CAS Name: (2-methyl[1,1?-biphenyl]-3-yl)methyl
Body Weight Decrease
Possible Human Carcinogen URINARY BLADDER,
Endocrine: Suspected Disruptor
Highly Toxic to Fish and Zooplankton
Very persisten in aquatic sediment
(only comprehensive for the US)
EPA PC Code:
EPA Permit Date
(includes only a limited list
Hungary, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, Tanzania,
Uganda, UK, US
Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs)
• Artichoke • Asparagus • Banana •
Beans • Broccoli • Brussels sprouts • •
Cabbage • Cauliflower • Cherry • Corn •
Cotton seeds • Cucumber (including Gherkin) •
Eggplant • Grape • Grapefruit • Hop •
Japanese plum (including Prunes) • Lemon • Lime
• Loquat • Melons • NATSUDAIDAI (whole)
• Orange (including Navel) • Other berries •
Other Citrus fruits • Other Vegetables • Peach
• Pear • Potato • Quince • Rape seeds
• Strawberry • Sugar beet • Tea •
Tomato • UNSHU orange • Watermelon
Note high levels - 25 ppm - for
Tea (Green, Black, Oolong, Wulung)
Maximum Residue Levels permitted
in food commodities
of Feb 11, 2005, Permitted
in or on 198
food commodities including:
Artichoke, Brassica, Cabbage, Caneberry,
Cattle, Citrus Fruit & Oil, Corn, Cotton, Egg, Eggplant,
Goat, Grape, Hogs, Horse, Lettuce, Milk, Peanut meat (hulls
removed), Pepper (bell and non-bell), Poultry, Potato, Rapeseed,
Sheep, Strawberry, Sweet Potato, Legumes, Cattle, Goat, Hog,
Horse, Poultry, Sheep
a tolerance of 0.05 ppm In or on all
food/feed items (other than those covered by a higher
tolerance as a result of use on growing crops)
in food/feed handling establishments, such
as restaurants, cafeterias, supermarkets,
bakeries, breweries, dairies, meat slaughtering and packing
plants, and canneries, feed handling establishments including
feed manufacturing and processing establishments.
Brigade, Capture, DeterMite,
FMC 54800, Talstar
|Of special interest:
Bad Actor (Develomental
or Reproductive Toxin and Suspected Endocrine Disruptor)
Safety Data Sheets & Labels
26, 2005 - Pyrethroid
pesticides found at toxic levels in California urban streams.
By Robert Sanders.
A group of commonly used pesticides recently found at toxic
levels in stream sediments in many agricultural areas around
California is also a problem in urban streams, according to
a new study by researchers from the University of California,
Berkeley, Southern Illinois University and the Central Valley
Regional Water Quality Control Board... Bifenthrin,
the pyrethroid that contributed most to the toxicity measured
in the study, is available widely and
sometimes mixed with fertilizer to spread as granules over lawns...
Weston said that the most toxic
of the pyrethroids - all of which are identified by the suffix
-thrin - was bifenthrin, which could have
gotten into the streams as runoff from homes treated by professional
pest-control companies for pest such as ants, or from lawns
treated with pesticides or popular fertilizer/pesticide combinations...
Weston and his colleagues reported their findings in the
Oct. 19 online issue of Environmental Science & Technology
(ES&T), a publication
of the American Chemical Society. The
article will appear in the Dec. 1 print edition.
•• See also Science
News: ... bifenthrin, was found at levels
about 15 times higher than those reported in areas of California
with intensive agriculture...
23, 2005 - Court Issues Preliminary Injunction in FMC Label
Infringement Case Against CSI. PCT
is used as a preconstruction termite barrier in Austrailia.
- a preconstruction timber termiticide
Material Safety Data Sheet: H2-F
(Bifenthrin) Treated TJI Joist
Material Safety Data Sheet for Talstar (2004)
- US EPA CHEERS study in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida.
This 2-year study of children's exposure to selected pesticides
and chemicals has ignited enormous controversy. Bifenthrin
was one of 16 pesticides selected to be monitored in children
(ages 0-3 years). See FAN's
updates on this study.
14, 2005: Upswing
in Lesser Used, but More Potent Pesticides in California's Central
University of California-Berkeley researchers
have conducted a study to determine the harmful effects of pyrethroid
pesticides on aquatic organisms through sediment residues. What
they have found is a trend toward
using newer compounds that can be more toxic to aquatic life.
The team of researchers studied six pyrethroids
in three sediments taken from California’s Central Valley,
where two-thirds of the state’s cropland is found. Study
results showed acute toxicity and growth impairment in the amphipod
Hyalella azteca, a sensitive test species. Animal biomass was
roughly 38% below that of the control group when exposed to
pyrethroid levels that were one-third to one-half of the lethal
concentration. Except for permethrin, most pyrethroids would
be acutely toxic to H. azteca at concentrations only slightly
above detection limits. The six compounds
tested in order of decreasing toxicity were bifenthrin,
read the entire study, click here: http://www.allenpress.com/pdf/entc_24_414_966_972.pdf
- Australia. Health
Based Investigation Level for Bifenthrin in Soil, by Sarah
Taylor and Peter Di Marco, Department of Health, Western Australia.
MAP of pesticide use
on 1991-1995 data
EPA Maximum residue tolerance levels in 116 food commodities
as of September
profile from Hazardous Substances Data Bank
of Bifenthrin insecticide products in the US
2001 - DRAFT TOXICOLOGICAL PROFILE FOR PYRETHRINS AND PYRETHROIDS.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. The fluorinated
pyrethroids discussed in this report are: Bifenthrin
(Type I), Cyfluthrin (Type II)
, Cyhalothrin (Type II), Flucythrinate (Type II) , Flumethrin
(Type II), Fluvalinate (Type II), Tefluthrin (Type I). Public
Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Toxic Release Inventory.
25, 1999 - Sediment
Toxicity and Fate of Synthetic Pyrethroids. The
synthetic pyrethroids were conditionally registered beginning
in 1984 for use on cotton and later for use on other major crops
including corn, soybeans, and sugarcane. Currently, EPA is assessing
risks to non-target organisms for ten synthetic pyrethroids:
bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin,
deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cyhalothrin,
tefluthrin, tralomethrin, and permethrin.
Each of these synthetic pyrethroids are conditionally registered
for use on cotton, with the exception of tefluthrin, which is
conditionally registered for use on corn. Each of these chemicals
is highly lipophilic and in aquatic environments tend to strongly
adsorb to sediments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division
Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Note: organofluorine pesticides highlighted
1995 - Pesticide
Fact Sheet - U.S. Department of Agriculture
of Bifenthrin - California Environmental
Protection Agency. Also at: http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/empm/pubs/fatememo/bifentn.pdf
2002 -In Australia when Bifenthrin is used "As
an insecticide and acaricide on ornamentals - Seed Lucerne treatment"
no maximum residue
levels are required. Ref: June 2002. Table 5. Uses
of substances where maximum residue limits are not necessary.
Australian National Registration Authority for Agricultural
Veterinary Chemicals. The MRL Standard. Maximum residue limits
in food and animal feedstuff. http://www.nra.gov.au/residues/mrl5.pdf
Beer in the UK: 23 organofluorine
pesticides approved for use on malting barley. Published
by the British Beer and Pubs Association and Brewing Research
"P" is for Poison.
Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools, by
TM Olle. A report by Californians for Pesticide Reform. Also
available at: http://www.calpirg.org/healthyschools/PDFs/healthyschools.pdf
The fluorinated pesticides cited in this
report are: Benefin
Bromethalin, Cyfluthrin, Fipronil, Fluazifop-butyl,
Hydramethylnon, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane),
1998 - Structural
Pest Management pesticides. FAN's
compilation of information cited on fluorine and organofluorine
pesticides published in General Pest Management, Category 7A.
A Guide for Commercial Applicators. Prepared by: Carolyn Randall,
MSU Pesticide Education Program. Published by MSU
Pesticide Education (Michigan State
manual number: E-2048.
Information Profile - Cornell Extoxnet
2001 - IR-4
New Products/Transitional Solution List This
list contains brief descriptions of numerous new pest control
materials that have been introduced over the last several years.
Additionally, it contains information on some "older"
crop protection chemicals that are believed to have room for
new uses. This List includes: Bifenthrin
as of Dec 2, 2001 - Japan - Listed
as a "Deleterious Substance" under the "Poisonous
and and Deleterious Substances Control Law" by
the National Institute of Health Sciences in Japan.
2001 - Glossary
of Pesticide Chemicals. A listing
of pesticides subject to analysis of residues in foods and feeds
by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Food and Drug Administration
Pesticide Residue Monitoring. Table
3. Pesticides detectable and found by methods used in 1999 regulatory
for US EPA to add Bifenthrin to the Toxic Release Inventory
or head and forelimb twitching were noted in dogs, rats
and rabbits exposed to various doses. NOEL values based
on the appearance of tremors (often transient) ranged from
1 to 2.67 mg/kg/day. The oral RfD for bifenthrin was based
on a 1 year beagle dog feeding study, in which the LOEL,
based on tremors observed during weeks 15 to 29, was 3.0
mg/ kg/day and the NOEL was 1.5 mg/kg/day. The RfD based
on this NOEL was 0.015 mg/kg/day. In a rat teratology study,
an increased incidence of hydroureter (without hydronephrosis)
was noted in fetuses at 2 mg/kg/day (LOEL). The NOEL was
1 mg/kg/day. EPA believes that there is sufficient evidence
for listing bifenthrin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant to
EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(B) based on the available neurological
and developmental toxicity data. Aquatic acute toxicity
values for bifenthrin include a bluegill 96- hour LC 50
of 0.35 ppb, a rainbow trout 96-hour LC 50 of 0.15 ppb,
a sheepshead minnow LC 50 of 17.5 ppb, and a daphnid 48-hour
EC 50 of 1.6 ppb. EPA believes that there is sufficient
evidence for listing bifenthrin on EPCRA section 313 pursuant
to EPCRA section 313(d)(2)(C) based on the available environmental
USEPA/OPP. Support Document for the Addition of Chemicals
from Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
Active Ingredients to EPCRA Section 313. U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC (1993). As cited by US
Register: January 12, 1994. Part
IV. 40 CFR Part 372. Addition of Certain Chemicals; Toxic
Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know; Proposed
D2: Details of Residues Exceeding non-harmonised MRLs,
including national MRLs
Reporting country: Germany
Year of sampling: 2003
Point of sampling in distribution: F = farmgate, R = retail,
W = wholesale, O = other
Administrative consequences have followed, e.g. prohibiting
for sale, prosecutions, the levying of penalties or fines
explanatory notes are cited at http://www.bvl.bund.de/lebensmittel/dateien/eg03-642d1_v2.pdf
6-1. Trends of National Pyrethroid Use
September 2001. Draft
Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids.
US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health
Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Organofluorine pyrethroids discussed in the Profile: Bifenthrin
(Type 1), Cyfluthrin (Type 2), Cyhalothrin (Type 2), Flucythrinate
(Type 2), Flumethrin (Type 2), Fluvalinate (Type 2), Tefluthrin
Note from EC: The
following 4 organofluorine pesticides were included in a list
of 11 pesticides.
14, 2001 - Implementation
of the Community Strategy for Endocrine Disruptors - a
range of substances suspected of interfering with the hormone
systems of humans and wildlife. Communication from the Commission
to the Council and the European Parliament. Commission of
the European Communities, Brussels COM (2001) 262 final.
-More information available at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/docum/01262_en.htm
document presents a "priority list of substances for
further evaluation of their role in endocrine disruption.
During 2000, a candidate list of 553 man-made substances and
9 synthetic/natural hormones has been identified."
pesticides in this list include:
included on the Endocrine Disruptor Liist
included on the Endocrine Disruptor Liist
tributylfluoro [Tributyltin fluoride]
Note: Due to length, the following is a partial
here to see full list of FR entries.
|October 24, 2007
IR-4. Pesticide tolerance. FINAL RULE.
Documents available with this Final Rule:
• Bifenthrin: Risk Assessment. Docket # EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0471-0008
• Bifenthrin: Dietary Review. Docket # EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0471-0007
• Bifenthrin: BEAD. Review Docket # EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0471-0006
|Pesticide Petition Number
|Beet, garden, roots
|Beet, garden, tops
|Grain, aspirated fractions
|Soybean, refined oil
|Vegetable, root, subgroup 1B except sugar beet and garden beet
This subgroup includes 19 commodities: beet, garden • burdock, edible • carrot • carrot culls • celeriac • chervil, turnip rooted • chicory root • ginseng • horseradish • parsley, turnip rooted • parsnip • radish • radish, oriental • rutabaga • salsify • salsify, black • salsify, spanish • skirret • turnip
Cancer. Bifenthrin was classified as a group ``C'' (possible human carcinogen). The Agency concluded that the chronic risk and exposure assessment, making use of the cPAD, to be protective of any potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, no separate exposure assessment was conducted pertaining to cancer risk.
Note on Petiton for Vegetable, fruiting, group 8. Tolerances are established for residues of bifenthrin per se at 0.05 ppm in/on eggplant, at 0.15 ppm in/on tomato, and at 0.5 ppm in/on bell and non-bell pepper. EPA has determined that a fruiting vegetables crop group tolerance for residues of bifenthrin per se is not appropriate for the following reasons:
Maximum residues in eggplant are more than a factor of five lower than the tolerance for tomatoes and the use pattern for tomato and tomatillo are different from the other members of the crop group in terms of the PHI, maximum seasonal use rate, number of applications, and interval between applications. However, EPA is establishing tolerances for residues in/on groundcherry and pepino at 0.50 ppm based on the 0.5 ppm tolerance for bell and non-bell pepper. As 40 CFR 180.1 indicates that a tolerance for residues in/on tomato applies to tomatillo, a tolerance for residues in/on tomatillo is not required.
From July 25, 2007, Health Risk Assessment;
• Page 3. Bifenthrin is a neurotoxic insecticide acting through direct contact and ingestion, having a slight repellent effect. The primary biological effects of bifenthrin and other pyrethroids on insects and vertebrates are inhibition of the voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels coupled with a stimulatory effect on the voltage-gated Na+ channels. All pyrethroids act as axonic poisons, affecting both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and share similar modes of action. Pyrethroids, including bifenthrin, stimulate repetitive action in the nervous system by binding to voltage-gated sodium channels, prolonging the sodium ion permeability during the excitatory phase of the action potential. This action leads to spontaneous depolarizations, augmented neurotransmitter secretion rate and neuromuscular block, which ultimately results in paralysis of the insect.
• Page 4. Bifenthrin produces characteristic pyrethroid neurotoxicity. Tremors have been observed in developmental toxicity studies in the rat and rabbit, a 2-generation rat reproduction toxicity study, subchronic toxicity studies in the rat and dog, acute and subchronic neurotoxicity rat studies, a 21-day toxicity dermal rat study, chronic oral toxicity studies in the rat and dog, and a mouse oncogenicity study. The subchronic and chronic oral toxicity studies in dogs and rats demonstrate neurotoxicological responses of similar magnitude. Staggered gait and exaggerated hindlimb flexion were noted in a 21-day dermal toxicity study in the rat. The neurotoxicity of bifenthrin has been supported by the results of acute and subchronic neurotoxicity studies in the rat. Functional observation battery (FOB) findings were observed in these neurotoxicity studies. FOB findings consisted of tremors, abnormal posture, splayed hindlimbs, staggered gait, altered activity, altered landing foot-splay, twitching, uncoordinated movement/ataxia, and convulsions.
• Page 4. A developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) study on bifenthrin with rats has been submitted. In this study, maternal and offspring toxicity was observed at the same dose levels. The maternal toxicity was primarily manifested as tremors, clonic convulsions, and increased grooming counts. The offspring toxicity was manifested as increased grooming counts. This study does not show any evidence of increased susceptibility of offspring following exposure to bifenthrin.
• Pages 13-14. The CPRC (1992) has characterized bifenthrin as Category C (possible human carcinogen) and recommended that for the purpose of risk characterization, the RfD approach should be used for quantification of human cancer risk. This decision was based in part on the statistically significant increased trend for hemangiopericytomas in the urinary bladders’ of Swiss Webster mice. The incidence of these lesions was double at the highest dose tested (HDT; 600 ppm) as compared to controls. The male mice also had significant dose-related trends with respect to hepatocellular carcinomas and combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas, and increased incidences of bronchioalveolar adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung in females at 50, 200 and 600 ppm (but not 500 ppm) relative to their controls.
• Page 24. In a 2-generation study (MRID 00157225), liquified bifenthrin (88.35% ai) mixed with acetone was administered in the diet to TAC(SD)fBR rats (25/sex/dose) at dose levels of 0, 30, 60, or 100 ppm as FMC 54800 technical (approximately equivalent to 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg/day)... In the high-dose P generation females, there was a statistically significant increase in absolute and relative brain weights... In the 100 ppm group F1b female progeny, absolute adrenal and heart weights were statistically elevated compared to control values. Significantly elevated absolute ovary and ovary/brain weights were also observed in these animals.
Note: Due to length, the above is a partial list.
here to see full list of FR entries.