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1984 Fluoride Abstracts. Part 2.
for the following years:
Part 1 - mainly biochemistry and physiology (brain, hormonal, G-proteins, etc.)
Part 2 ("b") - all other
[While the following is not an abstract, it is included as I have not found any other source for this information. - EC]
Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.,p. III-186
Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, H.C. Hodge.
A remarkable mass of poisoning, involving 263 victims of whom 47 died, occurred at the Oregon State Hospital when sodium fluoride roach powder mistaken for powdered milk was added to scrambled eggs. The prepared dish was rejected by some because of a salty or soapy taste and produced numbness of the mouth in others. Toxic signs and symptoms consisted of abrupt and severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, followed promptly by abdominal burning and cramps. In many cases blood was noted in the vomitus and feces. General collapse was evidenced by pallor, weakness, shallow pulse and respirations, weak heart sounds, wet cold skin, cyanosis, mydriasis and coma. Some victims also experienced a thick, mucoid discharge from the mouth and nose, paralysis of the muscles of deglutution, painful carpopedalspasms of the extremities and localized or generalized urticaria.
Calcif Tissue Int 1984 Dec;36(6):690-6
A comparison of some effects of fluoride on apatite formation in vitro and in vivo.
Larsen MJ, Thorsen A.
In a liquid (22 degrees C) saturated with and in contact with powdered bone apatite, the fluoride ion activity was adjusted to 1-10 parts/10(6). Due to the fluorapatite (FAP) supersaturation produced hereby, a rapid formation of this salt occurred leading to a decrease of the concentration of the ions involved. When no more fluoride was available in the liquid, the concentrations of calcium and phosphate increased again, due to dissolution of presumably hydroxyapatite (HAP). Fifty four rats were given either 10, 20, or 40 mg NaF per kg body weight intraperitoneally. The animals were sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h after the injection. The fluoride concentration in plasma increased to a peak, after which it decreased. Plasma calcium decreased and remained low until the fluoride had attained normal levels. The intensity of mineralization of the growing dental hard tissue was monitored on microradiographs. Corresponding to the plasma fluoride peak and the decrease of plasma calcium, a hypermineralized layer was formed while a hypomineralized zone was formed during plasma calcium increase after disappearance of fluoride. Similarities and dissimilarities between the in vitro and the in vivo experiments are discussed.
PMID: 6099211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Med J Aust 1984 Oct 13;141(8):503-5
Acute fluoride poisoning after ingestion of sodium fluoride tablets.
Monsour PA, Kruger BJ, Petrie AF, McNee JL.
Between 1978 and 1983, at least 20 children with fluoride poisoning were admitted to two major children's hospitals in Brisbane. Data on telephone calls received by Poisons Information Centres in Australia about fluoride toxicity show that Brisbane, the water supply of which is not fluoridated, received approximately twice as many calls per head of population as were received in Sydney and Melbourne. Concern is also expressed at the standard of packaging of fluoride tablets currently marketed in Australia. A treatment plan for cases of acute fluoride poisoning after oral ingestion is presented.
PMID: 6482796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1984 Mar;62(3):259-65
The effect of diet calcium on fluoride toxicity in growing rats.
Harrison JE, Hitchman AJ, Hasany SA, Hitchman A, Tam CS.
The effect of dietary Ca in response to fluoride (F) treatment was investigated in rats. Rats were maintained on either adequate (0.5%) or high (2.0%) dietary Ca and given for 5 weeks, NaF in drinking water. The minimum NaF levels that inhibited body growth and reduced survival were 300 mg/L with 0.5% diet Ca and 550 mg/L with 2.0% diet Ca. With these toxic F doses, bone histology showed increased formation surfaces and thickened osteoid seams (osteoid index 6-7%). Fluoride doses 30% below toxic levels (200 and 350 mg/L for 0.5 and 2.0% diet Ca, respectively) had no demonstrable effect on bone. Additional diet Ca reduced F absorption from 76 +/- 3 to 47 +/- 3% for 0.5 and 2.0% diet Ca, respectively. Comparable absorbed doses of F produced comparable effects on bone and body growth but, with additional dietary Ca, these effects were observed with 50% lower serum and bone F levels. Variable response to NaF therapy can be produced in rats by alterations in dietary Ca alone. Results indicate that for clinical treatment the NaF dose needs to be adjusted on an individual basis but neither serum nor bone F levels can be used reliably to establish optimal doses.
PMID: 6722652 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):4-8
The incidence of Moenckeberg calcifications in patients with endemic fluorosis
Radiology Department, University of Uludag, Bursa, Turkey
Summary: This study is comprised of 106 male patients over age forty from a high fluoride water (3.5-12.5 ppm) area. These patients have been matched by age and sex with 106 patients from a low fluoride water (0.00-0.45 ppm) area.
All patients had radiograms of the chest, pelvis and both femora; 21 in the fluorotic group underwent a skeletal survey. All plain films were examined for skeletal fluorosis changes; pelvis and femur radiogams for Moenckeberg arterial calcifications.
Over age 60, patients in the high-fluoride group showed a significantly higher incidence of Moenckeberg calcifications. A highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between the severity of these calcifications and the severity of skeletal changes within this group.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):9-14
Further observations on radiological changes of endemic foodborne skeletal fluorosis
Department of Radiology, Guiyang Medical College, Guizhou, China
Summary: Among radiological changes in 396 cases of foodborne skeletal fluorosis, from four endemic areas in Guizhou, China, the author has observed osteoporosis, osteomalacia and impaired bone gowth in addition to previously recorded findings of osteosclerosis, bone prominences, joint changes, and calcification of peripheral arteries. The deformity of genu valgum, a manifestation of osteomalacia, was encountered in one of the endemic areas. Radiographic appearances varied beteen individuals, from one area to another, and depending on age.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):14-22
Environmental fluoride and metabolic bone disease. An epidemiological study (fluoride and nutrition interactions)
Teotia SPS, Teotia M, Singh DP, Anand V, Singh CV, Tomar NPS
Department of Human Metabolism and Endocrinology, L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut University, Meerut, India
Summary: Epidemiological, clinical, nutritional, biochemical and radiological surveys were performed in nonendemic fluorosis areas to determine the relationship between endemic skeletal fluorosis and accompanying metabolic bone disorders.
In individuals with inadequate nutrition, endemic skeletal fluorosis is more severe, and metabolic bone disease is more frequent in such indiviuals in endemic areas. Metabolic bone disease occurred more frequently in residents of endemic areas than in residents of nonendemic areas whose nutritional status was comparable. Common metabolllic bone disordes, associated with endemic skeletal fluorosis, were osteoporosis (bone resorption), rickets, osteomalacia, and parathyroid bone disease. In assessing the biological impact of the toxic effects of fluoride, its action on bone becomes more complex when one considers such nutritional factors as calcium, vitamin D and protein.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):23-26
Fluoride content of bones of retired fluoride workers
Dominok G, Siefert K, Frege J, Dominok B
Pathologisches Institut, Bezirkskrankenhaus, Cottbus, Germany
Summary: Seven skeletons from former fluoride workers with signs of severe osteofluorosis were analyzed. All had been employed in a fluoride plant for more than 20 years up to age 65. From each skeleton 4 to 15 samples from different bones were analyzed by the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode.
The average F- content per skeleton ranged between 3,500 and 9,910 ppm and for single bones between 2,500 and 12,900. The vertebrae and ribs contained the highest, the distal long bones the lowest amount of fluoride. The fluoride content of the bone tissue correlates with the severity of the osteofluorosis - not with the length of life, working time in the plant or the duration of the interval following termination of work in the fluoride-emitting plant.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):27-35
Microdetermination of total fluoride in serum by aluminum monofluoride molecular absorption spectrometry and its significance
Fujimori S, Itai K, Tsunoda H
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.
Summary: The AlF molecular absorption spectrometry was applied to the determination of serum fluroide samples of which were made of a mixture of equal volumes of serum, 0.05 M Sr(CH3C)2, and distilled waer. Total fluoride was determined by measuring the molecular absorption intensity of AlF. The sensitivity which gave 1% absorption was 0.028 ng of fluoride and the C.V. was 3 to 9%. The AlF method was used to estimate the normal value of total fluoride in serum.
Determinations were done for 221 healthy individuals who were residing in a rural area. The mean value for total fluoride was 20 +- 9.8 S.D. ng/ml. Fluoride concentrations in serum were determined by both the AlF method and ion electrode method. Values of total fluoride were higher than values of ionic fluoride, which suggests the existence of nonionic fluoride.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):35-41
Renal function in residents of an endemic fluorosis area in southern Algeria
Reggabi M, Khelfat K, Aoul MT, Azzouz M, Hamrour S, Alamir B, Naceur J, Iklef F, Ghouini A, Poey J, Denine R, Merad R, Drif M, Elsair J
Laboratory of Physiology, Med. Inst., Algiers, Algeria
Summary: Kidney damage (1) in distal and proximal tubular function, (2) in glomerular filtration, occurred in 40 to 60 year olds residing in El Quel an endemic fluorosis area in Southern Algeria compared to normals from Algiers. Functional renal disturbances are proportional to the degree of fluoride accumulation which incrases in relation to: a) the level of fluoride in drinking water (areas ABC), b) the fluoride level in nails and c) the radiological grade ( O I II III) of fluorosis.
(1) Jankauskas J (1974). Effects of fluoride on the kidney (a review). Fluoride; 7:93-99
(2) Schiffl H et al (1979). Human renal fluoride excretion: alterations observed in chronic renal failure (a preliminary report). Fluoride; 12:5-8.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):41-47
Fluoride standards and predicting wildlife effects
Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc., PO Box ESE, Gainesville, Florida 32602, USA
Summary: Federal and state clean air laws for the permitting of fluoride emisison sources require evaluation of potential adverse ecological effects including those to wildlife and wildlife habitat. Although air quality permits and environmental assessments for fluoride emitting sources often cite compliance with various fluoride standards as demonstration of no adverse effects to wildlife, such use of these standards is inappropriate. A review of the literature regarding fluoride standards and ecological effects of fluoride reveals that adverse effects can occur to wildlife at or even below accepted fluoride standards. Alternative wildlife assessment methods incluing monitoring, predictive modeling, and sensitive receptor analyses are discussed.
Fluoride 1984; 17(1):48-52
Endemic fluorosis: change to deeper bore wells as a practical community-acceptable approach to its eradication
Teotia SPS, Teotia M, Singh DP, Rathour RS, Singh CV, Tomar NPS, Nath M, Singh NP
Postgraduate Dept. of Human Metabolism and Endocrinology, L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut, India
Summary: Endemic fluorosis remains a challenging national health problem in India. In this study, several methods have been suggested for its control and eradication. The possibility that drinking water obtained through deep bore hand pumps would be an effective and practical measure for eradication of fluorosis was explored. Whereas water samples from 40 to 50 feet underground were high in fluoride content, low in total hardness, low in calcium and magnesium and high in alkalinity, fluoride in waters from a depth of 56 to 110 feet decreased to <1.0 ppm.
The fluoride and iodine content in drinking water were in direct relationship: the higher the fluoride, the higher its iodine content and vice versa in confirmation of our previous observations of lower prevalence rate of iodine deficiency goitre in individuals residing in endemic fluorosis areas where fluoride, naturally in drinking water, was high.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):63-69
Lord Jauncey and Justice Flaherty: opposing views on the fluoridation-cancer link
JR Graham and D Burk
In November 1978, in the case of Aitkinhead v. Borough of West View, which had been tried in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Justice John P. Flaherty found that fluoridation of public water supplies causes or contributes to the cause of a large amount of cancer in man. His findings ere confirmed three times by executive or judicial bodies in Quebec, Illinois, and Texas from November, 1979 through May, 1982.
Matters came to a head one again in the case of McColl v. Strathclyde Regional Council, which was ried in Edinburgh, Scotland: in June, 1983, Lord Jauncey found, on the basis of the record before him, that water fluoridation is not causally related to human cancer.
We shall let the law professors explain why, despite these legally undisturbed findings of fact, the plaintiffs in Pennsylvania were denied ultimate relief on a point of subject matter jurisdiction, whereas the pursuer in Scotland prevailed on a technicality of statutory construction that rendered artificial fluroidation ultra vires. ...
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):81-93
Biochemical and cytochemical alterations in liver and kidney following experimental fluorosis
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Summary: Activities of various enzymes by biochemical and cytochemical techniues and levels of trace elements have been determined in liver and kidney of mice subjected for 16 weeks to fluoride concentrations of 0 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm, and 200 ppm. The activity of acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogease, succinic deydrogenase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase significantly decreased whereas that of adenosine triphosphatase (Mg++ -activated) increased in liver and kidney following fluoride ingestion. The alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in liver but increased in kidney, whereas liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased following fluoride toxicity. The tissue levels of copper, manganese and zinc were significantly reduced whereas those of iron were significantly elevated in the fluoride-treated groups.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):94-104
Effect of fluoroacetate on hepatic gluconogenesis
Bobyleva-Guarriero V, Hughes PE, Lardy HA
Studies on the effect of fluoroacetate on chicken liver gluconeogenesis revealed that fluoroacetate intoxication blocks the tricarboxylic acid cycle in either fed or fasted birds which decreases the generationof ATP required for fluconeogenesis. A decrease of glucose synthesis with reduced substrates, especially lactate, was observed also in isolated hepatocytes incubated with fluoroacette which was explained by: 1) decreasing the amount of available energ for glucose synthesis 2) decreasing the activity of the alate shuttle; 3) deceasing the activity of lactage dehydrogenase.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):105-107
Preliminary study of the unit oxygen consumption of Channa punctatus (Bloch) on exposure to NaF
T Chitra and JVR Rao
Department of Zoology, University College for Women and Department of Zoology, University College for Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India
Summary: The unit oxygen consumption of Channa punctatus (Bloch), a fresh water fish under stress condition, namely a seven day treatment with 10 ppm sodium fluride, showed significant decrease compared to controls. The treated fish also showed a significant decrease when compared with one another. The nature and the acclimation capacity of the fish under stressed conditions are also discussed.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):107-114
Experimental studies on fluorosis in the suckling lamb
Milhaud G*, Cazieux A**, Enriquez B*
* From the service de Pharmacie et Toxicologie, Ecole National Veterinaire d'Alfort, France
* the service de Chirurgie de l'Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, France
Summary: Twenty-six suckling lambs were divided into 2 groups: a control group of 12 animals and a treated group of 14 animals. The experimental animals received doses of fluoride from 0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg/day between the third and the eighth week after which they received 2.5 mg/kg/day, until they were slaughtered between the 13th and 22nd week.
The effect of the treatment on the growth of the animal was statistically insignificant. Fluoride levels in the plasma rose from the 7th week up to the 13th week when the average value was about 0.6 ppm. Bone concentrtions were high (about 2,000 ppm in the mandible). X-ray examination revealed only slight differences between the control group and those given fluoride.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):114-118
Nasal septum and mucosa in fluorosis
Miszke A, Sanokowska E, Winiarski J
Department of Laryngology and Cytological and Miscroscope Laboratories, Narutowicz Hospital, Cracow, Poland
Summary: Cartilaginous and osteomalacic changes in the nasal septum as well as changes in the nasal mucosa, assessed by cytologic, histologic and scanning microscopic examination, were found in a worker in the electrolysis shop of an aluminum plant who was suffering from fluorosis.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):119-123
Experimental study on the respiratory absorption of fluoride in rabbit following short-term exposure to NaF aersol
Ichinohe S, Ishizawa Y, Mita M, Tsunoda H
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan.
Summary: The purpose of this study was to estimate the NaF aerosol absorption rate from the respiratory tract. To hold the NaF deposition rate constant in the respiratory tract, a NaF respirable monodispersed aerosol generator was designed and used in anesthetized rabbits. Two experiments were conducted. The first involved inhalation of a NaF aerosol by the rabbits; the second intravenous injections of an NaF solution. The rate of inhalation-assimilation into the blood of the NaF aerosol (as indicated by the inhalation data and calculated from both experiments) was approximately 26%. From this rate, we estimated that the respiratory absorption rate, using NaF aerosol (as soluble particles) was almost 100%.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):124-131
Relationships between blood, urine and bone F- levels in guinea pig after short exposures to HF
Bourbon P**, Rioufol C**, Levy P*
* INSERM U.57, allee Camille Soula, 31320 Vigoulet-Auzil, France
*8 Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Toulouse, France
Summary: For a given fluoride intake, the effects on urinary F- elimination and plasma ionic fluoride differ according to whether the animal is young or an adult: the fluoride fixing capacity of young and, therefore, little impregnanted tissues, is much greater than that of adult tissues where the metabolic activity is decreased. For this reason, plasma ionic fluoride and urinary F- elimination can be compared and considered with respect to HF exposure only in guinea pigs of the same age and with the same past contact with fluroide.
The relationship observed between the levels of F- in the various compartments: blood, urine, and tissue on exposure for 24 h and 4 days to non-lethal doses of HF have made it possible to obtain a better definition for an essential parameter - the fluoride storage capacity of body tissues. Plasma ionic fluoride and its rate of decrease in a guinea pig over the 24-h period gives information on both exposure and level of fluroide.
Fluoride 1984; 17(2):131-138
Urinary excretion of fluoride and calcium after ingestion of bone meal and NaF tablets
Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Bergen, Norway
Summary: Bone meal or NaF tablets containing 1 mg fluoride were ingested as a single dose in the morning. Urine, collected at regular inervals, was analyzed for fluroide and calcium. Ingestion of bone meal tablets increased urinary excretion of both calcium and fluoride, whereas NaF tablets increased urinary fluoride only. After ingestion of bone meal tablets, the maximum excretion peak of fluoride was considerably lower and more delayed compared to that after ingestion of NaF tablets. The excretion pattern of calcium demonstrated the same diurnal variations as in the control, but at an elevated level.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):145-147
Editorial: Fluoridation - are the dangers resolved?
(From New Scientist, May 5, 1983)
During the past several years, reports in a series of highly respected scientific journals, including The Journal of the American Chemical Society (1), Science (2), and both The British Medical Journal (3) and The British Dental Journal (4) have warned that individuals are receiving fluoride from a growing number of sources and that too much fluoride can be harmful. As pointed out in 1981 by John Emsley of King's College, London (5) "A warning bell has sounded: through the agency of the strong hydrogen bond, fluoride can change the chemistry of many compounds. What it may be capable of doing in the living cell whether for good or ill remains to be discovered."
Back in 1945, it was estimated that the daily fluoride intake from drinking 1 liter of fluoridated water would be 1 milligram. At that time, self medicaiton with fluroide was frowned upon because of the danger of overdosage. Now fluoride is being ingested from many everyday sources in addition to water, namely food, dental health products, medications, as well as pesticide, insecticide and fertilizer residues, and even the air we breathe
An editorial in The British Dental Journal (4) warned that fluoride supplement dosage levels recommended 20 years ago are too high, and that they need modifying in the light of recent reserch, because of the ingestion of small doses of fluoride from many sources. These include foodstuffs and beverages rich in fluoride, such as sardines and tea. A 50-gram portion of canned sardines could contribute 0.8 mg fluoride. In Britain, particularly, many receive more than 1 mg fluoride daily from drinking tea...
In January 1981, Emsley and others reported in The Journal of the American Chemical Society (1) that fluoride and amides - organic salts of ammonia - can form a new strong hydrogen bond. Many components within living cells contain amide groups. Since hydrogen bonds formed between amides are the most important weak hydrogen bonds in biological systems, disruption of these bonds by fluoride in the formation of much stronger bonds may explain how the chemically inert fluoride ion interferes in the health operation of living systems.
Thus the crucial issue is not the level of fluoride in a community water supply per se, but whether fluoridation increases the risk that certain people develop levels of fluoride in blood, even for a short time, that can damage their cells and systems...
... Because overall fluoride intake has risen, and average blood ionic fluoride levels of the population are higher, individuals who ingest sub-milligram doses of fluoride run a greater risk of their blood ion in fluoride concentrations peaking to above the threshold level that can cause dental fluorosis or other ill-effects. Dental fluorosis, no matter how slight, is an irreversible pathological condition recognized by authorities around the world as the first readily detectable clinical symptom of previous chronic fluoride poisoning. It is clearly wishful thinking to insist that tooth-forming cells are the only ones in the body sensitive to fluoride...
(1) Emsley J et al (1981). An unexpectedly strong hydrogen bond: Ab initio calculations and spectroscopic studies of amide fluoride systems. J Am Chem Soc, 103:24-28
(2) Leverett DH (1982). Prevalence of dental caries. Science, 271:26-30.
(3) Ekstrand J et al (1981). No evidence of transfer of fluoride from plasma to breast milk. British Med J, 283:761-762
(4) Editorial (1981). Fluoride supplementation. British Dental Journal, 150:261, May 19.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):148-154
Diagnosis of fluorosis in the early phase - an osseous radiographic study on fluoride-exposed workmen
Y Li and K Wu
Hunan Metallurgical Industrial Hygiene Institute, Changsha, Hunan, China
Summary: Bone density in 663 workers exposed to inorganic fluoride and in 249 healthy adults was compared. All subjects were x-rayed using copper wedgeplates. Some cases underwent intensive investigation for as long as seven years. Bone density of pelvis and tibia of healthy adults is reported. Average bone density of workers exposed to inorganic fluoride was greater than that of healthy adults.
Bone density increased in direct relation to exposure time. In some cases, other radiographic changes were also observed. Density of bone seems to decrease with the passage of time after discontinuance of exposure.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):155-159
Urinary fluoride excretion among fluorotics
S Chandra * and VP Thergaonkar **
* Preventive and Social Medicine Dept., J.L.N. Med. College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India
** Nat. Environ. Eng. Res. Inst., Nagpur, India
Summary: In a fluorotic belt of Western India, where fluoride (F-) in drinking water ranged from 1.42 to 11.80 mg per litre, urinary F- excretion varied from 0.8 to 30.4 mg per litre. A statistically significant correlation was (a) positive between increasing F- values in drinking water and urinary F- excretion and (b) negative between calcium in drinking water and urinary excretion. In children 9 years and above, urinary F- excretion was always higher than mean drinking water F-. Fluoride in urine increased with severity of dental fluorosis. Urinary F- values fluctuated after defluoridation was instituted.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):159-167
Normal urinary fluoride levels in Japanese subjects: relationship between urinary fluoride levels and environmental fluoride
Tsunoda H, Sakurai S, Itai K, Sato T, Nakaya S, Mita M, Tatsumi M
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, School of Medicine, Iwate Med. Univ., Morioka, Japan
Summary: Normal values of F- in 24-hour urinary excretion in 4700 healthy Japanese subjects residing in an environment not polluted by fluoride and not occupationally exposed to fluoride were studied. In male adults the normal values averaged 0.78 mg F/day, in female adults 0.56 mg F/day, in boys 0.23 mg F/day, and in girls 0.20 mg F/day. On the other hand, urinary fluoride excretion of persons residing in areas where fluoride levels in air or water were high and of workers exposed to airborne fluroide at work were significantly higher than normal. The normal values were more useful for evaluating the fluoride body burden in Japanese subjects.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):168-172
Ecological study of dermatoglyphic diversity in fluorosis belt of Punjab, India
Bhatnagar DP, Sidhu SS, Batish KL, Batish MK
Department of Human Biology, Punjabi University and the Department of Anatomy and Department of Pediatrics, Goverment Medical College, Patiala, India.
Summary: The present study is based on an ecological sample of finger ball dermatoglyphic patterns of 170 subjects (82 males and 88 females) collected from the Punjab fluorosis belt. For comparison, data on 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) were collected from the nonfluorosis area. Finger ball patterns of all subjects were analyzed for various subtypes, major types, indices, symmetry, monomorphism and pleiotropism. In the fluorosis belt series, the results of the two sexes were compared; in the fluorosis vs. nonfluorosis series comparison pertained to dermatoglyphic variables.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):173-177
Circadian rhythm of urinary fluoride excretion in a human adult consuming space food
Horiuchi T, Nasu I, Morimoto M
Nihon Univ. School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
Summary: This study was designed to detect the presence of a possible circadian rhythm of urinary fluoride excretion in healthy individuals. A healthy male adult was fed space food for a period of 5 days. Urinary excretion of F-, Na, K, Cl, Ca, and Mg was determined at 2-hour intervals throughout four days, and the results were analyzed in time series. Based on auto-correlation analysis, urinary F-excretion exhibited a persistent 24-hour rhythm. Na, K, Cl, Ca, and Mg excretions showed a similar periodicity.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):178-182
Alteration in gastric secretion of rats administered NaF
Shayiq RM, Raza H, Kidwai AM
Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow, India
Summary: In vivo effect of oral administratin of 25 mg NaF/kg body weight/day on gastric secretion in male albino rats, 100 gm average body weight, was observed for a period of sixty days. A time-dependent secretagogue effect accompanied by an increase in free acidity and peptic activity was noted. A possible role of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (c-AMP) is discussed.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):183-192
Fluoride levels in sera and hard tissues of rats consuming F- via drinking water
Boros I (1), Vegh A (2), Schaper R (3), Keszler P (1), Ritlop B (2)
Res. Group of Oral Biol. (1), and Clinic of Conservative Dentistry (2), Semmelweis Univ. Med. School, Budapest, Hungary, and Dept. of Prev. Dentistry (3), Faculty of Stomatol. Med. Acad., Erfurt, Germany
Summary: The effect of different fluoride intakes (5, 10, 25, 50 ppm) via drinking water for four weeks on body weight gain, food and water consumption, fluoride level in serum, lower incisor enamel and femur of young rats was examined. In F5, F10, F25 groups compared to control, no significant differences were observed in body weight gain, food and water consumption. In the F50 group, however, body weight gain and food consumption were diminished. After the fourth week of treatment, elevated serum fluoride levels in the F-groups were associated with a higher fluoride content of lower incisor enamel and femur. The results suggest that this animal model may be suitable for the study of in vivo effects of fluoride treatment as well as for the investigation of the effect of fluoride supply on the salivary glands which have high metabolic activity.
Fluoride 1984; 17(3):193-196
Fluoride and environment - situation in the district of Cottbus
Bezirkshygieneinstitut, Cottbus, Germany
Summary: Brown coal fired stations in the district of Cottbus, which produce a total quantity of 29,000 t/h steam, require 12,000 t of brown coal every hour. 75% of the fluoride content of brown coal is emitted as hydrogen fluroide (HF). The glass and ceramics industry, enamel and aluminum plants are additional fluoride emitters.
The area of the district which was tested for fluoride emissions, by automatic and mobile measuring nets for four years, produced the following results in industrial polluted areas: An average for gaseous fluoride (HF) ranged from 0.020 to 0.025 m/m3 up to 0.70 mg/m3 (short time value); the fluoride rate of the dusts ranged from 10 to 20 mg/m2 within 30 days, up to 102 mg/m2 within the same period.
In industrial areas, with low air pollution, gaseous fluoride ranged on average from 0 to 0.005 mg/m3, the fluoride rate of the dusts from 6 to 10 mg/m2 within 30 days. To the soil of the district, phosphate fertilizer fluoride compound, 1880 t calculated as F-, are added every year. This sizeable quantity of fluorde in our environment warrants research about the effect of fluoride ont he health status of the population.
... Our examinatins show that 75% of the fluoride contained in the coal leaves the chimney as hydrogen fluoride. Provided the smoke gas aspiration is working correctly, 5% of the fluoride is emitted as solid fluoride compounds. Glass plants of the district need an abundance of fluorspar, cyrolite and sodiumsilicofluoride as fluxing and etching agents. The rate of fluoride in the mixture ranges between 0.5 and 10%. Fiften to 35% of the fluoride used in the production of household glass and 70 to 90% used in production of industrial glass is emitted in exhaust gas...
Further anthropogenic fluoride emission sources in our district are the phosphate fertilizers which possess considerable fluoride concentrations... 124,257 t of phosphate fertilizers are added to the soil of our district every year from which we calculaed the total fluroide to be 1880 t/a. Other sources of the soil's pollution by fluoride are sedimentation dusts and rainfall.
The most serious anthropogenic fluoride contamination of the ground and surface water in Cottbus is sewage from glass factories and fluoridation of drinking water supplies. On the basis of routine information from glass plants and from waterworkds, the total annual fluoride addition to water is 255 t. Feed containing phosphaes, wood protection agents, insecticides, etc., are additional fluoride emitters. The portion of fluoride from these agents is overlooked..
Fluoride Emissions into the Atmosphere t/a
Districts Brown Coal Fired Station Silicate Freon Other * Total Calau 370 25 8 0 18.8 Cottbus 20 13 21 0 2.5 Forst 8 25 6 0 1.8 Guben 15 0 6 1 1.0 Hoyerswerda 84 28 16 182 14.5 Senftenberg 154 54 21 3 10.9 Spremberg 450 57 6 2 24.1 Weibwasser 470 84 8 2 26.4 Total 1571 286 92 190 100 In % 73.4 13.4 4.3 8.9 100 * Emissions from aluminum and iron works.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):207-209
Urinary fluoride: measure of toxicity?
... Many factors account for wide individual differences among workers exposed to atmospheric fluoride, some of which follow:
1. Growing children retain more fluoride in their bones than adults and therefore excrete less.
2. Age, the extent of kidney and liver function, and gastric acidity alter the pattern of fluoride excretion, i.e. patient's whose kidneys malfunction retain more fluoride (4,4a).
3. During pregnancy, urinary fluroide is reduced (5).
4. Simultaneous intake of substances which bind fluoride, such as calcium, aluminum, and other metals, causes increased fluoride elimination through the gastroinestinal tract and therefore decreases urinary excretion (6).
5. Persons previously exposed to high fluoride intake, on a low fluoride regime prior to sampling, eliminate more fluoride than they take into their bodies (7,8).
6. From day to day and from hour to hour the variability of consumption of fluoride in food and water and the extent of activity of a fluoride-emitting factory at the time of sampling, make spot sampling less reliable than 24-hour urine. The specific gravity (9) and acidity (pH) (10) of urine and possible contact of urine with metal, glass, or enamel will have to be considered.
(4) Hanhijarvi H (1974). Comparison of free ionized fluoride concentrations of plasma and renal clearance inpatients of artificially fluoridated and nonfluoridated drinking water areas. Proc Finn Dent Soc, 70: Suppl. 3.
(4a) Hanhijarvi H (1981). Inorganic plasma fluoride concentrations and its renal excretion in certain physiological and pathological conditions in man. Fluoride, 8:198-207.
(5) Hanhijarvi H (1981). Maternal ionic plasma fluoride concentrations during pregnancy and after delivery. Fluoride, 14:4-9.
(6) Spencer H et al (1969). Effect of sodium fluoride on calcium absorption and balances in man. Am J of Clin Nutr, 22:381-390.
(7) Largent EJ (1952). Rates of elimination of fluoride stored in the tissues of man. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occupational Med, 6:37-42.
(8) Likens RC et al (1956). Urinary excretion of fluoride following defluoridatin of a water supply. Public Health Report, 71:217-220. Reprinted in: Fluoride drinking waters, edicted by FJ McClure, Washington DC: US Govt Printing Office, Public Health Servie Publ. No. 825, 1962, pp 421-423.
(9) Jackson JR et al (1981). Biological monitoring for occupational fluoride absorption. Fluoride, 14:75-86.
(10) Whitford GM et al (1979). The effect of boby fluid pH on fluoride distribution, toxicity, and renal clearance. In: Continuing evaluation of the use of fluorides. Es. E Johnson et al. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, p 203.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):224-233
Effect of F- effluent on some metabolites and minerals in fry of Catla catla (Hamilton)
KS Pillai and UH Mane
Department of Biosciences, University of South Gujarat, Surat; and Department of Zoology, University of Marathwada, Aurangabad, India.
Summary: Fry of Catla catla were exposed to fluoride effluent dilutions of 1.2, 2.5, 4.3, 7.2, and 13.2 ppm from a fluorine emitting industry situated at Surat City in Gujarat State for 96 hours. Accumulation of fluoride increased with increase in exposure time and fluoride content in effluent dilutions. Fluoride concentrations from 1.2 ppm upwards affected protein, from 4.3 ppm upwards affected glycogen and iron, and 7.2 upwards affected lipid content in fry at all durations of expoure. The sodium content was unaffectd after exposure to the above effluent dilutions. Thus, protein content was most affected followed by glycogen and lip, and iron content in fry.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):234-242
Disfiguring dental fluorosis in Auckland, New Zealand
Principal Dental Officer, Auckland, New Zealand, retired January 1984.
Summary: A survey of dental fluorosis in Auckland, New Zealand is reported. In the fluoridated (one part per million) area, 24.9% of children aged 7 to 12 years had dental fluorosis, and 3.6% had the advanced form of the condition (discolored or pitted enamel). In the nonfluoridated urban area (0.2 ppm groundwater) only 4.9% of children the same age had the very mild form. The incidence was lowest - 2.9% - on an off-shore island, where the residents drink rainwater. Only cases which unquestionably answered the description of dental fluorosis - symmetrically arranged diffuse white opacities, clearly visible with the teeth undried - were recorded. In the larger fluoridated area, which has a greater range of income levels than the low-income nonfluoridated area, there was an inverse relationship between the advanced (discolored or pitted) condition and the socio-economic status of the suburbs where the children lived. In the Auckland district, the incidence of both dental fluorosis and dental decay indicates that child dental health is now better in the non-fluoridaed area.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):243-246
Urinary fluoride excretion in skeletal fluorosis
Reddy DR, Rao NVR, Murthy JMK, Getanjali N
Department of Neurosurgery, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India.
Summary: Urinary fluoride levels were estimated by 24-hour sampling over a period ranging between 7 and 38 days in 16 subjects of established skeletal fluorosis. The fluoride content of the well or village water, which the subjects were consuming, ranged between 3.8 and 11.4 ppm. Fluoride levels in urine which fluctuated widely from day to day, ranged from 0.5 to 4.48 ppm, minimum, and from 1.5 to 13 ppm, maximum.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):246-251
Studies of the relative fluoride content of normal and pathologically mineralized human tissues
Summary: On the basis of specimens from 298 post-mortem cadavers, fluoride level in normal and pathologically mineralized tissues were correlated statistically.
In normal arterial specimens, taken from aorta, renal and basilar artery, although fluoride levels were slightly increased in relation to age, the total fluoride concentration did not exceed 40 ppm in the aorta, 2.5 ppm in the renal and 0.8 ppm in the basilar artery. By contrast, in pathologically calcified arteries, the fluoride content was up to 700 ppm in the aorta, 12.5 ppm in the renal artery and 5.8 ppm in pathological arteries, which shows a siilar pattern to that in normal bone, although later in onset.
These results suggest that fluoride accmulation in pathologically calcified tissues occurs by the same non-specific process as that in bone, as demonstrated by the linear characteristics of the correlatin between values.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):252-258
Impact of fluoride emissions on chlorophyll content of shrubs in vicinity of a Surat fluorine industry
Department of Bioscience, South Gujarat, University, Surat, India
Summary: The impact of fluoride emissions from a fluorine industry situated at Surat, Gujarat State, on chlorophyll content of 4 species of shrubs, namely Prosopis juliflora, Acadia nilotica, Calotropis procera and Zizyphus nummularia was studied. Chlorophyll-b was more affected than chlorophyll-a in polluted palnts. In C. procera the percent decrease in chlorophylls was higher than that in other species under study. The results are discussed in the light of fluoride effect on leaves.
Fluoride 1984; 17(4):259-260
Report on the second fluorine symposium in Szczecin [Poland]
Excerpt: The Second National Fluorine Symposium was held in Szczecin on Septeber 26-28, 1983, in the framework of XIX Congress of teh Polish Biochemical Society... The progam dealth principally with fluorine metabolism in human beings and animals with emphasis on toxicity of the element, fluroide prophylaxis and therapy...
Med Lav 1981 Jul-Aug;72(4):306-12
- As abstracted in Fluoride 1985; 18(4):240
[5 cases of "fluoride asthma"]
[Article in Italian]
Maestrelli P, Marcer G, Clonfero E.
Instituto di Medicina del Lavora dell'Universita, di Padova, Milano, Italy
Five cases of bronchial asthma in aluminium potroom workers with no previous occupational exposure to respiratory irritants, no history of asthma or respiratory heart disease, are described. The first attack of asthma occurred 7 to 36 months (average 1.5 years) after the subjects had started work in the potrooms. The symptoms appered, both at the time of exposure, as well as after a work shift. In 4 cases, symptoms disappeared completely within a week of being transferred from the potroom; only in one worker occasional wheezing persisted after a year. In two subjects, skin tests for common allergens were positive. Six to 24 months after cessation of exposure, all workers had normal lung volumes but they showed high sensitivity to a bronchial provoction test with inhaled carbachol. On the basis of the patients' histories as well as clinical and respiratory function findings, the authors concluded that a causal relationship exits between potroom work and the onset of asthma.
Med Lav 1981 Jul-Aug;72(4):301-5
No Abstract available
Cross sectional study on chronic bronchitis and air flow obstruction in three Italian aluminium smelting plants.
Clonfero E, Mastrangelo G, Cortese MS.
PMID: 7335006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984 Dec 1;185(11):1295-300
Fluoride toxicosis in wild ungulates.
Shupe JL, Olson AE, Peterson HB, Low JB.
To compare the occurrence of chronic fluoride toxicosis in wild and domestic animals in selected areas of Utah, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, deer, elk, and bison bones and teeth were collected for evaluation. Vegetation and drinking water samples also were collected, so that potential sources of fluoride could be evaluated. Deer, elk, and bison were found to be susceptible to the adverse effects of ingestion of excessive amounts of fluoride. Teeth and bones were primarily affected with characteristic lesions. Pathognomonic soft tissue changes were not observed. The animals had been exposed to a variety of sources of excessive fluoride, including water high in fluoride, forages contaminated by industrial effluents that were high in fluoride, vegetation contaminated with high fluoride-content soil by rain splash or wind, or a combination of these sources. Waters high in fluoride, especially from geothermal springs and wells, often contained appreciable amounts of various soluble salts. Evidence accumulated from specimens collected throughout the aforementioned states indicated that there are areas where chronic fluoride toxicosis is a problem for wildlife. These areas were where natural sources of fluorine (especially geothermal waters) provided amounts for ingestion that exceed species tolerance limits or were near certain industrial operations.
PMID: 6511570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Presse Med 1984 Nov 3;13(39):2393-4
[Osteomalacia disclosing bone fluorosis caused by regular consumption of Vichy Saint-Yorre mineral water]
[Article in French]
Arlaud J, Lam-my S, Desch G, Pierre F.
Publication Types: Letter
PMID: 6239217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Toxicol Lett 1984 Aug;22(2):139-44
The effect of fluoride on fertilized eggs of a freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton).
Pillai KS, Mane UH.
The eggs of Catla catla were exposed to 2 fluoride media, (1) effluent dilutions containing 1.86, 3.21, 7.12, 9.56, and 16.23 ppm fluoride, and (2) fluoride (NaF) solutions containing 1.86, 3.56, 7.34, 10.01, and 16.68 ppm fluoride. The eggs exposed to 1.86 ppm fluoride (in both media) hatched at the end of 6 h, while in rest of the fluoride concentrations hatching was delayed by 1-2 h. The eggs showed decreases in water and protein and increase in fluoride contents. Toxicity of fluoride to eggs was more related to the availability of fluoride ions, than to the total fluoride in the media.
PMID: 6540903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reduction of the lethality and the nephrocalcinotic effect of single fluoride doses by magnesium in rats.
Luoma H, Koskinen M, Tuomisto J, Collan Y.
Magnesium chloride, administered by gavage to fasting young rats, 30 min prior to sodium fluoride, elevated the LD50 for fluoride from 76 to 104 mg/kg body wt. The LD50 was elevated to greater than 180 mg/kg when magnesium was given in a dose equivalent to 2 or 3 times that of fluoride. In two experiments, a dose of 50 mg F/kg caused a mean 14- and 19-fold increase above the level of the control animals in the renal calcium content. The nephrocalcinotic effect of fluoride was nearly completely prevented by administering magnesium in a dose which is 3-fold the equivalent of the fluoride dose 30 min prior to fluoride.
PMID: 6503359 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Int J Tissue React 1984;6(3):255-61
Scanning electron microscopic and electron microprobe X-ray analysis of cortical bone of fluoride-treated rabbits.
Jha Mohan, Susheela AK.
Sodium fluoride was administered to rabbits through the intragastric route at the rate of 10 mg/kg every day for a period of 8 months. Cortical bone from the diphyseal region of the femur was studied morphologically with a scanning electron microscope, and significant structural changes in collagen fiber were observed in the fluoride-treated animals as compared to normal bone. Similar bone samples were assessed physically for their CaK alpha/PK alpha ratio by electron microprobe x-ray analysis, and chemically for their calcium and phosphorus content. The bone from the rabbits to which sodium fluoride had been administered showed a higher Ca/P ratio than that from untreated control animals by both of the methods of assessment. Possible explanations for the increased Ca/P ratio in relation to the observed structural changes are discussed.
PMID: 6480271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Nutr 1984 Jul;114(7):1342-4
No Abstract available
Glycosaminoglycans in fluorotic bone.
PMID: 6737094 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Ind Med 1984 Aug;41(3):367-72
Telangiectasia in aluminium workers: a follow up.
Theriault G, Gingras S, Provencher S.
A five step investigation was carried out to gain a better understanding of the morbidity that accompanied the development of telangiectasia on aluminium workers and to find its cause. Fifty workers with multiple telangiectasia when matched with normal controls showed the same amount of illness except that evidence of ischaemia on the ECG was found in nine cases and one control. The cases did not show an excess of abnormal biochemical tests. The basic histopathological lesion affected the surrounding tissue rather than the vessels themselves. Working in the current environment and wearing masks seems to protect young workers from developing the lesions. The Soderberg and not the prebake process was associated with the lesions; the causative agent is probably a gas that contains both hydrocarbons and fluoride components emitted from the electrolytic reactors.
PMID: 6743585 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1984;28(2):129-38
To the problem of trace elements and hydrocarbons emissions from combustion of coal.
Bezacinsky M, Pilatova B, Jirele V, Bencko V.
Coal is and at least by the end of this century is likely to remain the major source of energy in Czechoslovakia. Apart from the chronic air pollution problems associated with emissions of oxides of sulfur and flyash a growing attention is now increasingly centered on atmospheric trace elements emitted from coalfired power plants and on emission of hydrocarbons that are invariably detectable in the combustion product condensate. The air pollution emission data presented here are a result of systematic measurements of actual emissions. The measurement included virtually all larger power plants in Czechoslovakia and were carried out between 1975 and 1981. To allow for quantification of the emission data measured trace element mass balance was determined in these measurements. An attempt was also made to compare the relative power industry data obtained in Czechoslovakia with those reported from the USA. A broad spectrum of hydrocarbons found in the condensate of combustion products originating during the coal mass combustion seemed to indicate the presence of both burning and pyrolitic processes, but the mechanism of pyrolysis is as yet unclear. Apart from organics the condensate was found to contain a relatively large amount of fluoride compounds (hundreds of mg X 1(-1) condensate). There is suspicion that this fluorine may occupy an important position among the factors responsible for the ecologic damage caused by emissions from coal-fired power plants.
PMID: 6470477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
- Poult Sci 1984 Jul;63(7):1407-11
Fluorine deposition in bone as related to physiological state.
Michel JN, Suttie JW, Sunde ML.
Chicks were fed either a corn-soy basal or the same diet with 252 ppm added fluorine (F) from raw rock phosphate. These diets were fed continuously from hatching to 104 weeks of age to both males and females. Birds were sacrificed at 4, 13, 27, 39, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age, and their tibiae were analyzed for F on an ash basis. At 4 and 13 weeks there were no significant differences in bone fluoride between males and females fed either the basal diet or between the sexes of those fed the added F. However, there were 3 to 10 times greater levels of bone fluoride in the birds receiving added F. At 27 weeks of age, males and females had bone contents of 767 ppm F and 1,066 ppm F, respectively, when fed the basal diet. These values for the F-added groups were 7,000 and 7,900, respectively. The values at 39 weeks of age were 904, 1,530, 8,000 and 9,187, respectively, and for 52 weeks 1,055, 1,906, 8,675, and 9,125, respectively. The values at 78 weeks of age were 1,487, 3,057, 10,300, and 11,975, respectively, and for 104 weeks 1,251, 3,550, 10,895, and 12,454, respectively. This suggests that females concentrate the F in the bones after sexual maturity. The experimental procedure described was also conducted with restricted ovulator birds, but they were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age. This experiment was conducted to determine if the sex or actual egg production was the important factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 6473252 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Vet Hum Toxicol 1984;26 Suppl 2:29-32
Acute renal failure caused by acute monofluoroacetate poisoning.
NaFA produces toxic effects by metabolic conversion to fluorocitrate, inhibits Krebs' cycle and the formation of ATP, reduces energy supply to cells, and thus causes cellular dysfunction or degeneration. All body cells are potentially affected, although with different sensitivity. Acute renal failure was found in three out of our five cases, and two were in frank uremia. The ARF was reversible and may be either oliguric or non-oliguric. The causes of ARF were not apparent, but direct nephropathy or some other factors might be involved in the pathogenesis of ARF.
PMID: 6523725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Md State Med J 1984 Jul;33(7):536-7
Fluoride-induced sudden death.
Publication Types: Review
PMID: 6381918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Czas Stomatol 1984 Mar;37(3):169-75
[The effect of chronic fluoride poisoning on the morphological appearance of dentin in white rats]
[Article in Polish]
Jarzynka W, Put A.
PMID: 6590264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Med Lav 1984 Sep-Oct;75(5):368-75
[Biological monitoring of workers engaged in the production of welding fluxes with ambient exposure to fluorine lower than the threshold limit value]
[Article in Italian]
Pattarin R, Villa L, Ruggeri R.
PMID: 6527671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Dent Res 1984 Jun;63(6):885-9
Experimental osteo-fluorosis in the domestic pig: a histomorphometric study of vertebral trabecular bone.
Kragstrup J, Richards A, Fejerskov O.
The experiment aimed at describing effects of fluoride on structure and remodeling of vertebral trabecular bone in pigs. Eight animals receiving a supplement of 2 mg F-/kg b.w. per day from age eight to 14 mo were compared with eight controls. Plasma fluoride increased from 0.7 +/- 0.1 microM/1 to 12.7 +/- 2.0 microM/1 in pigs receiving fluoride. At slaughter, the concentration of fluoride in dry fat-free bone was 149.3 +/- 10.5 mM/kg for fluorotic animals and 9.5 +/- 0.9 mM/kg for controls. Morphologic changes were assessed in un-decalcified specimens of the fourth lumbar vertebra by quantitative histology using fluorochromes as intra-vital tissue time markers. The volume of trabecular bone tissue (bone + marrow) was unchanged in fluorotic animals, but the volume density of bone was increased by 17%. Surface densities of cancellous bone were almost unchanged, whereas the thickness of trabeculae increased in fluorosis. Fluoride enhanced remodeling of trabecular surfaces: The fraction of surface occupied by resorption lacunae increased 40%, and the formative surface approximately 30%. No changes were demonstrated at surface points undergoing formation: Osteoid thickness, calcification rate, lamellar thickness, and completed wall thickness were normal. It is concluded that the observed findings cannot be explained by fluoride-induced changes in a single cell. Fluoride appears to affect all cells involved in remodeling by direct or indirect mechanisms.
PMID: 6588072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Anaesth 1984;56 Suppl 1:27S-41S
Metabolism of the inhaled anaesthetics: implications of enzyme induction.
Treatment with drugs and exposure to many environmental chemicals results in enzyme induction. However, the clinical significance of increased (or altered) metabolism of the inhaled anaesthetics appears to be trivial. Enzyme induction does not affect the conduct of inhalation anaesthesia. Thus, only delayed organ toxicity is at issue. Since methoxyflurane has fallen into disuse, nephrotoxicity secondary to its administration is no longer a problem. Nephrotoxicity as a result of enhanced defluorination of enflurane or isoflurane is also unlikely: enflurane biotransformation, in most circumstances, is uninducible; isoflurane is metabolized to such a small extent that any increase in its metabolism would be clinically inconsequential. Whether induction of halothane biotransformation and the production of reactive intermediates may lead to hepatoxicity is not yet settled. It is quite clear that induction, in the presence of hypoxia, leads to hepatic necrosis in rats. However, a similar relationship has not been established in surgical patients.
Publication Types: Review
PMID: 6391527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ind Health 1984;22(1):33-40
No Abstract available
Urinary fluoride excretion in fluoride exposed workers with diminished renal function.
Kono K, Yoshida Y, Watanabe M, Tanimura Y, Hirota T.
PMID: 6725016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Calcif Tissue Int 1984 May;36(3):302-7
Fluoride absorption: the influence of gastric acidity.
Whitford GM, Pashley DH.
The influence of gastric acidity on the absorption of intragastrically administered fluoride was investigated in rats. Intact animals were pretreated with atropine or cimetidine to reduce gastric acid secretion or were given fluoride in NaHCO3 to reduce the acidity of the gastric contents. Compared with pentagastrin-treated animals or animals that received fluoride in 0.1 N HCl, their rate of fluoride absorption was markedly reduced as judged by lower plasma fluoride concentrations and areas under the time-plasma concentration curves, especially during the first hour after dosing. In crossover studies with the stomachs isolated in situ, fluoride absorption was at least 50% faster from a pH 2.1 buffer compared with its absorption from a pH 7.1 buffer. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that fluoride is absorbed from the gastric lumen principally as the undissociated molecule, HF. The results may contribute to a more complete understanding of acute fluoride toxicity, the development of dental fluorosis and, perhaps, the use of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis.
PMID: 6088010 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Ind Med 1984 May;41(2):192-6
Urinary fluoride concentration as an estimator of welding fume exposure from basic electrodes.
Sjorgren B, Hedstrom L, Lindstedt G.
Urinary fluoride concentrations have been measured in electric arc welders using basic electrodes. The fluoride concentration and the total welding fume concentration in air showed a linear relation with postshift urinary fluoride concentration. The measured concentrations were below internationally recommended postshift urinary fluoride concentrations believed to cause fluorosis. Biological monitoring by postshift urinary fluoride measurements is evaluated for the prediction of total welding fume exposure, when a specific basic electrode was used, by means of confidence limits and tests of validity.
PMID: 6722046 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Toxicol Environ Health 1984;14(5-6):707-14
Effect of dog food containing 460 ppm fluoride on rat reproduction.
Marks TA, Schellenberg D, Metzler CM, Oostveen J, Morey MJ.
A one-generation, two-litter rat reproduction study was done in a kennel in Allegan County, Michigan, as part of an investigation of reproductive problems in Shetland sheepdogs (shelties). Since 1970, at least 115 sheltie litters at this kennel have been grossly deformed and/or have died, generally within 3 d of birth. The causative factor(s) appears to be associated with the environment, as the shelties have had successful pregnancies elsewhere. There was some concern that a potential threat to human reproduction also might exist in this area. After it was discovered that fluoride in the dog food had apparently caused mottled teeth and bony exostoses in dogs at this and at least two other kennels, dog-food fluoride content and local well water were investigated as possible causes of the reproductive problems. A two-way factorial statistical design allowed assessment of dietary fluoride content and water source and interaction between the two. UPj:TUC(SD)spf rats, 9 males and 18 females in each group, were assigned to treatment with high-fluoride dog food (460 ppm) and well water; high-fluoride dog food and distilled water; low-fluoride dog food (56 ppm) and well water; and low-fluoride dog food and distilled water. After 60 d in the kennel, the rats were mated. Even after two litters, the only adverse effect was dental fluorosis in the high-fluoride groups. The results indicated that rats cannot be used in the search for the cause(s) of reproductive problems in dogs in this kennel.
PMID: 6520882 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Caries Res 1984;18(1):25-32
No Abstract available
Enamel fluorosis related to plasma F levels in the rat.
Angmar-Mansson B, Whitford GM.
PMID: 6580951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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