a low acute risk to fish if a bufferzone of 15 meters is taken into account. The choice of a relevant endpoint for the long-term risk to fish was extensively discussed during the EPCO expert meeting (section ecotoxicology, June 2004). Trifluralin induces vertebral lesions in several fish species, and in some instances this effects is induced after short term exposure (24 hours for brown trout). The meeting agreed that the risk assessment should be based in initial PEC and on the NOEC of 0.3 ?g/L (based on the observed vertebral lesions in the study with fathead minnow) together with an uncertainty factor of 10 to conduct the risk assessment. This would lead to a TER value of 0.38 when a buffer zone of 15 m is taken into account (without detailed calculations, a bufferzone of 50 m should lead to a TER-value of approximately 1). Consequently the risk for aquatic organisms should be regarded as high. Therefore the risk should be further refined either by higher tier studies or by a refinement of the exposure assessment. Therefore, the expert meeting set the following data requirement: notifier to submit exposure studies with different exposure times using the fathead minnow as the most sensitive fish species. As an alternative microcosm tests with a more realistic exposure regime may be run (page 21-22).
..... Trifluralin and the metabolites TR-4, TR-7 and TR-14 can be found in concentrations above 10% of the AR in the sediment. Therefore the risk to sediment dwelling organisms needs to be addressed. This risk assessment is available in the addendum 3 of June 2004... (page 22).
..... Studies on bio-accumulation in fish are available as the logPow exceeds 3 and the DT50 in water exceeds 10. The steady state bioconcentration factor is found to be 5674 which exceeds the Annex VI trigger value of 100 for not readily biodegradable product ... This BCF-value and the fact that the depuration is less than 95% after 14 days triggers a fish full life cycle study which is available with the sheephead minnow. The resulting NOEC from this study is 1.3 µg/L (based on fecundity, no vertebral lesions observed) which is higher than the NOEC which is chosen for the long term risk assessment. As mentioned above a high long term risk to aquatic organisms was identified for which a data requirement is still open. Therefore, EFSA proposes that Member States may reconsider the risk for bioaccumulation when this long term assessment is revised, on receipt of the above mentioned data requirement. Residues in fish were found during the available field monitoring study (page 22-23).
High risks were identified for aquatic organisms, in particular the chronic risk to fish, which require consideration of appropriate risk mitigation measures. Using the initial predicted environmental concentrations (PEC’s) together with the no observed effect level (NOEC) of 0.3 ?g/L leads to a toxicity exposure ratio (TER)-value of 0.38 when a bufferzone of 15 metres is taken into account which is below the Annex VI trigger value of 10 (without detailed calculations, a bufferzone of 50 m should lead to a TER-value of approximately 1). Further data to address this risk is needed and the risk assessment can only be concluded when the outstanding data is evaluated (page 3)
Ref: March 14, 2005. European Food Safety Authority: Conclusion regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance trifluralin. EFSA Scientific Report (2005) 28, 1-77.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/trifluralin.eu.long.2005.pdf

Note: Still in use in the EU as of October 2003; however the EU is currently reconsidering its use.
"Trifluralin 1582-09-8 Banned. Low degradability, bioaccumulative and toxic to water-living organisms. 1990."
Definition: "Banned. A substance which for health or environmental reasons by an authority decision is either no longer approved for any area of application, or for which an approval or registration has been denied from the first instance."

Ref: Euopean Commission. Appendix 5. Substances which may not be included as active ingredients in approved pesticide products, Chapter 15, Section 2, subsection one.

http://www.kemi.se/lagar_eng/pdf/app5_8.pdf

Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms. Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Trifluralin.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC35146
Common Name Scientific Name Avg Species LC50 (ug/L) LC50 Std Dev Number of Studies Studies Avg Species Rating
Amphibians
Toad Bufo bufo japonicus 14,000 - 1 Slightly Toxic
Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 150.7 37.8 7 Highly Toxic
Fish
Porgy Acanthopagrus schlegeli 56.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Bunni fish Barbus sharpeyi 250.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Goldfish Carassius auratus 397.0 312.3 5 Highly Toxic
Agohaze, goby Chasmichthys dolichognathus 120.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Pacific herring Clupea pallasi 5.00 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus 190.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Common, mirror, colored, carp Cyprinus carpio 391.2 377.1 5 Highly Toxic
Western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis 9,630 9,893 5 Moderately Toxic
Green fish Girella punctata 110.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus 800.7 711.2 10 Highly Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 197.4 233.1 40 Highly Toxic
Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides 86.2 19.5 4 Very Highly Toxic
Oriental weatherfish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus 350.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Striped mullet Mugil cephalus 32.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 188.1 326.7 58 Highly Toxic
Medaka, high-eyes Oryzias latipes 430.0 - 1 Highly Toxic
Red Sea Bream Pagrus major 23.0 2.16 3 Very Highly Toxic
Hirame, flounder Paralichthys olivaceus 56.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum 33.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Fathead minnow Pimephales promelas 133.4 33.3 8 Highly Toxic
Harlequinfish, red rasbora Rasbora heteromorpha 733.3 188.6 3 Highly Toxic
Jacopever Sebastes schlegeli 74.0 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata 5.00 - 1 Very Highly Toxic
Walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum 180.0 - 1 Highly Toxic

Triflusulfuron-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 126535-15-7

Potential Ground Water Contaminant.
Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemicals for Triflusulfuron-methyl.

http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Detail_Chemical.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34661

Triphenyltin fluoride- Antifoulant, Algaecide, Herbicide - CAS No. 379-52-2

Severe marine pollutant.
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet ACC# 99193. Triphenyltin fluoride.
https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/99193.htm

Ref: PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms. Acute Aquatic Ecotoxicity Summaries for Triphenyltin fluoride on All Taxa Groups.
http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAcuteSum.jsp?Rec_Id=PC34678
Fish
Bleak Alburnus alburnus 400.0 Highly Toxic
Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 36.0 Very Highly Toxic
Rainbow trout,donaldson trout Oncorhynchus mykiss 445.0 Highly Toxic
Molluscs
Snail Biomphalaria glabrata 10.0 Very Highly Toxic
Zooplankton
Harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes 8.00 Very Highly Toxic

 
Fluoride Action Network | Pesticide Project | 315-379-9200 | pesticides@fluoridealert.org