• Due to length,
we are presenting this effect as a
separate section for PFOS and PFOA.
The study of the adverse effects of PFOS-PFOA chemicals is in
its infancy and we anticipate that more effects will be presented
and published over the next several years. Most of the animal
studies (as of early 2004) have been performed by the major producers
of PFOS-PFOA (3M and DuPont).
Click here to return to the same
section for fluorine & organofluorine pesticides.
This is not an exhaustive list. The
review of data was performed in 2003 to early 2004.
When time allows more information will be added,
sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals
that are used extensively in industrial and household applications.
Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from
several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns
about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects
of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system
has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female
rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0,
1, or 10 mg PFOS/kg body weight (BW) for 2 weeks. Food
and water intake, BW, and estrous cycles were monitored daily.
At the end of treatment, PFOS levels in tissues were measured
by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with
electrospray mass spectrometry. Changes in brain monoamines were
measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and serum corticosterone
and leptin were monitored using radioimmunoassay. Treatment
with PFOS produced a dose-dependent accumulation of this chemical
in various body tissues, including the brain. PFOS exposure
decreased food intake and BW in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment
with PFOS affected estrous cyclicity and increased serum corticosterone
levels while decreasing serum leptin concentrations. PFOS treatment
also increased norepinephrine concentrations in the paraventricular
nucleus of the hypothalamus. These
results indicate that exposure to PFOS can
affect the neuroendocrine system in rats.
Ref: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep;111(12):1485-9.
effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats; by Austin ME,
Kasturi BS, Barber M, Kannan K, MohanKumar PS, MohanKumar SM.
Title: 26-Week Capsule
Toxicity Study with Perfluorooctane Sulfonic Acid Potassium Salt
(PFOS; T6295) in Cynomolgus Monkeys, 2002. TEST SUBSTANCE Identity:
Potassium perfluorooctylsulfonate, CAS # 2795-39-3. Year study
performed: 2000. Species/strain: Cynomolgus monkeys. Sex: Males
and females. Number of animals per dose group: 6 animals/sex/dose
group for groups 1, 3, and 4; 4 animals/sex for group 2. Route
of administration: Oral capsule Doses tested and frequency: 0
mg/kg/day, 0.03 mg/kg/day, 0.15 mg/kg/day, or 0.75 mg/kg/day Post-observation
period: 52 weeks ...
NOAEL (dose and effect): 0.15 mg/kg/day.
LOAEL (dose and effect): 0.75 mg/kg/day. Death, liver effects,
effect on cholesterol
Toxic response/effects by dose level: Death at 0.75 mg/kg/day;
increased absolute liver weight, liver to body weight percentages,
liver to brain weight ratios in females at 0.75 mg/kg/day; absolute
and relative liver weight; Males and females in the 0.75 mg/kg/day
dose-group had lower total cholesterol and lower high density
lipoprotein cholesterol, liver organ weights.
Statistical results: The difference in weight at the end of treatment
between the control and the 0.75 mg/kg/day female treatment groups
was statistically significant; the effect on total cholesterol
and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the 0.75 mg/kg/dose
group was statistically significant; in males in the 0.75 mg/kg/day
dose group the liver organ weights and the organ-to body weight
percentages were statistically significant and in females the
liver weights, the organ-to-body weight percentage and the organ-brain
weight ratio were all significant.
November 21, 2002 report:
Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS) and its salts.
for Economic Co-operation and Development. ENV/JM/RD(2002)17/FINAL.
3.5 Reproductive Toxicity
Studies in Animals
York (2002) conducted an oral two-generation reproductive toxicity
study of APFO, which is summarized below. Although this preliminary
risk assessment focuses on developmental toxicity, the summary
below of the two generation reproductive toxicity study includes
all endpoints. Five groups of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats per sex per
dose group were administered APFO by gavage at doses of 0,1,3,10,
and 30 mg/kg/day six weeks prior to and during mating. Treatment
of the F0 male rats continued until mating was confirmed,and treatment
of the F0 female rats continued throughout gestation, parturition,
F1 Males ... The absolute weight
of the prostate, brain and left adrenal
gland were significantly decreased in the
30 mg/kg/day dosage group.
10, 2003: Preliminary
Risk Assessment of the Developmental Toxicity associated with
Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid and its Salts. US
EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. 63 pages.